History is the study that helps us understand how things change over time, and it encompasses all aspects of human civilisation. Political, social, economic, scientific, technological, medical, cultural, intellectual, religious, and military developments are part of history.
While Indians were fighting for independence during the colonial British Raj, the notion of Indian nationalism emerged. Students will learn about the non-cooperation and civil disobedience movements in Chapter 2 of Class 10- Nationalism in India, set in the 1920s. They will also know how Congress attempted to grow the national movement, how various socioeconomic groups engaged in it, and how nationalism caught the public imagination.
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Key Topics Covered in Nationalism In India Class 10 Solutions
Listed below are vital topics that are covered in Nationalism In India Class 10 Solutions:
|The First World War, Khilafat Movement, and Non-Cooperation Movement|
|Differing Strands within the Movement|
|Swaraj in the Plantations|
|The Sense of Collective Belonging|
Let us take a look at Extramarks in-depth information on each subtopic in Nationalism In India Class 10 Solutions:
The First World War, Khilafat Movement, and Non-Cooperation Movement
The rise of modern nationalism in India is linked to the anti-colonial movement. Many diverse groups formed connections due to colonialism, which the Congress developed under Mahatma Gandhi.
After 1919, the war created a new economic and political scenario. Between 1913 to 1918, an income tax was enacted, and the costs of custom charges were quadrupled, making life extremely difficult for ordinary people. In addition, crop failure in India in 1918-19 resulted in food scarcity and an influenza outbreak.
The Idea of Satyagraha
The Nationalism In India Class 10 Solutions by Extramarks explain the concept of Satyagraha beginning from the time when Mahatma Gandhi returned from South Africa to India in January 1915 and launched the Satyagraha campaign. Satyagraha emphasised the importance of seeking truth and the power of truth. Mahatma Gandhi preached non-violence and believed that it was a way to win a battle and bring all Indians together. He travelled to Champaran, Bihar, in 1917 to encourage people to fight the harsh plantation system. In the same year, he organised a satyagraha to aid peasants in Gujarat's Kheda area. Mahatma Gandhi travelled to Ahmedabad in 1918 to start a satyagraha movement among cotton mill employees.
The Rowlatt Act
Mahatma Gandhi organised a nationwide satyagraha in 1919 to protest the proposed Rowlatt Act. The Act granted the broad powers of the governments to suppress political activity and allowed political prisoners to be held indefinitely without charge or trial. Following a public uproar, the British government moved to crack down on nationalists. The Amritsar police opened fire on a peaceful parade on April 10, sparking widespread attacks on banks, post offices, and railway stations. General Dyer seized authority once martial law was declared.
Extramarks material about Nationalism in India Class 10 Solutions tells about the Jallianwala Bagh event, which occurred on April 13. A massive crowd had gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh, with some protesting the government's new harsh tactics and others attending the traditional Baisakhi bazaar. General Dyer shut off all exits and opened fire on the mob, killing hundreds of people. The campaign turned into a violent battle, so Mahatma Gandhi had to call it off.
The Khilafat issue was then taken up by Mahatma Gandhi, who brought Hindus and Muslims together. Ottoman Turkey was defeated at the end of World War One. A Khilafat Committee was created in Bombay in March 1919. Mahatma Gandhi persuaded other leaders in September 1920 that a non-cooperation movement in favour of Khilafat and Swaraj was necessary.
According to Mahatma Gandhi, British dominance in India was created with Indian collaboration. The movement of non-cooperation was proposed in stages. To start with,it aimed to surrender government-awarded titles and a boycott of the civil service, army, police, courts, legislative bodies, schools, and imported commodities. After several obstacles and campaigning between supporters and opponents of the movement, the Non-Cooperation Movement was ultimately adopted in December 1920.
Differing Strands within the Movement
The Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement began in January 1921. Various social groups were involved in this movement, although the name signified different things to different individuals. Nationalism In India Class 10 Solutions by Extramarks present details about the movement.
The Movement in the Towns
The middle class initiated the movement, and thousands of students, teachers, and headteachers deserted government-controlled institutions and universities while attorneys stopped practising law. The consequences of non-cooperation were more severe on the economic front. When people began boycotting foreign items, the production of Indian textile factories and handlooms increased. However, this movement slowed due to many factors, including the high cost of Khadi clothing, a lack of Indian institutions for students and teachers to select from, and attorneys returning to government courts.
Rebellion on the Countryside
In several parts of India, the Non-Cooperation Movement expanded to the countryside, where peasants and tribals flourished. The peasant movement responded to talukdars and landowners who wanted high rents and other favours. It wanted lower taxes, the eradication of beggars, and a social boycott of unjust landlords.
In June 1920, Jawaharlal Nehru began visiting villages in Awadh to learn about their problems. He and a few others founded the Oudh Kisan Sabha in October, and within a month, 300 branches had been established. The peasant uprising spread in 1921, with talukdars and merchants' homes being assaulted, bazaars being robbed, and grain boards taking over.
Those mentioned above are the two central regions where the Non-Cooperation Movement spread. Extramarks SMEs have explained the details of movement in the countryside and the towns in the Nationalism In India Class 10 Solutions.
Swaraj in the Plantations
For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant having the freedom to come and go as they pleased while maintaining a connection to the village they belonged to. Plantation employees were not allowed to leave the tea estates without authorisation under the 1859 Inland Emigration Act. As a result, thousands of employees deserted the plantations and returned home after hearing about the Non-Cooperation Movement. However, they never arrived at their destination and were arrested by the police and beaten mercilessly.
Towards The Civil Disobedience
Nationalism In India Class 10 Solutions by Extramarks describe the journey towards the Civil Disobedience movement as the following. The Non-Cooperation Movement was suspended in February 1922 when Mahatma Gandhi became concerned that it was becoming violent. In the late 1920s, two causes shaped Indian politics yet again. The first result was a global economic depression, and the second was a drop in agricultural prices. The Statutory Commission was established to investigate and recommend improvements to India's constitutional framework. The arrival of the Simon Commission in India in 1928 was met with the phrase "Go back, Simon." The Lahore Congress, led by Jawaharlal Nehru, formalised the demand for 'Purna Swaraj,' or complete independence for India, in December 1929.
The Salt March and The Civil Disobedience
On January 31, 1930, Mahatma Gandhi wrote Viceroy Irwin a letter with eleven demands. Congress would launch a civil disobedience campaign if the demands were not met by March 11. Mahatma Gandhi began the legendary salt march with the help of 78 of his loyal volunteers. From Gandhiji's ashram at Sabarmati to the Gujarati seaside town of Dandi, the train covered nearly 240 km. On April 6, he arrived at Dandi and ceremonially broke the law by boiling seawater to make salt. The Civil Disobedience Movement began with this event.
Salt laws were violated in many parts of the country due to the campaign. The foreign cloth was shunned, peasants refused to pay taxes, and forest laws were broken. The situation began to spiral out of control once again. Mahatma Gandhi decided to call off the struggle after witnessing the horrific condition and signed a pact with Irwin on March 5, 1931. Gandhiji agreed to attend a Round Table Conference in London as part of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. When the meeting fell apart, Mahatma Gandhi was dissatisfied and resumed the Civil Disobedience Movement in India. It lasted about a year, but by 1934, it had lost popularity.
The Limits of Civil Disobedience
The notion of Swaraj did not convince Dalits, who were referred to as "untouchables." Mahatma Gandhi referred to them as Harijans, or God's offspring, without whom swaraj could not be attained. He organised Satyagraha for the untouchables, but they preferred a political solution to the community's concerns. They requested a separate electorate and reserved seats in educational institutions.
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, who organised the Dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, clashed with Mahatma Gandhi by seeking separate electorates for Dalits at the second Round Table Conference. Muslims felt estranged from the Congress when the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat campaign died out, and ties between Hindus and Muslims deteriorated.
The details of the Civil Disobedience Movement have been explained above by Extramarks Nationalism In India Class 10 Solutions in a detailed and systematic manner. The notes are prepared comprehensively for students to understand easily.
The Sense of Collective Belonging
Extramarks Nationalism In India Class 10 Solutions gives unique details about the sense of collective belonging that erupted in the citizens. When individuals feel they are all members of the same nation, nationalism flourishes. Nationalism was shaped through history and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and emblems, etc. Finally, in the twentieth century, the image of Bharat Mata became aesthetically identified with India's identity. The artwork was produced by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, who also penned the song 'Vande Mataram' in the 1870s.
Bharat Mata is shown as an ascetic figure in Rabindranath Tagore's iconic painting; she is peaceful, collected, heavenly, and spiritual. Gandhiji devised the Swaraj flag in 1921, which was a tricolour (red, green, and white) with a spinning wheel in the centre, signifying Gandhi's self-help concept.
In conclusion, Nationalism In India Class 10 Solutions by Extramarks discusses how various groups and classes of Indians got together in the early twentieth century to fight for independence. The Congress, led by Mahatma Gandhi, tried to reconcile disagreements and guarantee that one group's demands would not alienate another. In other words, a country with many voices demanding independence from colonial domination was forming.
Nationalism in India Class 10 Solutions NCERT Solutions
Extramarks Nationalism In India Class 10 Solutions has explanations of essential concepts as well as other key topics covered in Class 10. Students should carefully read the chapter a few times to understand it thoroughly.
Click on the links below to view NCERT Solutions for Nationalism In India Class 10 Solutions:
Class 10 History Chapter 2: Very Short Answer Type Questions
Class 10 History Chapter 2: Short Answer Type Questions
Class 10 History Chapter 2: Long Answer Type Questions
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Key Features of Nationalism in India Class 10 Solutions
A chapter such as Nationalism in India is full of various sub-topics, each of which is essential to learn. Students tend to find this quite long to go through. To make the topics concise and clear, Extramarks has developed Nationalism in India Class 10 Solutions. These NCERT Solutions make it easier for students to capture the essence of the chapter. We give you a list of reasons why to choose Extramarks for:
- These solutions cover all the chapter's topics concisely yet systematically.
- The solutions result from thorough research by the subject experts at Extramarks.
- NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1 has been prepared to keep in mind all the guidelines laid by NCERT.
a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement.
b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India.
c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act.
d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement.
- In the colonial countries such as India and Vietnam, the emergence of modern nationalism was the result of the anti-colonial movement.
- People realised their unity in the process of their struggle against the colonial exploitation of natural resources.
- The sense of being oppressed under colonialism brought many different groups together against their colonial masters.
- The Indian National Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi bought all different groups together within one national movement.
- The First World War created a new economic and political situation which helped in the growth of the National Movement in India.
- The war increased defence expenditure of the British government. It borrowed war loans, increased customs duties, and introduced income tax.
- Villages were forced to supply goods to soldiers. The forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger.
- Crop failure in 1918-19 and 1920-21 caused acute shortages of food and an influenza epidemic; nearly, 12 to 13 million people perished as a result of famines and the epidemic.
- During this time, nationalist leaders offered a new mode of struggle and appealed to the masses to fight against colonial rule.
- Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act (1919) because this Act was hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the opposition of the Indian members.
- The Act gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities; political prisoners could be detained without trial for two years.
- In February 1922, Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement because the movement was turning violent in many places.
- In one such violent incident known as the Chauri Chaura incident (1922), a peaceful demonstration in a bazaar turned into a violent clash with the British policemen and a police-station was set on fire.
- Gandhiji felt that satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggles and withdrew the movement.
Q.2 What is meant by the idea of satyagraha?
(i) Mahatma Gandhi fought racial discrimination in South Africa with the idea of satyagraha which emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
(ii) It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
(iii) Without seeking vengeance or adopting aggressive method, a satyagrahi could win the battle through nonviolence by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor.
(iv) Gandhi also believed that by this struggle, truth was bound to ultimately triumph.
Q.3 Write a newspaper report on:
a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre
b) The Simon Commission
On 13 April, a large crowd gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwalla Bagh. Some came to protest against the government’s new repressive measures, while others were there to attend the annual Baisakhi fair. Many villagers who had gathered there were unaware of the martial law imposed by the British. General Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points, and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds of Indians; many of the victims were women and children. His object, as he declared later, was to ‘produce a moral effect’, to create in the minds of satyagrahis a feeling of terror and awe.
The Tory government in Britain set up a Statutory Commission under Sir John Simon to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes. The problem was that not a single Indian representative was part of the commission; all its members were British. When the Simon Commission arrived in 1928, nationalists of the Congress and the Muslim League protested and showed placards with the slogan ‘Go back Simon’. In an attempt to appease Indians, in October 1929, the viceroy, Lord Irwin announced an offer of ‘dominion status’ for India and a Round Table Conference to discuss a future constitution.
Q.4 Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1.
Images of Bharat Mata
Image of Germania
|(i) Bharat Mata was the allegory of the Indian nation.||(i) Germania was the allegory of the German nation.|
(ii) In visual representations, Bharat Mata is shown as an ascetic figure, with calm, divine and spiritual. She is also shown as dispensing learning, food and clothing. She holds a mala in one hand emphasising her ascetic quality.
|(ii)In visual representations, Germania wears a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.|
(iii) She is also shown with a trishul, standing beside a lion and an elephant – both symbols of power and authority.
|(iii) She is also shown with sword and shield wearing crown.|
Q.5 List all the different social groups which joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.
The different social groups that joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921 were the urban middle class comprising students, lawyers, teachers and headmasters, merchant and traders, and peasants, tribal communities and plantation workers in the countryside.
i) The participation of the Indian middle class:
The middle class participated in the movement because their refusal to trade in foreign goods or finance in foreign trade would increase the sale of their goods in the domestic market and flow of profits; as the boycott of foreign goods spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.
ii) The participation of the Peasants:
The peasants took part in the movement because they had expectations that they would be saved from the labour exploitation of talukdars and landlords, and high taxes imposed by the colonial rule.
iii) The participation of the Plantation workers:
Plantation workers actively participated in the protests because they were not allowed to move freely in and out of the plantation fields. They wanted to retain a link with the village from which they had come. Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission.
Q.6 Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.
(i) The Salt March was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism because Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation.
(ii) On 31 January 1930, in a letter sent to Viceroy Irwin, the abolition of the salt tax was one of Gandhiji’s eleven demands.
(iii) The abolition of the salt tax had potential to inspire all classes within Indian society to fight against the British rule.
(iv) Salt, an essential item of food, was consumed by the rich and the poor alike. According to Gandhiji, the tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production revealed the most oppressive face of British rule.
Q.7 Imagine you are a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain what the experience meant to your life.
(i) The Civil Disobedience Movement witnessed the large-scale participation of women. Gandhiji’s appeal inspired them.
(ii) They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many went to jail.
(iii) Urban women from high-caste families and rural women from rich peasant households began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty of women.
(iv) Despite the equal role played by them, there was no any radical change in their social condition.
(v) Even Gandhiji was convinced that it was the duty of women to look after home and hearth, be good mothers and good wives.
(vi) The Congress, a leading nationalist organisation, was reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority in it.
Q.8 Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates?
(i) Political leaders differed sharply over the question of separate electorates because they had different political solutions to the social and economic issues of the depressed communities.
(ii) For example, the Dalits believed that political empowerment would resolve the problems of their social disabilities.
(iii) Dr B.R. Ambedkar, the champion of the Dalit cause, organised his community people into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930.
(iv) He clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for dalits.
(v) Though the British government accepted Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji opposed it and began a fast unto death because the later believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society.
(vi) Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s opinion and the result was the Poona Pact of September 1932.
(vii) It gave the Depressed Classes reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils, but they were to be voted in by the general electorate.
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The chapter on Indian nationalism is one of the most important chapters in our history, not just in Class 10th. The chapter explains how individuals from many regions, faiths, castes, and educational levels joined hands in the decades-long struggle for independence. The chapter may be used to create a variety of questions. Extramarks’ website has all relevant and critical questions and their solutions. Hence, to understand better and get excellent scores, we encourage students to get on board with Extramarks and take advantage of our course content.