NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 16 : Light

### A:

The correct option is (b).

Explanation: The image formed by a plane mirror is of the same size as the object and is formed behind the mirror. The image cannot be obtained on a screen. Therefore, it is a virtual image.

### A:

The correct option is (a).

Explanation: According to first law of reflection, the angle of incidence is always equal to the angle of reflection.

### A:

When two mirrors are placed parallel to each other, then infinite numbers of images are formed due to multiple reflections between the mirrors.

### A:

For human eyes, laser light is dangerous as it's intensity is very high. It can harm to the retina. Therefore, it is advisable not to look at a laser beam directly.

### A:

There are two laws of reflection:

1. The angle of reflection is always equal to the angle of incidence.
2. The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal to the reflective surface at the point of incidence all lie in the same plane.

### A:

A plane mirror always forms a virtual image behind the mirror and the image distance is equal to the object distance. Boojho cannot see his image because the length of the mirror is too short on his side. Though, he can see the objects placed at points P and Q, but cannot see the object placed at point R.

### A:

Here, the first law of reflection can be used to obtain the path of reflected light. The given ray of light will reflect from the second mirror at an angle 60°.

### A:

If we are in a dark room, we cannot see the objects kept inside the room. On the other hand, objects outside the room can be seen. An object becomes visible when light reaches our eye after being reflected from the object. If there is no light in the room, then the objects inside the room will not reflect any light. Hence, we cannot see in a dark room. If there is light present outside the room, then objects placed outside the room can be seen.

### A:

(a)  Image (A’) of the object (A) is formed behind the mirror. The distance of the image from the mirror is equal to the distance of A from the mirror.
(b)  Yes. Paheli can see this image at B.
(c)  Yes. Boojho can see this image at C.
(d)  Image (A’) of the object at A remain at the same position when Paheli moves from B to C.

### A:

The given points should be taken into account to protect our eyes:

1. Do not view the sun or the powerful lights directly.
2. When advised by doctor, use suitable and proper spectacles.
3. Too little and too much light is harmful for eyes. Little light leads to eyestrain and headaches while too much light like light from the sun, a powerful lamp or a laser torch can damage the retina.
4. We should never rub our eyes. When the particles of dust go into our eyes, then we should wash our eyes with clean water or else we should visit to a doctor.
5. Maintain a distance of at least 25 cm between the book and your eyes while reading.

### A:

The different parts of the human eye have shown here.

### A:

Take three rectangular mirror strips each about 15 cm long and 4 cm wide. Group them with their long edges together to form a prism. Place and fix them inside a circular cardboard tube or a tube made up of a thick chart paper. Note that the tube must be slightly longer than the mirror strips. Cover one end of the cardboard tube by a cardboard disc. This disc must have a hole at its centre through which we can see.  Paste a piece of transparent plastic sheet under the disc in order to make it durable. Fix a circular plane glass plate at the other end of the tube. Place some small pieces of coloured glass on this glass plate.  Cover this end of the tube with the ground glass plate and keep enough space for the coloured glass pieces to move. The kaleidoscope is ready. If we look through the hole of the kaleidoscope, beautiful image can be seen.

### A:

(a)  A person 1 m far from a plane mirror seems to be 2 m away from his image.
Explanation: Object distance and image distance are the same from a plane mirror. Therefore, the image distance = 1 + 1 = 2 m away from the person.

(b)  If you touch your left ear with your right hand in front of a plane mirror, it will be seen in the mirror that your right ear is touched with your left hand.
Explanation: It is because lateral inversion.

(c)  The size of the pupil becomes large when you see in dim light.
Explanation: It is because the amount of light entering into the eye becomes very less. Hence, to increase the amount of light, the pupil expands.

(d)  Night birds have less cones than rods in their eyes.
Explanation: Night birds cannot see in the day but can see in the night. They have a few cones and a large number of rod cells on their retina.

### A:

Choose a place in the room where light is very dim. Place a plane mirror on the table. Take a paper sheet and make a small hole in its centre. Hold the sheet normal to the table. Take another sheet and place it on the table in contact with the vertical mirror. Now, draw a normal line on the second sheet from the mirror. Light a torch on the mirror through the small hole in such a way that the ray of light falls on the normal at the bottom of the mirror. When the ray from this hole is incident on the mirror, it gets reflected in a certain direction. Now, it can be observed that the incident ray, reflected ray and the normal to the mirror at the point of incidence all lie in the same plane.

### A:

(a)  Polished wooden table (Regular reflection)
Explanation: A polished wooden table acts as a smooth surface. Hence, reflections from the polished table will be regular.

(b)  Chalk powder (Diffused reflection)
Explanation: Chalk powder is not an example of smooth surface. Therefore, diffused reflection will take place from chalk powder.

(c)  Cardboard surface (Diffused reflection)
Explanation: Cardboard surface is also an example of an irregular surface. Hence, diffused reflection will take place from a cardboard surface.

(d)  Marble floor with water spread over it (Regular reflection)
Explanation: Water makes marble surface smoother. Hence, regular reflection will take place from this surface.

(e)  Mirror (Regular reflection)
Explanation: Mirror has a smooth surface. Therefore, it will give a regular reflection.

(f)  Piece of paper (Diffused reflection)
Explanation: A piece of paper has many irregularities on its surface. Hence, it will give a diffused reflection.

### A:

When all parallel rays reflected from a smooth, polished and regular surface are parallel, then the reflection is known as a regular reflection . Clear images are formed by regular reflection. Water and mirror are some of the examples of smooth surface.

If all parallel rays reflected from an irregular surface are not parallel, then the reflection is known as an irregular or diffused reflection. It is caused by irregularities in the reflecting surface and we see hazy image or no image at all. A cardboard and a wall are some of the examples of irregular surface.

In diffused reflection, each ray obeys the laws of reflection. Therefore, laws of reflections are not violated.

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