The Making of A Global World Class 10 Solutions
The study and documentation of the past are known as history. “History” broadly encompasses past events and their recollection, discovery, collecting, organization, presentation, and interpretation. History is a procedure of inquiry.
The Making of a Global World, Chapter 3 of History, illustrates how globalization affects the global and Indian economies. Students can grasp the reasons for social and economic change in a better way if they study the history of Globalisation. In the history of Globalisation, one of the most critical times was the nineteenth-century Industrial Revolution, which is also described in the chapter.
The Making of a Global World Class 10 NCERT Solutions by Extramarks improves the foundation of Globalisation. The Making of Global World Class 10 Questions and Answers clears any doubts about the topic as subject experts prepare these solutions. Moreover, the Making of Global World Question Answers is made so that it becomes a quicker and much easier reference material to help develop concepts.
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Key Topics Covered in The Making of A Global World Class 10 Solutions
Listed below are the key topics that are covered in The Making of A Global World Class 10 Solutions:
|The Pre-Modern World|
|The Nineteenth Century|
|Rinderpest, or the Cattle Plague|
|The Inter-War Economy|
|Rebuilding a World Economy: The Post War Era|
Let us look at Extramarks in-depth information on each subtopic in The Making of A Global World Class 10 Solutions.
The Pre-Modern World
Globalisation is a term used to describe an economic system that has been in existence only for around 50 years. Activities such as the history of commerce, migration, people looking for a job, capital mobility, and other factors have all contributed to creating the global globe. In addition, travellers, traders, priests, and pilgrims have travelled huge distances seeking information, opportunity, and spiritual fulfilment and avoiding persecution since ancient times.
Silk Routes Link the World
The Making of Global World Class 10 Solutions by Extramarks elaborate on silk routes linking the world. Silk routes are an excellent illustration of pre-modern commercial and cultural linkages connecting far-flung corners of the globe. Historians have discovered several silk routes, both over the land, and water, spanning vast parts of Asia and connecting Asia with Europe and northern Africa. Precious metals — both gold and silver – moved from Europe to Asia in exchange for textiles and species from India.
Conquest, Disease, and Trade
For ages, the Indian Ocean has been a hive of activity, with products, people, knowledge, traditions, and other items crisscrossing its waters. The arrival of Europeans helped in the redirection of these movements to Europe. Likewise, America’s enormous lands and abundant crops and minerals began to change trade and lives across the world. By the mid-sixteenth century, the Portuguese and Spanish had successfully conquered and colonised America.
The Making of Global World Class 10 Solutions explainthat the most potent weapon available to Europeans was not a traditional military weapon but viruses such as smallpox that they carried on their person. It turned out to be a lethal murderer. Poverty and hunger were frequent throughout Europe until the eighteenth century. China and India were among the world’s wealthiest countries until the late eighteenth century. On the other hand, China limited overseas relations and withdrew into isolation beginning in the fifteenth century. Europe has now established itself as the global commercial hub.
The Nineteenth Century
Economic, political, social, cultural, and technical influences combined with restructuring societies and redefining external relations in the nineteenth century. Economists recognised three flows or movements; they are stated as follows by Extramarks the Making Of A Global World Class 10 Solutions:
- The first is trade flow, which mainly refers to product trade (e.g., cloth or wheat).
- The second is the labour flow or the movement of individuals in search of work.
- The third is capital transportation over great distances for short- or long-term investments.
A World Economy Takes Shape
Self-sufficiency in food meant poorer living conditions and social unrest in Britain throughout the nineteenth century. Corn import restrictions have been enforced as a result of the new rules. Because British agriculture couldn’t compete with imports, enormous expanses of land were uncultivated. As a result, tens of thousands of men and women flocked to the cities or relocated abroad.
Britain’s food prices declined, and industrial progress in the mid-nineteenth century increased incomes and food imports. Lands were cleared in Eastern Europe, Russia, America, and Australia to enhance food production to meet British demand. However, linking railways to agricultural fields and constructing dwellings for people requires both cash and labour.
By 1890, a worldwide agricultural economy had emerged, adjusting to complicated shifts in labour mobility, capital flows, ecologies, and technologies. The British Indian government created a network of irrigation canals in West Punjab to convert semi-desert wastelands into lush agricultural fields where wheat and cotton could be grown for export. Cotton planting was spread globally to supply British textile factories.
The above-stated points mention how the world economy had finally begun developing a shape. In addition, the Making of Global World Class 10 Solutions by extramarks presents a detailed notes version. Refer to Extramarks for more information.
Role of Technology
Railways, steamships, and the telegraph are key technological advancements that revolutionised the nineteenth-century world. However, technological progress was frequently influenced by more significant social, political, and economic concerns.
For example, colonisation spurred new transportation investments and improvements: quicker trains, lighter wagons, and larger ships helped convey food more cheaply and rapidly from distant farms to final markets.
Rinderpest, or the Cattle Plague
Making of Global World Class 10 Solutions by Extramarks explain the Rinderpest and its effects. A fast-spreading epidemic of cow plague devastated people’s livelihoods and the local economy in Africa in the 1890s. Africa had a large amount of land and a low population.
Europeans arrived in Africa intending to establish plantations and mines to generate food and minerals for sale. However, an unanticipated issue was a labour shortage ready to work for wages. Inheritance regulations were modified, and just one family member was permitted to inherit land under the new system. Rinderpest appeared in Africa in the late 1880s, brought by sick cattle imported from British Asia to feed Italian troops attacking Eritrea in East Africa. Cattle extinction ruined African livelihoods.
Indentured Labour Migration From India
Indentured labor exemplifies the world’s contradictory character in the eighteenth century. A world with more wealth for some and greater poverty for others, technical advancements in specific sectors, and new kinds of coercion in others. Indentured laborers were engaged on a contract basis in India. The majority of them came from the present-day regions of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, central India, and Tamil Nadu’s arid districts.
The Caribbean islands (Trinidad, Guyana, and Surinam), Mauritius, and Fiji were the leading destinations for Indian indentured immigration. Tea estates in Assam also used indentured laborers. Indenture was regarded as a “new system of slavery” in the nineteenth century.
Making of Global World Class 10 Solutions by Extramarks state that since the early 1900s, India’s nationalist leaders have criticised the indentured labour migration system as harsh and inhumane. In 1921, it was removed.
Indian Trade, Colonialism, and the Global System
India’s cotton was exported to Europe. Import duties on the fabric were introduced in Britain. As a result, quality Indian cotton imports began to fall. British manufacturers invaded the Indian market in the nineteenth century. India played a significant role in the late-nineteenth-century international economy by assisting Britain in balancing its deficits.
The Inter-War Economy
The First World War (1914-18) took place in Europe, but its consequences were felt all around the globe. During this time, the world saw significant economic and political upheaval and another devastating war. The explanations can be found in the study notes of Making of Global World Class 10 by Extramarks.
The war lasted over four years and involved the world’s most powerful industrial countries. Industries were reformed to manufacture war-related commodities during the conflict. In addition, Britain borrowed significant quantities of money from US banks and the general population, changing the status of the United States from a global debtor to a worldwide creditor.
The Great Depression
Most world regions witnessed catastrophic decreases in output, employment, earnings, and trade during the Great Depression, which began about 1929 and lasted until the mid-1930s. Agricultural regions and towns were the worst hit. A combination of factors caused depression. The first factor was agricultural overproduction; the second was that several nations financed their investments with loans from the United States in the mid-1920s. The withdrawal of US loans had various consequences for the rest of the world. Depression struck the United States as well. Thousands of banks went bankrupt and were compelled to close, resulting in the collapse of the US financial system.
India and The Great Depression
Making of Global World Class 10 Solutions by Extramarks talk about the effects that the Great Depression had on India.
The Great Depression caused an immediate impact on Indian trade. Agriculture prices dropped dramatically, but the colonial authority refused to lower revenue expectations. During the Great Depression, India became a major supplier of precious metals, particularly gold. So when Mahatma Gandhi started the civil disobedience campaign during the Great Depression in 1931, rural India was filled with discontent.
Rebuilding a World Economy: The Post War Era
Two decades after the First world war ended, the Second World War broke out. For six years, the battle raged on land, at sea, and in the air and it completely wreaked havoc on the economy and threw the country into chaos. Two significant factors influenced post-war rebuilding. The first was that the United States had become the world’s main economic, political, and military force. The Soviet Union’s supremacy was second.
Post War Settlement and the Bretton Woods Institution
The Making of a Global World Class 10 Solutions shares the notes about the after-war settlement. The interwar economic experience generated two key insights. To begin with, mass manufacturing is impossible to continue without mass communication. The second lesson was on a country’s financial ties to the rest of the globe. The Bretton Woods Conference created the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to cope with its member countries’ external surpluses and deficits. In addition, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) was established to finance postwar reconstruction.
The Early Post War Years
The Making of A Global World Class 10 Solutions by Extramarks paint a picture of the early years after the war. Then, Bretton Woods entered a tremendous trade and wealth development period for the Western industrial nations and Japan. As a result, technology and business expanded globally throughout this decade.
Decolonisation and Independence
After the Second World War, significant parts of the globe remained under European colonial power. Since the late 1950s, the IMF and the World Bank have focused more on developing countries. However, the rapid expansion that Western economies saw in the 1950s and 1960s did not help most developing nations. So they formed the Group of 77 (or G-77) and called for a new worldwide economic system (NIEO).
End of Bretton Woods and the Beginning of Globalisation
Since the 1960s, increasing expenses of the US’s overseas involvements have harmed its financial and competitive strength. The worldwide financial system altered in the mid-1970s, and the industrial world was also devastated by unemployment. As a result, MNCs began shifting production to Asia’s low-wage countries. China has been a popular investment location for multinational corporations. The world’s economic geography has changed dramatically in the previous two decades as nations like India, Brazil and China, have witnessed significant economic growth.
The Making of a Global World Class 10 NCERT Solutions
Extramarks The Making of a Global World Class 10 Solutions NCERT Solutions has explanations of essential concepts as well as other key topics covered in the Class 10. Students should carefully read the chapter a few times to understand it thoroughly.
Click on the links below to view NCERT Solutions for The Making of a Global World Class 10 Solutions: Class 10 History Chapter 3: Very Short Answer Type Questions.
Class 10 History Chapter 3: Short Answer Type Questions
Class 10 History Chapter 3: Long Answer Type Questions
Students may access NCERT Solutions for The Making of A Global World Class 10 Solutions and other chapters by clicking here. In addition, students can also explore NCERT Solutions for other classes below.
|NCERT Class 10 Social Science Books Available for:|
|NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science – Understanding Economic Development|
|NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science – Democratic Politics|
|NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science – Contemporary India|
By getting access to NCERT Solutions For The Making of A Global World Class 10 Solutions, students can easily understand the circumstances in India and the world after the World Wars.
Key Features of The Making Of A Global World Class 10 Solutions
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- No more just memorizing, NCERT solutions help students understand the core concept of the chapter and have a good and easier recall.
- These solutions cover all the topics of the chapter concisely and systematically.
- NCERT solutions prepared by experienced teachers are thoroughly researched and help in quicker understanding
Q.1 Give two examples of different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century, choosing one example from Asia and one from the Americas.
Two examples of the different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century:
- Chinese pottery, textiles and spices from India and Southeast Asia were exchanged in return for precious metals such as gold and silver from Europe.
- Foods such as potatoes, soya, groundnuts, maize, tomatoes, chillies and sweet potatoes were introduced in Europe and Asia after Christopher Columbus accidentally discovered the Americas.
Q.2 Explain how the global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonisation of the Americas.
- The global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonisation of the Americas.
- America’s original inhabitants, because of their long isolation, had no immunity against the diseases such as smallpox that were carried by the European settlers and colonisers with them.
- The European conquerors were mostly immune to smallpox, but the disease killed and decimated the native American communities, paving the way for an easy conquest.
- Weapons and soldiers could be defeated or destroyed, but diseases could not be prevented very easily; they became very powerful weapons for easy colonization.
Q.3 Write a note to explain the effects of the following:
a) The British government’s decision to abolish the Corn Laws.
b) The coming of rinderpest to Africa.
c) The death of men of working-age in Europe because of the World War.
d) The Great Depression on the Indian economy.
e) The decision of MNCs to relocate production to Asian countries.
a) After the Corn Laws were abolished, food grains could be imported into Britain more cheaply than it could be produced within the country. British farmers were unable to compete with imports by the landed groups. Vast areas of land were now left uncultivated, and thousands of men and women were thrown out of work. They went to the cities for work or migrated overseas.
b) Rinderpest, a disease of cattle plague, created a devastating impact on people’s livelihoods and the local economy in African countries. 90 per cent of the cattle wealth perished and the loss of cattle destroyed African livelihoods. Planters, mine owners and colonial governments now successfully monopolized what scarce cattle resources remained, to strengthen their power and to force Africans into the labour market. Control over the scarce resource of cattle enabled Europeans to colonise Africa.
c) Most of the killed and maimed in the war were men of working age. These deaths and injuries reduced the able-bodied workforce in Europe. With fewer numbers within the family, household incomes declined after the war.
d) The Great Depression immediately affected trade in colonial India. India’s exports and imports nearly halved between 1928 and 1934. As international prices crashed, prices in India also declined. Between 1928 and 1934, wheat prices fell by 50 per cent. Peasants and farmers suffered more than urban dwellers. Though agricultural prices fell sharply, the colonial government refused to reduce revenue demands. Peasants producing for the international markets were the worst hit. Across India, peasants’ indebtedness increased.
e) From the late 1970s, the MNCs began to shift production operations to low-wage Asian countries. The relocation of the MNCs to low-wage countries boosted world trade and capital flows. In the last two decades, the world’s economic geography has been transformed as countries such as India, China and Brazil have undergone rapid economic transformation.
Q.4 Give two examples from history to show the impact of technology on food availability.
Two examples from history to show the impact of technology on food availability:
- Faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helped move food more cheaply and quickly from faraway farms to final markets.
- The technology of the refrigerated ships enabled the transport of perishable foods over long distances.
Q.5 What is meant by the Bretton Woods Agreement?
(i)The post-war international economic system focused on economic stability and employment growth in the industrial world.
(ii)The framework to achieve this goal was agreed upon at the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held in July 1944 at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, USA.
(iii)The Bretton Woods conference established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to deal with external surpluses and deficits of its member nations.
(iv)The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (popularly known as the World Bank) was also set up to finance postwar reconstruction.
Q.6 Explain the three types of movements or flows within international economic exchange. Find one example of each type of flow which involved India and Indians, and write a short account of it.
The three types of movements or flows within international economic exchange are:
- The first is the flow of trade in goods (e.g., cloth or wheat) in the nineteenth century.
- The second is the flow of labour – the migration of people in search of employment.
- The third is the movement of capital for short-term or long-term investments over long distances.
The flow of trade in goods from India:
Between 1812 and 1871, the share of raw cotton exports rose from 5 per cent to 35 per cent. Indigo used for dyeing cloth was another important good exported from India.
The flow of labour from India:
In the nineteenth century, Indian indentured migrants went to work in the Caribbean islands (mainly Trinidad, Guyana and Surinam), Mauritius and Fiji. Tamil migrants went to Ceylon and Malaya.
The movement of capital for investments from India:
The Indian bankers such as the Shikaripuri shroffs and Nattukottai Chettiars financed export agriculture in Central and Southeast Asia; they invested their own funds as well as those borrowed from European banks. They had a sophisticated banking system to transfer money over large distances.
Q.7 Explain the causes of the Great Depression.
The depression was caused by a combination of several factors.
First: agricultural overproduction remained a problem. Falling agricultural prices affected the agricultural incomes. As prices slumped and declined, farmers produced more to maintain their overall income. This surplus production pushed down prices even further. Farm produce rotted for a lack of buyers.
Second: US overseas lenders stopped loans to many countries that financed their investments through loans from the US. This affected the banks in Europe and in Latin America and intensified the crisis of agricultural and raw material prices. US banks had also slashed domestic lending and demanded the return of the loans. Unable to repay the loans, people gave up their homes, cars and other properties. Ultimately, the US banking system itself collapsed. Thousands of banks went bankrupt and were forced to close. By 1933, over 4,000 banks had closed and between 1929 and 1932 about 110,000 companies had collapsed.
Q.8 Explain what is referred to as the G-77 countries. In what ways can G-77 be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods twins?
(i) Most developing countries organised themselves as a group – the Group of 77 (or G-77) – to demand a new international economic order (NIEO).
(ii) The NIEO system would give them real control over their natural resources, more development assistance, fairer prices for raw materials, and better access for their manufactured goods in developed countries’ markets.
(iii) G-77 formed as a reaction to the Bretton Woods twins:
- From the late 1950s, Bretton Woods twins (the IMF and the World Bank) shifted their economic development activities from the industrial nations to the developing countries.
- The developing countries were brought under the financial rules and regulations of these two international agencies dominated by the former colonial powers.
- The developing countries relalised that even after many years of decolonisation, the former colonial powers still controlled vital resources such as minerals and land. Thus, G-77 was formed as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods twins.
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