NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 1

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 1- The French Revolution is a good resource that gives a concise overview of all the significant events, historical interactions, and significant figures that defined the period. The Declaration of the Rights of Man, ideals of equality and freedom, and anti-colonial movements in India and China, Africa, and South America are also discussed in this chapter. 

Extramarks NCERT Solutions provide detailed and authentic answers to all the textbook questions. Through those, the students can understand, remember and retain answers to NCERT questions and thus, perform well in exams.

Extramarks team has prepared chapter notes and  Class 9 History Chapter 1 NCERT Solutions to help students learn the History subject. NCERT Class 9 History Chapter 1 - The French Revolution is written in simple language with point-by-point explanations. Students can access a variety of additional study tools on the Extramarks website in addition to the NCERT Solutions. Students get access to all materials, including NCERT books, CBSE revision notes, CBSE sample papers, CBSE previous year question papers, and so on.

Key Topics Covered In NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 1

Following are the key topics covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 1-The French Revolution.

The Beginning of The French Revolution
French Society During The Late 18th Century
Outbreak Of The Revolution
France Becoming A Republic And Abolishing Monarchy
Women’s Revolution
The Abolition Of Slavery
The Revolution And Everyday Life
Conclusion

Here's the detailed information on each subtopic in NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 1- The French Revolution.

The Beginning of The French Revolution

The city of Paris was on the lookout in the early morning hours of 1789. There were rumours that the King would open fire on the people. People began to gather and broke into government facilities searching for weapons. The Bastille commander was killed in the armed battle, and the inmates were liberated. People despised the Bastille because it symbolised the king's dictatorial authority. People were outraged by the exorbitant cost of bread. A new series of events occurred, culminating in the King's execution in France. Refer to Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 1 to get an insight into the chapter.

French Society During The Late 18th Century

Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 1 provides details of French society during the late 18th century. In 1774, Louis XVI took the throne of France. Because of the war, France's financial resources were depleted. It was under the leadership of Louis XVI, France aided the thirteen American colonies in gaining independence from Britain. Regular costs, such as the cost of keeping an army, the court, running government offices, or colleges, were met by increasing the  taxes. In the 18th century, the land of France was split into 3 parts. The feudal system, that dates back to the Middle Ages, was a component of societal part. Peasants formed 90% of the population, although only  a very small percentage of them owned the land that they grew crops in. The Church nobles, and other wealthy members of the third estate possessed 60% of the land. All of the members of the third estate had to pay taxes to the state. This included a direct tax known as taille, as well as a number of indirect taxes placed on common items such as salt and tobacco.

A Struggle to Survive

As the population grew, so did the need for food grains  and other crops. It was because grain production could not keep up with demand, the price of bread skyrocketed. The difference between the rich and the poor  expanded as a result of low pay provided to labourers. Things got much worse when the crop was hampered by dryness or hail.

Privileges being phased out by the growing middle class

New socio economic groupings arose in the eighteenth century, dubbed the middle class, who made their money by growing overseas trade and silk fabrics and manufacturing woollen that were either exported or bought by the wealthier segments of society. Administrative officials lawyers were included in the third estate. Refer to Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 1 for in-depth knowledge on the subject.

All of these groups were literate and held the belief that no one should be favoured by birth in society. Instead, a person's social position must be determined by his abilities. Rousseau suggested a new kind of governance based on a social contract between people and their representatives.

Outbreak Of The Revolution

On May 5, 1789, Louis XVI called for an assembly to pass new tax plannings. There were representatives of the first and second estates present there, and also the rich and literate residents of the third estate. Each estate got only one vote, according to the concept. Representatives of the third estate, on the other hand, rather forced that each member should have 1 vote. When the demand was not agreed upon, members of the third estate took to the streets to demonstrate. They vowed not to disperse until France created a constitution that limited the monarch's powers.

Peasants began throwing away the stockpiled food grains and burning important documents bearing records of manorial dues out of sheer fear. Nobles were being forced to flee from their homes. The National Assembly was recognised by King Louis XVI, and he finally accepted the concept that a constitution would henceforth limit his powers. On 4 August 1789, the Assembly enacted a decree abolishing the feudal system of responsibilities and taxes. Tithes were abolished, and the land that belonged to the Church were seized.

The Constitutional Monarchy of France was established

The National Assembly finished the development of the constitution in 1791, with the main goal of limiting the monarch's powers.

Men who were above the age of 25, paid taxes equal to at least 3 days' wages as a labourer were the ones eligible to vote. The Declaration of Citizen's and Man's Rights was the first document in the Constitution. Rights such as freedom of expression, right to life were made as 'natural and inalienable rights. This meant that they belonged to each human being from birth and could not be taken away.

Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 1 guides the students for their upcoming examinations, so get on board and get started. 

France Becoming A Republic And Abolishing Monarchy

The National Assembly decided in April 1792 to declare war on Prussia and Austria. Political clubs came into being, with the Jacobins emerging as the most successful. Like those worn by dockworkers, long striped pants were adopted by Jacobins. The sans-culottes were a group of Jacobins. Jacobins seized the Tuileries Palace on 10 August of 1792, and kept the king captive for many hours. Elections were conducted, and all men aged 21 and above were eligible to vote. On 21 September of 1792, the monarchy was deposed, and France became a republic. On the allegation of treason, Louis XVI was condemned to death by the court.

The Reign of Terror

Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 1 informs the students about the Reign of Terror. The period which lasted from 1793 to 1794, is known as the Reign of Terror. People who Robespierre considered to be enemies of the republic were apprehended, imprisoned, and prosecuted by a tribunal. They were guillotined if they were found to be guilty by the court. Laws were passed to set a highest wage and price cap. Rations were imposed on meat and bread. It was banned to use costly white flour. Equality was demonstrated through speech and address. Citoyen and Citoyenne were the terms that were used to address all French men and women (Citizen). He was then convicted by a court in July 1794 and sentenced to the guillotine the next day. 

Women’s Revolution

Women were active participants from the start, resulting in significant changes in France. Daughters of third-estate nobility were permitted to attend a convent. Working women had to look after their families as well. Their pay was lower than that of males. Women created political groups and newspapers as well. One of the most well-known women's groups was the Society of Revolutionary and Republican Women. Women were asked to have the same political rights as males, including the ability to vote and occupy public office. Women's rights were improved through legislation enacted by the revolutionary administration. Schooling became mandatory, divorce became lawful, and they were allowed to start small businesses. Women in France finally received the right to vote in 1946 after a long fight.

 Refer to Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 1 for in-depth knowledge of the Women's revolution.

The Abolition Of Slavery

The eradication of slavery in the French colonies was the most significant social change of the Jacobin administration. The slave trade began in the 17th century. Slaves were enslaved by local chieftains, branded and chained, and crammed aboard ships for the three-month journey across the Atlantic to the Caribbean. Slavery received criticism in France during the eighteenth century. In 1794, the Convention passed legislation allowing all enslaved people in French foreign holdings to be freed. After ten years, Napoleon instituted slavery. Slavery was abolished in French colonies in 1848.

The Revolution And Everyday Life

The lives of children, men, and women in France changed in 1789. In the summer of 1789, censorship was abolished. Freedom of speech and expression was declared an inherent right in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. Thousands of people attended plays, music, and joyous processions.

Conclusion

Napoleon Bonaparte became the King of France in 1804. He instituted a number of laws, including the protection of private property and the use of the decimal system to ensure a standard system of weights and measures. In 1815, Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo. The most notable legacy of the French Revolution was the principles of liberty and democratic rights. To form a sovereign nation-state, colonised peoples modified the concept of freedom.

Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 1 guides the students for their upcoming examinations, so get on board and get started. 

NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 1 The French Revolution: Exercise and Solutions 

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Key Features of NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 1

Extramarks NCERT Solutions provide detailed and authentic answers to all the textbook questions. Through those, the students can understand, remember and retain answers to NCERT questions and thus, perform well in exams.

Students must study all previous concepts in order to do well in the exam. As a result, NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 1 provides a detailed answer to all questions. Some of the major reasons you must choose Extramarks include:

  • NCERT solutions  are trusted and reliable study material that will definitely help students to study independently without any further assistance. 
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Q.1 Describe the circumstances leading to the outbreak of revolutionary protest in France.

Ans. The circumstances that led to the outbreak of revolutionary protest in France were:

The feudal system:

  • French society in eighteenth century was divided into three estates – the clergy, the nobility and the third estate which comprised big businessmen, merchants, court officials, lawyers, peasants and artisans, small peasants, landless labour and servants.
  • The members of the first two estates (the clergy and the nobility) enjoyed certain privileges by birth and were exempted from taxes.
  • The Church also extracted taxes called tithes from the peasants. All members of the third estates had to pay taxes. The society of estates (the feudal system) emerged during the middle ages. The society and institutions in France before 1789 was known as the Old Regime.

Subsistence Crisis:

  • The population of France increased from 23 million in 1715 to 28 million in 1789, resulting in a rapid increase in the demand for foodgrains.
  • Prices of bread, staple diet of the majority in France, skyrocketed. Labourers in workshops were underpaid. This led to subsistence crisis.

Economic Problems:

  • In 1774, Louis XVI of the Bourbon family of kings came to power in France.
  • Upon his accession, the king found an empty treasury due to long years of war, maintenance of an extravagant court at the Palace of Versailles, and France’s involvement in the American war of Independence against Britain to liberate thirteen American colonies.

Emergence of a Strong Middle Class:

  • A wealthy social group, the middle class emerged during eighteenth century.
  • Its members were educated, and believed that no group in society should be given privileges by birth. Rather, a person’s social position must depend on his merit.
  • Ideas of equality and freedom were put forward by philosophers from this social group. A society based on freedom and equal laws and opportunities for all were put forward by philosophers such as John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau.

Immediate Cause:

  • On 5 May 1789, Louis XVI called together an assembly of the Estates General to pass proposals for new taxes to meet increased expenditure.
  • Traditionally, voting in the Estates General had been conducted according to the principle that each estate had one vote. But members of the third estate demanded that voting now be conducted by the assembly as a whole, where each member would have one vote.
  • When the king rejected this demand, they walked out of assembly and appealed to the masses to end the monarchy in France; and thus, the French Revolution broke out in 1789.

Q.2 Which groups of French society benefited from the revolution? Which groups were forced to relinquish power? Which sections of society would have been disappointed with the outcome of the revolution?

Ans.

(i)The richer members of the third estate (the middle class) benefited the most from the French Revolution.

(ii)The Clergy and the Nobility were forced to relinquish power.

(iii)The poor sections of society (small peasants, landless labour, servants) and women would have been disappointed with the outcome of the revolution as the promise of equality did not become a reality at the end of the revolution.

Q.3 Describe the legacy of the French Revolution for the peoples of the world during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Ans.

(i)The ideas of liberty and democratic rights were the most important legacy of the French Revolution for the peoples of the world during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

(ii)These spread from France to the rest of European countries during the nineteenth century, where feudal systems were abolished.

(iii)Colonised peoples reworked the idea of freedom from bondage into their movements to create a sovereign nation state.

(iv)In India, Tipu Sultan and Rammohan Roy are two examples of individuals who responded to the ideas and values of the French Revolution.

Q.4 Draw up a list of democratic rights we enjoy today whose origins could be traced to the French Revolution.

Ans. We can trace the origin of the following democratic rights we enjoy today to the French Revolution in 1789:

  • Right to life
  • Right to Equality
  • Freedom of free speech
  • Freedom of opinion
  • Equality before law
  • Right to liberty and justice

Q.5 Would you agree with the view that the message of universal rights was beset with contradictions? Explain.

Ans.

(i) No, I do not agree with the view that the message of universal rights was beset with contradictions.

(ii)Universal rights such as the right to life, freedom of speech, freedom of opinion, equality before law, are ‘natural and inalienable’ rights.

(iii)They belong to each human being by birth; human being living in any part of the world should be guaranteed these rights, and they cannot be taken away.

Q.6 How would you explain the rise of Napoleon?

Ans.

(i) After the fall of the Jacobin government, the wealthier middle classes seized power.

(ii) A new constitution was introduced which denied the vote to non-propertied sections of society.

(iii)It provided for two elected legislative councils. These then appointed a Directory, an executive made up of five members.

(iv)This was meant as a safeguard against the concentration of power in a one-man executive as under the Jacobins.

(v)However, the Directors often clashed with the legislative councils, who then sought to dismiss them.

(vi)The political instability of the Directory paved the way for the rise of a military dictator, Napoleon Bonaparte.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. What kind of taxes were the members of the third estate required to pay?

All the members of the third estate were required to pay taxes to the state, which included a direct tax known as taille, as well as a number of indirect taxes placed on common items such as salt and tobacco.

2. Who all were punished by Robespierre during the Reign of Terror?

People who Robespierre considered to be enemies of the republic were apprehended, imprisoned, and prosecuted by a revolutionary tribunal. They were guillotined if by any chance they were found guilty by the court.