History is a broad subject that might be easy for some students but a little challenging for the rest. Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 3- Nazism and the Rise of Hitler discusses Hitler's rise to power and Nazi policies, the treatment of children and woman in Nazi Germany, schools and concentration camps. It also exposes facts about Nazism, including how they denied numerous minorities the right to life, anti-Semitism, and the fight against democracy and socialism.
NCERT Class 9 History Chapter 3 Solutions are simple to comprehend and cover the majority of the ideas in an engaging manner. Students can learn all of the concepts in the chapter with the assistance of our NCERT Class 9 History Chapter 3 . These notes are well-structured and created by subject matter experts . Students can swiftly comprehend key topics and remember them for a longer period of time. Students can access a variety of additional study tools on the Extramarks website in addition to the NCERT Solutions. Students get access to all materials, including NCERT books, CBSE revision notes, CBSE sample papers, CBSE past years’ question papers, and so on.
Key Topics Covered In NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 3
The following key topics are covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 3- Nazism and The Rise of Hitler.
|Birth of The Weimar Republic|
|Hitler’s Rise to Power|
|The Nazi Worldview|
|Youth in Nazi Germany|
|Ordinary People and Crimes Against Humanity|
Extramarks provides in-depth information on each subtopic in NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 3- Nazism and The Rise of Hitler.
Birth of The Weimar Republic
In the early twentieth century, Germany fought with the Austrian empire and against the Allies in the First World War (1914-1918). Because of the conflict all of Europe's resources were depleted. France and Belgium were occupied by Germany. Unfortunately, the Allies, bolstered by the United States' entry into the war in 1917, prevailed, defeating Germany and the Central Powers in November 1918. The National Assembly convened in Weimar and drafted a democratic constitution with a federal framework. Germany's foreign possessions were lost. The War Guilt Clause held Germany accountable for the war and the losses incurred by the Allies.
The Effects of War
The war had a psychological and financial impact on the whole continent. The republic continued to battle with shame and national humiliation and was financially hamstrung by having to pay reparations. The Weimar Republic was backed by socialists, Catholics, and Democrats, who were mocked as the 'November criminals.' The significant impact that the First World War had on European society and politics was profound.
Political Radicalism and Economic Crisis
The foundation of the Weimar Republic coincided with the Spartacist League's revolutionary revolt, which followed the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. With the support of a military veterans' organisation named Free Corps, they suppressed the uprising. The economic crisis of 1923 accelerated political radicalisation. The sight of Germans bringing cartloads of cash to purchase a piece of bread went viral, evoking worldwide compassion. This problem became known as hyperinflation, a condition in which prices skyrocketed.
The Years of Depression
Between 1924 and 1928, there was considerable stability. The Great Depression began right after, and the United States national income fell by half during the next 3 years, from 1929 to 1932. The effects of this recession in the US economy were felt world wide.Germany's economy took the brunt of the blow. Workers who had lost their jobs took to the streets with posters that said, "Willing to do any task." As jobs disappeared, criminal activities by youth became common. . The fear of proletarianisation, of being consigned to the ranks of the working class or of being laid off, gripped the middle class and small businessmen. The economic crisis created deep anxieties and fears in people.Politically, the Weimar Republic was likewise precarious.
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Hitler’s Rise to Power
Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 3 explains Hitler’s rise to power. He was born in 1889 in Austria and grew up in poverty. He enlisted in the army during WWI, served as a front-line messenger, rose through the ranks to corporal, and was also awarded medals for bravery. In 1919, Hitler joined a small organisation that was known as the German Workers' Party. He gained control of the organisation and renamed it as the National Socialist German Workers' Party, or Nazi Party. During the Great Depression, Nazism grew in popularity. Banks failed, firms closed, people lost their jobs, and the middle class was faced with starvation after 1929. Nazi propaganda instilled hopes of a brighter future.
Hitler was a great orator, and his words had a tremendous impact on the public. He vowed to construct a strong nation, correct the wrongs of the Versailles Treaty, and restore the German people's dignity in his address. He also pledged job opportunities for the unemployed and a bright future for the youth. He swore to counteract any foreign influences and 'conspiracies' against Germany. Hitler adopted a new political style, and his supporters attended large rallies and public gatherings to show their support. According to Nazi propaganda, Hitler was referred to as a messiah, a saviour, who had come to save the people from their misery.
The Destruction of Democracy
On January 30, 1933, President Hindenburg offered Hitler the Chancellorship, which was considered the highest position in the cabinet of ministers. The Weimar constitution protected civic rights including freedom of speech, press, and assembly, which were suspended by the Fire Decree on 28th of February, 1933. The legendary Enabling Act, which created a dictatorship in Germany, was approved on March 3, 1933. The economy, media, army, and judiciary were all taken over by the state.
Hitler entrusted economic recovery to the economist Hjalmar Schacht, who sought full output and full employment through a government-funded work-creation programme. In 1933, Hitler rejected the League of Nations, retook the Rhineland in 1936, and united Austria and Germany in the year 1938 under the motto "One People, One Empire, One Leader."
The Nazi Worldview
Nazis are associated with a set of beliefs and activities. There was no equality between individuals, only a racial hierarchy, according to their beliefs. Hitler's racism was influenced by academics such as Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer. The Nazi logic was straightforward: the strongest race would survive while the other races would perish. The Aryan race was the best because it maintained its purity, grew stronger, and ruled the globe. The geographical idea of Lebensraum, or living space, was another part of Hitler's philosophy. By pushing eastwards, Hitler hoped to expand German borders and bring all Germans together in one location.
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Establishment of the Racial State
When the Nazis took to power, they immediately set about realising their aim of creating an exclusive racial society of pure Germans. They aspired to create a civilisation made up of "clean and healthy Nordic Aryans." Helmuth's father had sentenced to death numerous Germans who were mentally or physically unfit under the Euthanasia Program. Germany conquered areas of Poland and Russia, kidnapping individuals and forcing them to work as slaves. In Nazi Germany, Jews were the worst victims. Hitler despised Jews based on pseudoscientific racial beliefs. The Nazis terrorised, impoverished, and isolated Jews from 1933 until 1938, forcing them to flee the nation.
The Racial Utopia
Genocide and conflict had become synonymous terms. Poland was partitioned, and Germany acquired much of northwestern Poland.
Poles were compelled to flee their homes and possessions. Polish intellectuals were assassinated in great numbers, and Polish children who appeared to be Aryans were taken from their mothers and inspected by 'race specialists.'
Youth in Nazi Germany
Hitler was fascinated with the country's youth. Schools were cleaned and purified. It was forbidden for Germans and Jews to sit or play together. Jews were forcefully sent to the gas chambers in the 1940s. Children were taught to be obedient and loyal, to despise Jews, and to love Hitler. Youth organisations were in charge of instilling "the spirit of National Socialism" among German youth. Boys were forced to join the Nazi youth organisation at the age of 14, where they were taught to glorify war, celebrate aggressiveness and violence, oppose democracy, and despise Jews, communists, Gypsies, and those deemed "undesirable." Later, at the age of 18, they entered the Labour Service and served in the military forces before joining one of the Nazi organisations.
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The Nazi Cult of Motherhood
Children in Nazi Germany were taught that women were not the same as males. Girls were trained to be excellent mothers and raise pure-blooded Aryan offspring, while boys were educated to be aggressive, manly, and steel-hearted. Girls were expected to maintain racial purity, keep a safe distance from Jews, care for their homes, and instil Nazi principles in their offspring. Those who urged ladies to have more children were given ‘Honour Crosses’. Women who had contact with Jews, Poles, or Russians were paraded around town with shaved hair, blackened faces, and signs around their necks proclaiming, "I have sullied the honour of the nation”.
The Art of Propaganda
Special treatment, final solution (for the Jews), euthanasia (for the disabled), selection, and disinfections were all terms used by Nazis to describe mass executions. Deporting individuals to gas chambers was referred to as "evacuation." Gas chambers were labelled as "disinfection-areas" and resembled restrooms with bogus showerheads. Visual images, cinema, radio, posters, catchy slogans, and pamphlets were all used to propagate Nazi ideologies.
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Ordinary People and Crimes Against Humanity
Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 3 provides students with detailed notes about crimes against humanity that took place during Hitler's rule. People began to perceive the world through Nazi glasses and to speak in the Nazi language. They harboured hatred for Jews and sincerely believed that Nazism would bring wealth and enhance people's lives. Pastor Niemoeller criticised an eerie silence among ordinary Germans in the face of the Nazi empire's cruel and organised atrocities. The Third Reich of Dreams, a book by Charlotte Beradt, examines how Jews themselves came to believe in Nazi prejudices about them.
Knowledge about the Holocaust
Germany was defeated at the conclusion of the war. While the Germans were focused on their own problems, the Jews wanted the world to remember the horrors and sufferings they had undergone during the Nazi genocide, now known as the Holocaust. When the Nazis lost the war, they gave their officials gasoline to destroy all incriminating evidence in their offices.
NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 3 will help students prepare the chapter in detail.
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Q.1 Describe the problems faced by the Weimar Republic.
(i) After the defeat of Imperial Germany and the abdication of the emperor, a National Assembly met at Weimar and established a democratic constitution with a federal structure.
(ii) At the end of the First World War, the Weimar Republic was forced to accept the treaty terms dictated by the Allied Powers after Germany’s defeat.
(iii) The republic carried the burden of war guilt and national humiliation and financial crisis after paying huge war reparation.
(iv) The supporters (Socialists, Catholics and Democrats) of the Weimar Republic became easy targets of attack in the conservative nationalist circles.
(v) They were mockingly called the November criminals.
(vi) The birth of the Weimar Republic also coincided with the revolutionary uprising of the Spartacist League on the pattern of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia.
(vii) Soviets of workers and sailors were established in cities. Radical communists in Berlin demanded Soviet-style governance.
(viii) The socialists, Democrats and Catholics were opposed to this and met in Weimar to give shape to the democratic republic. However, they were crushed by the Weimar Republic with the help of a war veterans’ organisation called Free Corps.
(ix) The Spartacists later founded the Communist Party of Germany.
Q.2 Discuss why Nazism became popular in Germany by 1930.
(i) During the years of the Great Depression between 1924 and 1928, the German economy was the worst hit by the economic crisis.
(ii) By 1932, industrial production was reduced to 40 per cent. Workers lost their jobs or were paid reduced wages. Unemployed touched an unprecedented 6 million.
(iii) It was during the Great Depression that Nazism became a mass movement.
(iv) After 1929, banks collapsed and businesses shut down; the economic crisis created deep anxieties and fears among the salaried employees and pensioners.
(v) In such a situation Nazi propaganda stirred hopes of a better future.
(vi) Hitler was a powerful orator. He promised to build a strong nation, undo the injustice of the Versailles Treaty and restore the dignity of the German people.
(vii) In 1928, the Nazi Party got no more than 2. 6 per cent votes in the Reichstag (the German parliament); however, by 1932, it had become the largest party with 37 per cent votes.
Q.3 What are the peculiar features of Nazi thinking?
(i) The Nazis believed there was no equality between people, but only a racial hierarchy.
(ii) They argued that the strongest race would survive and the weak ones would perish, and the Aryan race was the finest. It had to retain its purity, become stronger and dominate the world.
(iii) The geopolitical concept of Lebensraum (living space) was yet another peculiar feature of the Nazi ideology.
(iv) Hitler believed that new territories had to be acquired for settlement of the so-called Aryan race. It would also enhance the material resources and power of the German nation.
Q.4 Explain why Nazi propaganda was effective in creating a hatred for Jews.
(i) Nazi propaganda effectively created a hatred for Jews through language and media with care. The Nazis coined deceptive terms to describe their various killing practices against Jews.
(ii) Mass killings were termed special treatment, final solution (for the Jews), euthanasia (for the disabled), selection and disinfections, and evacuation (deporting people to gas chambers).
(iii) The gas chambers where Jews were killed were called ‘disinfection-areas’.
(iv) Media was carefully used to popularise Nazi ideas through visual images, films, radio, posters, catchy slogans and leaflets.
(v) In posters, Jews were projected as the ‘enemies’ of Germans. They were stereotyped, mocked, abused and described as evil.
(vi) Socialists and liberals were shown as weak, degenerate and malicious foreign agents.
(vii) Propaganda films such as The Eternal Jew were made to create hatred for Jews.
Q.5 Explain what role women had in Nazi society. Return to Chapter 1 on the French Revolution. Write a paragraph comparing and contrasting the role of women in the two periods.
Role of women in Nazi society:
In Nazi Germany all mothers were not treated equally. Women who bore racially undesirable children were punished and those who produced racially desirable children were awarded and given best medical treatment. They were also entitled to concessions in shops and theatre and railway. To encourage women to produce many children, Honour Crosses were awarded: a bronze cross for four children, silver for six and gold for eight). ‘Aryan’ women were punished for deviating the prescribed code of conduct. ‘Aryan’ women who maintained contact with Jews, Poles and Russians were paraded through the town with shaved heads, blackened faces and placards hanging around their necks announcing ‘I have sullied the honour of the nation’. Many were jailed and lost families for this criminal offence.
Role of women in the French Revolution:
During the French Revolution, women led strikes and radical movements and fought for rights to education and equal wages. They formed political clubs and newspapers. They demanded the right to vote, to be elected to the Assembly and to hold political office. Schooling was made compulsory for them after the French Revolution.
In Nazi society women were expected to deliver babies with the so-called “pure Aryan blood” to maintain the Nazi belief in the Aryan racial superiority.
Q.6 In what ways did the Nazi state seek to establish total control over its people?
(i) On 30 January 1933, Hitler became the Chancellor in the cabinet of Germany.
(ii) A few days later, a mysterious fire broke out in the German Parliament building in February. Following this, the Fire Decree of 28 February 1933 indefinitely suspended civic rights (freedom of speech, press and assembly).
(iii) Then the Nazis killed many Communists in the concentration camps.
(iv) On 3 March 1933, the famous Enabling Act was passed; this Act established dictatorship in Germany. It gave Hitler all powers to surpass Parliament and rule by decree.
(v) All political parties and trade unions were banned except for the Nazi Party. The state controlled the economy, media, army and judiciary.
(vi) Special surveillance and security forces such as SA (Storm Troopers), the Gestapo (secret state police), the SS (the protection squads), criminal police, and the Security Service (SD) were created to control people.
(vii) People could now be detained in Gestapo torture chambers, rounded up and sent to concentration camps.
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Nazism is defined as the set of views connected with Germany’s Nazi Party. It was founded in 1920 by Adolf Hitler. In 1933, his party gained popularity, and he ruled until the conclusion of World War II. Because Germany lost numerous areas and had to pay a large amount of reparations, Adolf Hitler became popular. Hitler opposed the German Worker’s Party, which later came to be known as the Nazi Party.