NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1
History is the study of the life of society in the past in all of its forms. It is an investigation of what occurred in the past, when it occurred, and how it occurred.
Class 10 History Chapter 1- The Rise of Nationalism in Europe deals with many of the issues visualised by Sorrieu. It examines the many processes through which nation-states and nationalism emerged in nineteenth-century Europe. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe, Nationalism, the French Revolution and Imperialism are all explored in this chapter.
What proves to be most helpful in preparing for this subject is Extramarks The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 NCERT Solutions. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe NCERT Solutions by Extramarks helps students with solutions and helps them grasp the concepts quickly. Subject experts having years of teaching experience have curated these ‘The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Solutions’, which helps students understand the chapter entirely.
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Key Topics Covered in NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1
The following key topics are covered in NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1- Rise of Nationalism in Europe:
|The Rise of Nationalism in Europe|
|The French Revolution and the Idea of the Nation|
|The Making of Nationalism In Europe|
|The Age of Revolutions: 1830-1848|
|The Making of Germany and Italy|
|Visualising the Nation|
|Nationalism and Imperialism|
Let us take a look at Extramarks in-depth information on each subtopic in NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1- Rise of Nationalism in Europe:
The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
In 1848, French artist Frédéric Sorrieu created a series of four prints depicting his vision of a future composed of democratic and socialist republics. Extramarks NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1 explains the prints as:
- The first print depicts European and American citizens walking on a long train and paying tribute to the Statue of Liberty as they pass by. A female figure held the Enlightenment flame in one hand and the Charter of the Rights of Man in the other.
- The broken wreckage of absolutist institutions may be seen in the foreground on the soil.
- In Sorrieu’s utopian vision, the world’s population is divided into various nations, each with its flag and national clothing.
- The United States and Switzerland led the parade, followed by France and Germany. The people of Austria, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Lombardy, Poland, England, Ireland, Hungary, and Russia, follow the Germans.
- Christ, saints, and angels look down from above on the scene. The artist has used them to represent universal fraternity.
The French Revolution and the Idea of the Nation
- In 1789, the French Revolution brought in nationalism, and political and constitutional reforms resulted in the monarchy’s authority being transferred to a body of French citizens. Various policies and practices, such as the concepts of la Patrie (fatherland) and le citoyen, were introduced ( the citizen). The tricolour was selected to replace the previous French flag.
- Napoleon destroyed democracy in France, and the Napoleonic Code of 1804 abolished all privileges based on birth, created equality before the law, and guaranteed property rights.
The Making of Nationalism In Europe
Germany, Italy, and Switzerland were separated into kingdoms, duchies, and cantons, each with its own rulers. Extramarks NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1 gives an explanation on the subject as follows:
The Aristocracy and the New Middle Class
Politically and socially, the aristocracy was the dominating class on the continent. The peasantry made up the majority of the population. In the second part of the eighteenth century, England began to industrialise. New social groupings emerged, including the working class and the middle class, including industrialists, business people, and professionals.
What did Liberal Nationalism stand for?
- Extramarks NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1 explains that Liberalism is derived from the Latin word liber, which means free. Property-owning males were the only ones who had the right to vote and be elected. All women and men without property were denied political rights.
- On Prussia’s initiative, a customs union, or Zollverein, was founded in 1834, with most German states joining. Tariff barriers were removed, and the number of currencies was reduced from over thirty to two.
A New Conservatism after 1815
- The spirit of conservatism drove European governments in 1815. Conservatives supported the monarchy, the Church, social hierarchies, property, and the preservation of the family.
- The end of feudalism and serfdom, as well as a modern army, competent administration, and a dynamic economy, may strengthen Europe’s authoritarian kingdoms.
- Representatives from the European powers — Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria – convened in Vienna in 1815 to draft a European settlement.
- France lost the countries it had gained under Napoleon, and the Bourbon monarchy was returned to power.
- One of the critical problems raised by liberal-nationalist critics of the new conservative rule was press freedom.
Extramarks NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1 explains the Revolutionaries as follows:
- Many European countries founded secret societies in 1815 to train revolutionaries and promote their beliefs. Revolutionaries fought for liberty and freedom against monarchical forms.
- Giuseppe Mazzini, an Italian revolutionary, born in Genoa in 1807, formed two additional secret societies, the first of which was Young Italy in Marseilles.
- Second, in Berne, he created Young Europe, a group of like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy, and Germany.
The Age of Revolutions: 1830-1848
Liberal revolutionaries overthrew the Bourbon Kings in July 1830, installing a constitutional monarchy commanded by Louis Philippe. Belgium broke independence from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands when the July Revolution triggered an insurrection in Brussels. Greeks fought for freedom in 1821.
The Romantic Imagination and National Feeling
- Art and poetry, storytelling, and music contributed to the expression and shaping of nationalist emotions.
- Romanticism was a cultural movement that aimed to foster a specific type of nationalist spirit. The language was also significant in the development of nationalist feelings.
- The Russian language was forced upon everyone, and in 1831 there was an armed revolt against the Russian administration, which was eventually repressed.
In Extramarks NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1 further topics about Age of Revolutions: 1830-1848 are covered below and further explained in detail in our solutions study material.
Hunger, Hardships and Popular Revolts
In the 1830s, Europe was experiencing economic difficulties. The first part of the nineteenth century saw massive population growth across Europe. Food price increases or a poor crop year resulted in widespread poverty in both town and country. Food shortages and severe unemployment forced the people of Paris to go to the streets in 1848.
The Revolution of the Liberals
The educated middle classes were leading a revolt in 1848. The liberal middle class wanted the establishment of a nation-state based on parliamentary ideals, including a constitution, press freedom, and freedom of association.
In Frankfurt, a huge number of political organisations gathered to vote for an all-German National Assembly. On May 18, 1848, 831 elected MPs marched to the Church of St Paul in Frankfurt to assume their seats in the Frankfurt parliament.
The German Constitution established a monarchy that was subject to a Parliament. Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia, was offered the Crown, but he declined and joined other monarchs opposing the elected parliament.
Women started their political organisations, started publications, and attended political meetings and rallies, but they were refused suffrage during the Assembly election.
The Making of Germany and Italy
Germany- Can the Army be the Architect of a Nation?
Prussia took over the campaign for national unity. Its chief minister, Otto von Bismarck, was reportedly the architect of this process, which was carried out with the support of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.
Prussian King William I was named German Emperor in January 1871. The new German Empire was proclaimed during a gathering. The process of nation-building revealed Prussian state power’s superiority.
Extramarks NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1 states how the unification of Italy took place. In the middle of the nineteenth century, Italy was divided into seven republics, one of which, Sardinia-Piedmont, was controlled by an Italian royal dynasty. Distinct rulers ruled over different territories. Giuseppe Mazzini founded the Young Italy secret organisation in the 1830s.
Chief Minister Cavour was at the helm of the movement. Sardinia-Piedmont defeated Austrian soldiers in 1859. They marched into the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and South Italy in 1860 and were successful in gaining support among the local peasants. Victor Emmanuel II was declared King of Italy in 1861.
The Strange case of Britain
There was no British country before the seventeenth century, and Great Britain was the paradigm of a nation. As the country’s riches, prominence, and power expanded, it got more powerful.
The emergence of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’ as a result of the Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland meant that England could effectively impose its influence on Scotland. Ireland was forcibly absorbed into the United Kingdom in 1801. The British flag (Union Jack), the national song (God Save Our Noble King), and the English language were all vigorously pushed as emblems of the new Britain.
Visualising the Nation
Artists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries depicted countries as individuals and nations as feminine beings. Female characters represent themes such as Liberty, Justice, and the Republic during the French Revolution. Justice is a blindfolded lady carrying a set of weighing scales, whereas Liberty is a red hat or a broken chain.
Nationalism and Imperialism
After the final part of the nineteenth century, nationalism had lost its appeal. The Balkans, which include modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia, and Montenegro, were the most tense region after 1871.
The Ottoman Empire ignited the Balkans, and they strengthened themselves during the nineteenth century via modernization and internal reforms. The Balkans became a hotspot of strife as a result of many conflicts.
During this time, fierce rivalry arose between European countries over commerce, colonies, and naval and military supremacy, leading to a series of regional conflicts and eventually the First World War.
In 1914, Europe was destroyed by nationalism associated with imperialism. Anti-imperial groups arose, but none of them succeeded in becoming independent nation-states. On the other hand, the concept of ‘nation-states’ was widely recognized as natural and universal.
NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1 Rise of Nationalism in Europe – Exercise and Solutions
Extramarks NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1 and other chapter solutions consist of explanations of essential concepts and other key topics covered in Class 10 History subject. Students are advised to revise the chapter more than once to understand it thoroughly.
Click on the below links to view NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1:
Class 10 History Chapter 1: Very Short Answer Type Questions
Class 10 History Chapter 1: Short Answer Type Questions
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In addition, students can also explore NCERT Solutions for other classes below.
|NCERT Class 10 Social Science Books Available for:|
|NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science – Understanding Economic Development|
|NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science – Democratic Politics|
|NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science – Contemporary India|
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Key Features of NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1
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Below are a few of the reasons to choose Extramarks NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1:
- The experienced teachers and experts from Extramarks have put together the most crucial information on this topic based on the NCERT guidelines.
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- NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1 gives an ideal framework for students to build a solid understanding of History chapters. With a sound knowledge of the subject, students can excel substantially now and also in the future.
Q.1 Write a note on:
a) Guiseppe Mazzini
b) Count Camillo de Cavour
c) The Greek war of independence
d) Frankfurt parliament
e) The role of women in nationalist struggles
a) Guiseppe Mazzini
Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary. He fought for the creation of nation-states. He was a member of secret society of the Carbonari. He was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria. He founded two underground societies named ‘Young Italy’ in Marseilles and ‘Young Europe’ in Berne. His societies had members from Poland, France, Italy and the German states.
b) Count Camillo de Cavour
Cavour was the Chief Minister of Sardinia-Piedmont. He led the movement to unify the regions of Italy. He was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat. Like many other wealthy and educated members of the Italian elite, he spoke fluent French. He made a diplomatic alliance with France and defeated the Austrian forces in 1859. In 1860, armed volunteers under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy.
c) The Greek war of independence
The Greek war of independence intensified nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe. Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire since the fifteenth century. The growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe inspired the Greeks for independence in 1821. Nationalists in Greece got support from other Greeks living in exile and also from many West Europeans who had sympathies for ancient Greek culture. Poets and artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilisation and mobilised public opinion to support its struggle against the Ottoman Empire. The English poet Lord Byron organised funds and later went to fight in the war, where he died of fever in 1824. Finally, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent nation.
d) Frankfurt Parliament
The Frankfurt parliament was an all-German National Assembly formed by the middle-class professionals and businessmen belonging to the different German regions. In May 1848, 831 elected representatives marched in a procession to take their places in the Frankfurt parliament convened in the Church of St Paul. They drafted a constitution for a German nation to be headed by a monarchy regulated by a parliament. However, Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia, rejected the monarchy offered on the constitutional terms. While the opposition of the aristocracy and military became stronger, the social basis of parliament eroded. The parliament was dominated by the middle classes who resisted the demands of workers and artisans and consequently lost their support.
e) The role of women in nationalist struggles
The issue of extending political rights to women was a controversial one among the European liberals fighting for nations. Women had formed their own political associations, founded newspapers and taken part in political meetings and demonstrations. Despite this they were denied suffrage rights during the election of the Assembly. When the Frankfurt parliament was convened in the Church of St Paul, women were admitted only as observers to stand in the visitors’ gallery.
Q.2 What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
The French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices in order to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.
(i) They introduced the ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) to emphasize the notion of a united community with equal rights under a constitution.
(ii) A new French flag, the tricolour, replaced the former royal standard.
(iii) The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
(iv) New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation.
(v) A centralised administrative system with uniform laws for all citizens was introduced.
(vi) Internal customs duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
(vii) Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.
Q.3 Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
Marianne: Female allegories were invented by artists in the nineteenth century to represent the nation. In France, she has christened Marianne, a popular Christian name, which underlined the idea of a people’s nation. Her characteristics were drawn from those of Liberty and the Republic – the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade. Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the public of the national symbol of unity. Marianne images were also marked on coins and stamps.
Germania: Germania was the allegory of the German nation. In visual representations, Germania wears a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism. Germania used to have many symbols like Breastplate with the eagle was the symbol of the German empire and strength. She also holds a sward show the readiness to fight. Black, red and gold tricolor flag show the liberal-nationalists in 1848.
Q.4 Briefly trace the process of German unification.
(i) Idea of nationalist feeling became popular among middle-class Germans.
(ii) In 1848, they tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament.
(iii) The armed forces of the monarchy suppressed this liberal initiative to nation-building. The large landowners (called Junkers) of Prussia also prevented the emergence of German nation.
(iv) Prussia’s chief minister, Otto von Bismarck, was the architect of the German unification with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.
(v) Three wars over seven years – with Austria, Denmark and France – ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification.
(vi) In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor at Versailles.
Q.5 What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?
(i) Napoleon introduced many reforms in Europe that he had already implemented in France. However, by establishing monarchy Napoleon had also destroyed democracy in France.
(ii) In the administrative field, his reforms had some of revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.
(iii) The Civil Code of 1804 (also known as the Napoleonic Code) put an end to all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and protected the right to property. This Code was also implemented in the regions under French control.
(iv)In the Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, in Italy and Germany, Napoleon simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
(v) In the towns, he removed guild restrictions and improved transport and communication systems. Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen enjoyed a new-found freedom.
(vi) Businessmen and small-scale producers of goods realised the importance of uniform laws, standardised weights and measures for their business growth. Introduction of a common national currency facilitated the transport of goods and capital from one region to another.
Q.6 Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?
1848 Liberal Revolution: In the year 1848, when the poor, unemployed and starving peasants and workers were revolting in many European countries, a revolution led by the educated middle classes was emerging. Revolutionary events of February 1848 in France, had ended the monarchy and a republic based on universal male suffrage had been proclaimed.
Political Ideas: Ideas of national unity in early-nineteenth-century Europe was closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. In Germany, Italy, Poland and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the liberal middle classes politically united themselves and demanded the creation of a nation-state on parliamentary principles – a constitution, freedom of the press and freedom of association. In the German regions, many political associations were formed by the middle-classes in the city of Frankfurt. However, Liberals had contradicting views on the issue of extending political rights to women.
Social ideas: The liberals wanted to end monarchy through political revolutions and rearrange the social base on national unity and individual rights; they were against kingship and birth rights, and wanted to eradicate feudal values in Europe.
Economic ideas: The liberalists supported the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital. During the nineteenth century, this was a strong demand of the liberals. Nineteenth-century liberals also stressed the inviolability of private property.
Q.7 Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.
The following three examples show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe:
(i) Romanticism, a cultural movement in Europe, sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists and poets criticised the glorification of reason and science and focused instead on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings. Their effort was to create a sense of a shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.
(ii) Folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances contributed to the true spirit of the nation (volksgeist). So collecting and recording various forms of folk culture was part of the project of nation-building. Vernacular language and local folklore recovered ancient national spirit and also took the modern nationalist message to large audiences who were mostly illiterate. For example, in Poland, Karol Kurpinski celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.
(iii) Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian occupation, the Polish language was banned in schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere. In 1831, an armed rebellion against Russian rule took place which was ultimately crushed. Following this, many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance. The use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance.
Q.8 Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.
Before emerging as nations, Germany and Italy were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons whose rulers had their autonomous territories.
Germany: Idea of nation became popular among middle-class Germans; in 1848, they tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament. The armed forces of the monarchy suppressed this liberal initiative to nation-building. Prussia’s chief minister, Otto von Bismarck, was the architect of the German unification. Three wars over seven years – with Austria, Denmark and France – ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification. In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor at Versailles.
Italy: During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini had proposed a programme for a unitary Italian Republic. He had also formed a secret society called Young Italy for this purpose. Due to the failure of revolutionary uprisings in 1831 and 1848, King Victor Emmanuel II, the ruler of Sardinia-Piedmont, attempted to unify the Italian states through war. The ruling elites of this region wanted a unified Italy for economic development and political dominance. Later, Cavour, the Chief Minister of Sardinia-Piedmont led the movement to unify the regions of Italy. He made an alliance with France and defeated the Austrian forces in 1859. In 1860, armed volunteers under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy.
Q.9 How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
(i) In Britain, the formation of the nation-state was the result of a long-drawn-out process.
(ii) The primary identities of the people in the British Isles were ethnic ones (such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish). They had their own cultural and political traditions. There was no idea of nation and national unity among these ethnic groups.
(iii) The English nation which was wealthy and powerful dominated the other nations of the islands.
(iv) The English parliament had seized power from the monarchy in 1688, after a long conflict. Following this, it forged a nation-state, with England at its centre.
(v) With the enactment of the Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland, the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’ was born. However, England continued its political supremacy on Scotland in the British parliament.
(vi) The growth of a British identity systematically destroyed Scotland’s distinctive culture and political institutions.
(vii) The Catholic clans of the Scottish Highlands were suppressed when they demanded freedom. They were forbidden to speak their Gaelic language or wear their national dress, and many were forcibly driven out of their homeland.
(viii) In Ireland, a country deeply divided between Catholics and Protestants, the English helped the Protestants of Ireland to establish their dominance over a largely Catholic country.
(ix) After the failure of Catholic revolts led by Wolfe Tone and his United Irishmen (1798) against British dominance, Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801.
(x) A new ‘British nation’ emerged with a dominant English culture. National symbols of the new Britain – the British flag (Union Jack), the national anthem (God Save Our Noble King), the English language – were actively promoted and the older nations became subordinate partners in this union.
Q.10 Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?
The Balkans witnessed a serious nationalist tension in Europe after 1871.
(i) It was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadly known as the Slavs.
(ii) Most of regions in the Balkans were under the control of the Ottoman Empire. The ideas of romantic nationalism spread in the region with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire.
(iii) The Balkan peoples based their claims for independence on nationality. They claimed with historical evidence that they had been subjugated by foreign powers. All Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity and independence.
(iv) The Balkan states tried to gain more territory at the expense of the others.
(v) The region also witnessed conflicts among the European powers over trade and colonies. Russia, Germany, England, Austro-Hungary tried to extend their own control over the area. This led to a series of wars in the region and finally the First World War.
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2. What is the first chapter of History in Class 10?
The Rise of Nationalism in Europe is the first chapter in Class 10 History. This chapter focuses on the concerns raised by French artist Frederic Sorrieu. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe, Nationalism, the French Revolution and Imperialism are all discussed in this chapter. Remembering all of the minor details in history might be challenging at times, but it becomes incredibly simple and stress-free with Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History.