CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Revision Notes Chapter 12
Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 Notes Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Students may use revision notes prepared by experienced faculty experts at Extramarks to prepare for their board examinations. These Notes are created by subject experts and are reliable, up to date and accurate. Chemistry is a subject that revolves around several concepts, definitions, theories and reactions. To understand these concepts and get more clarity, students are advised to go through Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 Notes on aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids. These Notes are written in simple, easy-to-understand language to maximise memory retention so that they absorb more of such complex topics at ease and have a clearer understanding of the topics discussed in the chapter.
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Key Topics Covered in Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 Notes
Aldehyde ketones and carboxylic acids are widespread in plants and the animal kingdom. They play an essential role in the biochemical processes of life. This chapter includes study of carbonyl compounds, i.e., the compounds containing C=O as functional groups.
This chapter studies aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and their derivatives. In aldehydes, the carbonyl group is combined with either two H atoms, one R- or Ar- group, and one H atom. The carbonyl group is combined with two alkyl or aryl groups in ketones. The main topics covered in Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 Notes are detailed below.
Nomenclature and structure of carbonyl group:
There are two systems of nomenclature of aldehyde and ketones.
Some common names of most aldehydes are derived from the joint names of the corresponding carboxylic acids, derived by replacing the ending -ic of acid with an aldehyde. The location of the substituents present in the carbon chain is indicated by the greek letters ?, ?, ?, ? etc. The alpha carbon is directly linked to the aldehyde group, beta carbon the next and so on.
For example, T the proper common naming of the ketone requires naming the two alkyl, or the aryl groups joined to the carbonyl group. Again, we use α α′, β β′, etc. to indicate the substituent’s location. The naming of α α′ begins with the carbon atoms present next to the carbonyl group.
However, particular ketones have historical common names. These common names are in use to date, such as we call the simplest ketone “dimethyl ketone” as acetone. We name the Alkyl phenyl ketones by adding the acyl group as the prefix to the word “phenone”.
The IUPAC naming of aliphatic aldehydes and aliphatic ketones is comparatively easy. It is derived by taking the corresponding alkane and replacing the end letter –e of the alkane with either –all or –one. In the case of aldehyde –al is written, whereas in the case of ketone –one is written. The numbering of the longest carbon chain in the case of aldehyde begins from the carbon-containing aldehyde group. However, in the case of ketones, the numbering starts from the side of the carbon-containing carbonyl group.
Structure of the Carbonyl Group:
The carbon atom in the carbonyl group has an sp2 hybridisation, developing three sigmas (σ) bonds. Still, the fourth valence electron of the carbon atom remains in the p-orbital. Thus, it develops π-bond by overlapping with the oxygen from the p-orbital of the oxygen atom. Additionally, the oxygen atom also contains two non-bonded pairs of electrons. Therefore, the carbonyl carbon and its three attached atoms lie in the same plane. The cloud of π-electron is present below and above the plane. The structure is a trigonal coplanar, and the bond angles are nearly 120°.
The topic structure of the carbonyl group is complex and many students find it difficult to get a clear idea about the concepts. . We advise students to refer to our Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 Notes to get an in depth understanding of this topic.
Preparation of Aldehyde and ketones:
As covered in our Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 Notes, some essential methods for the preparation of aldehyde and ketones are as follows:
Oxidation of alcohols:
It is prepared from the oxidation of alcohols using Oxidising agents like K2Cr2O7, Na2Cr2O7, PCC, and Collins reagent (CrO3 + pyridine), which gives aldehydes or ketones.
R-CH2-OH + [O] → RCHO + H2O
R-CH2-(OH)- R + [O] → RCOR
By catalytic Dehydrogenation of alcohols:
This method is used for volatile alcohols and their industrial applications. In this process, alcohol vapours are passed over heavy metal catalysts such as silver or copper[Cu (573k)].
R-CH2-OH → RCHO + H2
R-CH2-(OH)- R’ → RCOR’ + H2
From acid chlorides:
Acyl chloride/acid chloride undergoes hydrogenation in the presence of a catalyst such as barium sulphate (BaSO4) or Palladium (Pd) to form aldehydes. Aldehyde formation with this process is possible after the reaction partially poisoning by adding compounds such as sulphur or quinolone. This is an essential step for the formation of aldehydes. This is also known as Rosenmund’s Reaction.
R-CO-Cl + H2 → RCHO + HCl
CH3-CO-Cl + H2 → CH3CHO + HCl
From Hydrocyanic acid:
Treatment of hydrocyanic acid with Grignard reagent, which is followed by hydrolysis from aldehyde.
HCN + CH3MgBr CH3CH=NMgBr CH3CHO + Br-Mg-NH2
Uses of Chromyl chloride(CrO2Cl2):
chromyl chloride oxidises methyl group to a chromium complex, which on hydrolysis gives corresponding benzaldehyde.
By Gattermann-Koch reaction:
In this method, benzene or its derivatives are treated with carbon monoxide and hydrogen chloride placed in the presence of cuprous chloride. It gives either benzaldehyde or substituted benzaldehyde.
From Carboxylic Acids:
By passing the vapours of acid over MnO at 573 K.
CH3COOH + HOOC-CH3 CO2 + H2O + CH3COCH3
Both aliphatic and aromatic ketones can be created by treating alkyl or aryl nitrile with a suitable Grignard reagent followed by acid hydrolysis.
Nitriles are converted to ketones after being treated with Grignard reagent and then hydrolysed.
CH3CH2MgBr + CH3CN CH3CH2 C(CH3)=NMgBr CH3CH2COCH3 + MgBr(OH) +NH3
From benzene or substituted benzene:
Ketone is formed when benzene or substituted benzene is treated with acid or acyl chloride in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride.
Students may refer to Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 Notes available on Extramarks website for a more detailed explanation of the above concepts. To enjoy the maximum benefit of these resources and to know more about these topics and above stated phenomenons, students are advised to register themselves at the Extramarks website and access these resources, at their convenience and optimise their potential to achieve the best result. We have all the answers to your queries. This encourages the students to master the topic and increases their confidence in achieving a high grade..
Physical properties of aldehydes and ketones:
Methanal is a pungent-smelling gas, and ethanol is a volatile liquid with a boiling point of 294 K. Lower members have an unpleasant smell, and the rest of the aldehyde and ketones contain up to 11 carbon atoms are colourless liquids, while higher members are solids.
Aldehyde and ketones with up to four carbon atoms are miscible with water due to H bonding between the polar carbonyl group and water molecules.
Aldehydes are more polar. As we know, in ketones, two alkyl groups are present. So, if electron density on carbon increases, the bond’s polarity rapidly decreases due to the +I effect. Therefore, aldehyde’s solubility is higher as they tend to form hydrogen bonds. As the number of carbon atoms rises, the solubility decreases because of its non-polar nature.
These compounds are quite soluble in some organic solvents such as methanol, ether, chloroform, benzene etc. Ketones themselves are suitable solvents.
The boiling point is always more for polar compounds. Ketones have higher boiling points than aldehyde because of more polarity. Their boiling point is always lower than alcohols and carboxylic acids because they are less polar.
In aldehydes and ketones, dipole-dipole interactions are comparatively less.
Lower aldehyde has an exceptionally unpleasant odour, whereas other members generally have a pleasant odour. As the size of molecules increases, the smell becomes less intense and more fragrant.
Chemical reactions of aldehydes and ketones:
CBSE Notes for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 explain the chemical reactions as follows:
Nucleophilic addition reactions:
The hybridisation of C shifts from sp2 to sp3 whenever a nucleophile attacks the carbonyl carbon. Due to steric and electrical reasons, aldehydes are more sensitive to nucleophilic addition processes than ketones.
Addition of hydrogen cyanide:
Acetaldehyde, when reacts with hydrogen cyanide, gives acetaldehyde cyanohydrins.
Addition of sodium hydrogen sulphite:
Addition of alcohol:
Addition of ammonia and its derivatives:
Aldehyde or ketone forms a C=N- containing group when reacted with ammonia derivatives.
Reduction of alcohol:
Sodium borohydride or lithium aluminium hydride, and catalytic hydrogenation, reduce aldehydes and ketones to primary and secondary alcohols, respectively.
Reduction of hydrocarbons:
When aldehydes and ketones are mixed with zinc amalgam and strong hydrochloric acid, the carbonyl group gets reduced to CH2 (Clemmensen reduction).
Treating carbonyl compound with hydrazine, followed by sodium or potassium hydroxide in a high boiling solvent such as ethylene glycol reduces the carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones to CH2 (Wolff-Kishner reaction)
Oxidation reactions of both aldehyde and ketones are different and form a carboxylic acid.
Aldehydes and ketones, both can be distinguished using the two reactions below because aldehydes are more accessible to oxidise.
A bright silver mirror is created by heating an aldehyde with a freshly made solution of ammonical AgNO3, also known as Tollen’s reagent.
RCHO + 2 [Ag(NH3)2]+ + 3 OH– → RCOO– + 2Ag + 2H2O + 4 NH3
A reddish-brown precipitate appears when an aldehyde is mixed with Fehling reagent at high temperatures.
R-CHO + 2 Cu2+ + 5 OH– → 2 ROO–+ Cu2O + 3 H2O
Oxidation of methyl ketone by haloform reaction:
The test is positive for all carbonyl compounds within the – COCH3 group.
Reactions due to α-hydrogen:
Because of the substantial electron-withdrawing impact of the carbonyl group and the resonance stabilisation of the conjugate base, -hydrogens in aldehydes and ketones become acidic.
Aldehyde and ketones in the presence of sodium hydroxide give aldols.
In the presence of oil. Alkali, aldehydes and ketones that have at least one -hydrogen undergo Aldol Condensation to create β-hydroxy aldehydes (aldol) or β-hydroxy ketones [ketol].
The reaction of aldehyde and ketone with alkalies is known as an aldol condensation. These reactions show so many chemical reactions because they are very active.
Cross Aldol condensation:
Cross aldol condensation happens when aldol condensation occurs between two different aldehydes and ketones.
When aldehydes without -hydrogen atoms are treated with a strong alkali, they undergo self-oxidation and reduction reactions, resulting in alcohol and acid salt.
Electrophilic substitution reaction:
Electrophilic substitution reactions occur at the aromatic aldehydes and ketones ring, while the carbonyl group deactivates and meta-directs.
Extramarks Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 Notes comprises detailed chapter study notes that will further help students understand the core concepts of this chapter. To enjoy the maximum benefit of these resources and to know more about these topics and stated phenomenons, students are advised to register themselves at the Extramarks website and access Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 Notes, at their convenience.
Uses of Aldehyde and Ketones:
Aldehydes and ketones find application in various sectors such as pharmaceuticals, food, fragrance, and cosmetics because of their chemical properties. Refer below to learn more about the applications and uses of aldehydes and ketones.
Uses of Aldehydes and ketones:
- Formaldehyde is found in the gaseous form. However, formaldehyde with 40% aqueous solution in water creates formalin. Formalin is used to preserve biological specimens.
- Formaldehyde reacting with phenol creates a compound called Bakelite. Bakelite finds its applications in plastics, coatings, and adhesives.
- The compound- formaldehyde is crucial during many industrial processes such as embalming, glue preparation, tanning and manufacture of polymeric products. It acts as a disinfectant, insecticide, and fungicide.
- Formaldehyde helps in testing drugs. It is also used in photography.
- Production of acetic acid, as well as the pyridine derivatives, is possible from the compound “acetaldehyde.” acetaldehyde is also used for silvering mirrors.
- Benzaldehyde (aldehyde) is essential for producing perfumes, cosmetic products, dyes etc. It is mixed to incorporate almond flavour into various food products. It also acts as a bee repellent.
- Ketone is an excellent solvent for certain plastics and synthetic fibres. Acetone acts as a paint thinner and a nail paint remover. It is also used for medicinal purposes such as chemical peeling procedures and acne treatments.
- Butanone, also referred to as methyl ethyl ketone, is one of the usual solvents. It is highly used in textile production, varnishes production, paint remover production, paraffin wax production, plastic production, etc.
- Another important ketone is cyclohexanone which is an essential component in nylon production. Many aldehyde and ketones, such as butyraldehyde, vanillin, acetophenone, camphor etc., are known for their odours and flavours.
These are one of the important classes of organic compounds. The general Formula of the Class is R-C(O)OH. In this Formula, R is the alkyl or aryl group, and COOH is carboxylic acids. Carboxylic acids occur widely in nature. However, the majority of the members of this group are manufactured synthetically. The double bond in the structure of carboxylic acids plays a vital role in the properties of the different compounds of carboxylic acids. Some higher members of aliphatic carboxylic acids(C12-C18), known as fatty acids, occur in natural fats as glycerol esters.
Nomenclature of Carboxyl Group:
Common names of carboxylic acids are mainly based on their source of origin. For example, Formic acid (HCOOH) was first obtained from red ants(Latin formica means ants); similarly, acetic acid is so named because t was obtained from vinegar(Latin acetum means vinegar), butyric acid from rancid butter(Latin butyrum means butter) etc. Common system position of substituents is denoted by greek letters alpha beta gamma n delta etc.
As per the IUPAC system, Carboxylic acids are commonly named by adding the suffix -ic acid. In this IUPAC nomenclature, the -e is replaced by -oic acid. The following rules show the position of substituents.
- First, select the longest chain containing the carboxylic group as the parent chain.
- While numbering the chain, the carbon of the carboxylic group is numbered one. The number shows the position of substituents.
- When a compound contains more than one carboxylic acid group, the suffix e of an alkane is preserved and prefixes di, tri or tetra are used for the term oic acid. Arabic numerals indicate the position of the COOH group before the oic acid. Name and structures of some carboxylic acids are:
Structure of carboxyl group:
The carboxylic carbon group is less electrophilic than carbonyl carbon due to the possible resonance configuration structure shown below. The carbonyl carbon and carboxylic carbon bonds are then aligned in the plane and are separated by about 120°.
To learn more about the carboxyl group, students should refer to Extramarks study material – Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 Notes.
Methods of Preparation of carboxylic acids:
Primary alcohols and aldehydes:
Primary alcohols are readily oxidised to carboxylic acids with oxidants such as KMnO4, in a neutral, acidic or alkaline medium or by CrO3 and K2Cr2O7 in an acidic medium.
Oxidising alkyl benzenes make aromatic carboxylic acids with chromic acid or acidic or alkaline potassium permanganate at high temperatures.
From nitriles and amides:
When nitriles are hydrolysed in dilute acids or bases, an amide is formed, which can then be further hydrolysed to produce carboxylic acid.
Students may refer to various study materials in addition to Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 Notes. Students can get full access to our study resources by registering on our website.To enjoy the maximum benefit of these resources and to know more about these topics and above stated phenomenons, students are advised to register themselves at the Extramarks website and access these resources, at their convenience and optimise their potential to achieve the best result. We have all the answers to your queries. This encourages the students to master the topic and increases their confidence in achieving a high grade.
From Grignard reagent:
Grignard reagents react with carbon dioxide (dry ice) to produce carboxylic acid salts, which are then hydrolysed to produce carboxylic acids.
From acyl halides and anhydrides:
Carboxylic acids begins to form when acid chlorides are hydrolysed with water. Carboxylate ions are generated during basic hydrolysis and acidified to form carboxylic acids. When anhydrides are hydrolysed, the corresponding acid is produced.
Basic hydrolysis produces carboxylates, which are acidified to produce corresponding carboxylic acids. Acidic hydrolysis of esters directly produces corresponding carboxylic acids.
Physical properties of carboxylic acid:
- Physical state:
The first three members are colourless liquids with a pungent smell, and the next six are oily liquids with an unpleasant smell. Higher acids are colourless wax looking solids. Benzoic acid and its homologues are just colourless solids.
Among aliphatic acids, the first four members are very soluble in water, and solubility decreases gradually with an increase in molecular mass. All are soluble in alcohol and ether. Benzoic acid is meagerly soluble in cold water but highly soluble in hot water, alcohol, and ether.
- Boiling Point:
Due to the intermolecular hydrogen bonding, the boiling point of Carboxylic acids is higher than aldehydes, ketones, ether or even alcohols with similar molecular weights.
- Melting point:
The melting point of carboxylic acid increases irregularly with increasing molar mass. Up to the first ten members, the melting point of carboxylic acids containing an even number of carbon atoms is much higher than the next lower and higher member containing odd numbers of carbon atoms.
Chemical reactions of carboxylic acid:
The reaction of a carboxylic acid is Classified as follows:
Reaction with metals:
Reaction of carboxylic acids with metals like sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium results in the generation of salts. A proton gets released from the carboxyl group of the carboxylic acid, where the metal subtraction will occur during the reaction phase. Hydrogen gas is released as a result of the reaction.
2 RCOOH + 2 Na → 2 R-COO–Na+ + H2
R-COOH + NaOH → 2 R-COO–Na+ + H2O
R-COOH + NaHCO3 → 2 R-COO–Na+ + H2O + CO2
Carboxylic acid dissociates in water to yield both resonance-stabilised carboxylate anion and the hydronium ion.
Effects of substituents on carboxylic acid acidity:
Electron withdrawing groups increase carboxylic acid acidity by stabilising the conjugate base by delocalised the negative charge via inductive and resonance effects. Electron-donating groups, however, reduce acidity by destabilising the conjugate base.
- Reactions involving cleavage of C-OH bond:
Formation of anhydride:
An acid anhydride is formed when two molecules of carboxylic acids are heated with a dehydrating agent such as sulphuric acid or P2O5.
In presence of a mineral acid such as concentrated H2SO4 or dry HCl gas as a catalyst, carboxylic acids are esterified with alcohols. Thus the fruity esters are formed.
RCOOH + R’OH (acidic medium) ⇄ RCOOR’ + H2O
Reactions with PCl3, PCl5 and SOCl2
RCOOH + PCl5 → RCOCl + POCl3 + HCl
3 RCOOH + PCl3 → 3 RCOCl + H3PO3
RCOOH + SOCl2 → RCOCl +SO2 + HCl
Reaction with ammonia:
Ammonium salts are formed by treating a carboxylic acid with ammonia. Ammonium salts lose water molecules when heated, resulting in the formation of amide.
- Reactions involving -the COOH group:
In presence of LiAlH4 or B2H6, carboxylic acids become primary alcohols.
Heating sodium/potassium salts of carboxylic acids with soda lime (NaOH + CaO in a 3:1 ratio) creates hydrocarbons with one less carbon than the parent acid.
RCOONa + NaOH→ RH + Na2CO3
CH3COONa + NaOH→ CH4 + Na2CO3
- Substitution reactions in the hydrocarbon:
Halogenation (Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction):
Carboxylic acids containing α -hydrogen are halogenated at the α-position with chlorine or bromine in the presence of a small amount of red phosphorus to produce α-halo carboxylic acids.
Ring substitution in aromatic acids:
Electrophilic substitution reactions are formed in aromatic carboxylic acids. On the other hand, as seen in benzoic acid, the carboxyl group is an electron-withdrawing and deactivating meta-directing group. They do not undergo Friedel crafts reaction because the carboxyl group is deactivating, and catalyst aluminium chloride (lewis acid) gets bonded to a carbonyl group. Nitration and halogenation reactions of benzoic acid are as follows.
These chemical properties of carboxylic acids are further elaborated in our Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 Notes. Students are advised to refer to Extramarks study materials along with the NCERT textbook.
Uses of Carboxylic Acid:
- Methanoic acid is utilised in rubber, textile, dyeing, leather and electroplating industries.
- Carboxylic acid acts as a disinfectant. The simplest carboxylic acid, “formic acid”, acts as a reducing agent in textile treatments.
- Acetic acid, a member of the carboxylic acid group, helps produce esters and cellulose plastics. Acetic acid acts as the precursor for forming an ester of salicylic acid, which is used for aspirin production.
- Ethanoic acid acts as a solvent and vinegar in the food industry. Hexanedioic acid is used in the manufacturing of nylon 6,6.
- Palmitic acid as well as stearic acid are used in manufacturing soaps, pharmaceuticals, candles, cosmetics, protective coating, etc. Stearic acid also helps in rubber manufacturing processes.
- Esters of benzoic acid are used in the manufacturing of perfume.
- Acrylic acid acts as an ester and helps produce polymers or acrylates. Similarly, methacrylic acid undergoes polymerisation to form Lucite.
- Sodium benzoate is commonly applied as a food preservative.
- Moreover, oleic acid, a carboxylic acid, helps manufacture soaps and detergents. Additionally, it is also used in textiles.
Students can access the Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 Notes on the Extramarks website to learn more about the uses of carboxylic acid.To enjoy the maximum benefit of these resources and to know more about these topics and above stated phenomenons, students are advised to register themselves at the Extramarks website and access these resources, at their convenience and optimise their potential to achieve the best result. We have all the answers to your queries. This encourages the students to master the topic and increases their confidence in achieving a high grade.Importance of NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 Notes
To solve the problems in “Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic Acids,” a good comprehension of concepts is necessary. The key topics in Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 Notes have been Classified to help students better study and comprehend the subjects. The Chapter contains concepts and chemical reactions; the answers are written under expert supervision of experienced professors.
NCERT and CBSE Notes for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 help students prepare for competitive examinations like IIT, JEE etc. Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 Notes can be used offline, so students won’t have to be dependent on the internet connection all the time.
In addition, to exercise and answer solutions, Extramarks provide sample question papers, past year question papers, Important Questions, revision notes, and short Notes for more details on electrophilic and nucleophilic reactions.
Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 Notes: Exercises & Solutions
The exercise and answer solutions are explained in detail to help students understand the various reaction mechanism concepts mentioned in the chapter. Every minute detail that a student may need to understand Aldehyde ketones and carboxylic acids is clearly explained in the Notes.Extramarks has experienced faculty and subject matter experts working conscientiously and diligently to prepare authentic, concise answers which students can trust and enjoy the process of learning. The systemic and well-laid-out balanced study plan boosts their performance naturally and effortlessly.
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The Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 Notes are helpful for all types of school examinations or competitive examinations.Regular tests and revisions make them aware of their mistakes through guided practice and help them achieve their best score.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. Can the Chapter 12 Chemistry Class 12 Notes be used as revision notes?
Yes, Chemistry Chapter 12 Class 12 Notes can be used as revision notes as it gives all the information students need to understand the chapter.
2. Are all the Chapter topics covered under CBSE solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12?
Yes, CBSE solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 covers all topics and provides students with the information to understand the chapter quickly and easily.
3. How vital is Chemistry Chapter 12 for the CBSE Board examination?
Chemistry may seem like an intimidating subject. In addition, Chapter 12 is an interesting topic that might seem very difficult.Not anymore! It is crucial to note that Aldehyde ketones and carboxylic acid have a lot of weightage, and students can expect excellent scores in the exam.
4. Does Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 Notes cover all topics of Aldehyde ketones and carboxylic acids?
Aldehyde ketones and carboxylic acids are a vast topic, but every detail is covered in the Extramarks Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 Notes.
5. Which one is more acidic among aldehyde and ketone?
Compared with the alkyl groups of the ketones, aldehydes are a bit more acidic than ketones due to the lower electron-donating effect of protons.
6. What is the Schiff test?
The chemical test, which is used to check the presence of aldehydes in a particular analyte by reacting it with a small amount of Schiff reagent, is called the Schiff test.