CBSE Class 10 Social Science History Revision Notes Chapter 5

Class 10 Social Science India and Its Contemporary World – II Chapter 5 Notes

CBSE Class 10 Social Science Chapter 5 Notes – Print Culture and the Modern World

The history of print is covered in Chapter 5 of CBSE Class 10 Social Science, from its inception in East Asia through its spread throughout Europe and India. It also explains the effects of the development of technology and how the invention of print affected social customs and civilisations. Students can access Extramarks’ Class 10 Social Science Chapter 5 Notes and efficiently study for their exams. Subject matter experts create these CBSE Class 10 Social Science notes for Chapter 5 – Print Culture and the Modern World. The CBSE notes for Class 10 History Chapter 5 include all the fundamental ideas in an engaging way so that students can easily learn each subject and remember it for a longer length of time. 

CBSE Class 10 Social Science History Revision Notes for the Year 2022-23

Sign Up and get complete access to CBSE Class 10 History Chapterwise Revision Notes for the following chapters:

CBSE Class 10 Social Science History Revision Notes
Sr No. Chapters
1 Chapter 1 – The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
2 Chapter 2 – Nationalism in India
3 Chapter 3 – The Making of a Global World
4 Chapter 4 – The Age of Industrialisation
5 Chapter 5 – Print Culture and the Modern World

Print Culture and the Modern World Class 10 Notes Social Science Chapter 5

Access Class 10 Social Science Chapter 5 – Print Culture and The Modern World Notes

Printing in China:

Beginning in AD 594, books in China were printed using rubbing paper, with both sides of the book being folded and stitched. For a very long period, China was the world’s largest printer. China started holding civil service tests for its bureaucrats, and a sizable quantity of textbooks were written. Only scholars and government officials could print. Print was employed by merchants to gather information about their trade. Rich women started publishing their own plays and poetry as reading became a popular pastime. New technology appealed to this new reading culture. Western printing methods and mechanical presses were imported in the late 19th century. 

Printing in Japan:

Around AD 768–770, Buddhist missionaries from China brought hand-printing technique to Japan. The Buddhist Diamond Sutra, which has six sheets of text and woodcut pictures, is the earliest Japanese book. It was printed in AD 868. Printing of visual content sparked innovative publishing techniques. Illustrative collections of paintings from the late 19th century portrayed an affluent urban society, and libraries and bookshops were stocked with hand-printed materials of all kinds, including books about women, musical instruments, and other topics.

Printing in Europe:

After visiting China, Marco Polo travelled back to Europe, bringing with him the expertise of woodblock printing, which quickly spread to other parts of Europe. Booksellers started shipping books to numerous nations as the demand for books gradually increased. However, the amount of handwritten manuscripts produced was insufficient to meet the growing demand for books. Woodblock printing was widely adopted in Europe for the printing of religious images on playing cards, linens, and other items. The first printing press was created by Johann Gutenberg in the 1430s.


Being a skilled in the craft of stone polishing, Gutenberg modified existing technology to create his invention. The Bible was the first printed book using the new system. The practise of making books by hand was still practised, therefore modern technology did not completely replace it. Books produced for the affluent left blank space on the printed page for decoration. Most European nations installed printing presses between the years 1450 and 1550. The print revolution was brought about by the transition from manual to mechanical printing. 

The Print Revolution:

The print revolution changed how people interacted with information, knowledge, institutions, and authorities. 

A New Readership:

The print revolution decreased the price of books. Books flooded the market, appealing to a public that was expanding daily. It spawned a brand-new reading culture. Previously, reading was restricted to the privileged, and sacred writings were read aloud to the general populace. Books were costly before the printing revolution. But because books could only be read by literate people, the change was not as easy. Popular ballads and folktales were published by printers with illustrations for those who were illiterate. Oral culture influenced print culture, and printed materials were conveyed orally.

Arguments Over Religion and Aversion to Print:

Print opened up a whole new realm of discussion and debate. Many individuals were concerned about the possible psychological implications of the broader distribution of books because not everyone is in favour of printed books. The spread of rebellious and irrational ideas was feared. Martin Luther, a Christian reformer, criticised many of the procedures and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church in his Ninety-Five Theses, which were published in 1517. His textbook’s printed version sparked a split in the Church and signalled the start of the Protestant Reformation. 

Dissent and Print:

Menocchio first started reading local writings in the sixteenth century. He developed a vision of God and Creation and reinterpreted the Bible’s message in a way that infuriated the Roman Catholic Church. Menocchio was twice hauled up before being put to death. The Roman Church started keeping a list of books that were forbidden to read in 1558.

Readership Increased in the 17th and 18th Century:

Throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, literacy rates increased throughout the majority of Europe. People sought to produce more books as a result of the growth of education and literacy in European nations. The general public started to discover other reading genres that focused mostly on enjoyment. Numerous functions and interests were served by books of varied sizes. A periodical newspaper that mixed amusement and news about current events emerged in the early 18th century. Information on battles, trade, and events abroad was published in journals and newspapers. Scientifically interested readers were impressed by the publication of Isaac Newton’s discoveries. 

Revolution and Print:

The printed books helped spread liberal ideas throughout Europe. People began to doubt because of figures like Voltaire and Rousseau. They began to question whether the emperors had divine favour.

People acquired the ability to think and reason logically. They ceased to take the word of the Church or the rulers seriously. The French Revolution and following nationalistic uprisings were sparked by the dissemination of revolutionary ideas through literature.

The Church also disseminated propaganda through printed texts, however the populace was already aware.

The state of print technology improved with time. The effective rotary printing press was created by Richard Hoe. He used four cylinders, one for the type and three for feeding the paper into the machine. This made it possible to print 8000 sheets of paper every hour. Coloured print replaced black and white. 

Print in India:

India has a long legacy of producing handwritten manuscripts in many different vernacular languages as well as in Sanskrit, Arabic, and Persian. These handwritten writings were printed on either homemade paper or palm leaves. After the invention of print, the manuscript was still being produced. It is regarded as being extremely pricey and delicate. Many students in Bengal were literate without ever having read any form of literature because they were only taught how to write. 

The first printing press arrived in Goa with Portuguese missionaries in the middle of the sixteenth century. The first Tamil book was produced in Cochin in 1579 by Catholic priests, while the first Malayalam book was printed there in 1713. Even though the English East India Company started importing presses in the late seventeenth century, the English press didn’t really take off in India until much later. James Augustus Hickey was the editor of the Bengal Gazette, a weekly publication. Hickey issued advertisements along with a tonne of rumours regarding the Company’s top executives in India. There were several printed newspapers and journals at the end of the eighteenth century. 

Muffling the Print:

Under the East India Company, censorship was not a problem. People who opposed the corporation’s working methods in the early years, like Hickey, were silenced by the company. The British began suppressing leftist publications and Indian media after the Sepoy Mutiny. 

In order to limit press freedom, the Calcutta Supreme Court issued a number of regulations, and Governor-General Bentinck consented to update the press laws in 1835. New regulations created by Thomas Macaulay brought back the earlier freedom. After the uprising in 1857, there were changes to press freedom. The Vernacular Press Act, which was passed in 1878 and was based on the Irish Press Laws, gave the government broad authority to censor articles and editorials published in the vernacular press. The government began monitoring the local newspapers. The number of nationalist newspapers increased throughout India. When Punjabi rebels were expelled in 1907, Bal Gangadhar Tilak wrote about them sympathetically in book Kesari, which resulted in his arrest in 1908. 

Important Question and Answers

Q1. What made Europeans embrace print culture?

Ans: The distribution of books about revolutionary ideals was aided by the print culture. For instance, Rousseau’s Social Contract discussed the radical idea that the people must consent for the government to rule.

These types of breakthrough concepts were previously unanticipated. People were compelled to reason and utilise logic. They helped people realise that the monarchs and queens of Europe were not divine.

These books discussed individual liberty and social justice. Therefore, the print culture was appreciated by the people of Europe since it opposed monarchy and despotism.

Q2. Briefly describe the Gutenberg Press in your essay.

Ans: As a result of Marco Polo bringing the wooden block printing process to Italy (and Europe), numerous books were created, and readers began purchasing an increasing number of books. But the demand was too much for block printing technology to handle. Wine, olive oil, and lead mould were influences on Gutenberg.

He used a mould to make movable type and the olive press printing method to print by pressing a sheet of paper against the metallic, movable type. He could print a variety of sentences using the same kind since the alphabets of the kind were mobile. Additionally, the metallic kind was strong.

The printing press invented by Johannes Gutenberg sparked a global print revolution. Books and other items could be printed quickly. The printing press aided in the mass dissemination of new ideas.

Q3. Why were some people dissatisfied with the ready availability of printed books?

Ans: The Church believed that the easy access to inexpensive books would lead to the spread of unreligious notions and that people wouldn’t pay attention to the sermons of the clergy.

These budget books were written in everyday speech. Consequently, non-Latin speakers may also read these texts. The credibility of the Church might be weakened by this.

In India, the printed literature that promoted nationalism did not sit well with the British. Bal Gangadhar Tilak was imprisoned as a result of his letter to Kesari supporting the Punjabi nationalist. 

Print Culture and the Modern World: A Detailed Overview

Print Culture:

China, Japan, and Korea developed the fundamental printing technology. The printing technique used was hand printing. China was the first country to adopt print culture, according to the Print Culture and Modern World Notes. The Civil Services Examination was printed in China extensively. 

The introduction of print culture after China was made by Japan since Buddhist textbooks were produced there. Along with Marco Polo, who had travelled via China, the print culture had reached Europe. The need for printing finally expanded dramatically throughout Europe.

Gutenberg and his printing press in Germany had started the printing revolution in Europe. The Bible was the first book printed using his new printing method, which he devised. Several printing presses were established at that period. The shift from manual to mechanical printing marked the beginning of the modern print revolution. 

The Print Revolution and its After-Effects

The print revolution and its ramifications are accurately portrayed in the class notes on print culture:

The printing revolution brought down printing costs. Over time, more people started reading more books, which altered the culture of reading. Only the aristocracy was permitted to read in past eras. This oppressive culture had been destroyed by the printing revolution, which also made books accessible to the general public.

You will discover that not everyone in every area embraced the print revolution as you turn the pages of the Print Culture and Modern World Notes in minute detail. The wealthy were opposed to it because they thought that the widespread distribution of books may have an adverse effect on people’s brains. 

It was illegal to publish books that were critical of religion, and many authors were put to death.

According to Print Culture and the Modern World’s executive summary, literacy rates increased dramatically across most of Europe. In Europe, schools and literacy were expanding, necessitating the printing of an increasing number of books.

By the middle of the eighteenth century, books were the representation of growing knowledge and progress.

Did You Know?

The description of Print Culture and the Modern World has a hint of the French Revolution as well because the printing revolution was a component of the French Revolution. Three types of disagreements were presented in the instance of the French Revolution:

The print culture helped to disseminate the ideas of the enlightenment intellectuals. Through the print revolution, new ideas were spread among the French people.

The print spawned a new discourse and argumentative tradition.

By the 1780s, there was a flood of literature that mocked the aristocracy and their morals. 

Print Culture and the Modern World: Children, Women and Workers

Women’s reading habits significantly improved in middle-class households. Women’s schools were established in urban areas. Journals also began publishing articles written by women that outlined the benefits of educating women. Conservative Hindus, meanwhile, thought that an educated girl would become a widow, and Muslims worried that reading Urdu romances would corrupt educated women. Women’s lives and emotions have attracted a lot of attention as a result of social reforms and books. 

Women started publishing journals at the beginning of the 20th century, and they quickly gained enormous popularity. The publishing of best-selling books was the only focus of the Battala neighbourhood in central Calcutta, Bengal. By the late nineteenth century, many of these volumes had copious woodcut and coloured lithograph illustrations. Women were able to read the Battala magazines in their free time since peddlers brought them to their houses.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Describe print culture.

The term “Print Culture” describes the earliest instances of printing certain scripts in antiquity. Print culture is said to have started in China when the Chinese introduced hand printing. From there, it spread to Korea and Europe. New printing methods were employed in Europe to produce Bibles, and as a result, a number of printing presses were gradually established throughout the world. Since books have always been a valuable resource for humanity, print culture is recognised as an important historical development.

2. How is India Related to the print culture?

The ancient tradition of handwritten manuscripts enriches India. These texts were written on hand-made paper or palm leaves. The Portuguese missionaries installed the first printing press in Goa. A Tamil book printed in Cochin in 1579 by Catholic priests was the first book ever published in India. The British East India Company led to the expansion of print culture across most of India. Additionally, a number of journals printed in India promoted the notions of social reforms. Currently, India produces a considerable quantity of newspapers, books, periodicals, and other printed materials. Commercial printing facilities have been established, and the proportion of printed materials that are accessible to the nation’s population has increased.