The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 Solutions

History is the study of societal evolution and growth over time. History allows us to comprehend how previous human actions affect the present and influence our future and assess consequences of past actions. So, history teaches us to think critically about the past and how it impacts the present. History is a procedure of enquiry.

In chapter 4 of Class 10th History, students will study the history of Britain, the first industrial nation, and then India, where colonial control influenced the pattern of industrial progress. The chapter opens by describing the situation before the Industrial Revolution and how it evolved through time in terms of labour, factory setup, etc. Industrialisation in the colonies, industrial expansion, the market for commodities, workers’ lives, and other subjects covered in the chapter.

Going through NCERT Solutions is a must to gain good grades in the forthcoming examinations. Therefore, Extramarks has come up with The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 NCERT Solutions. This set of solutions have been made by History subject experts and can be easily comprehended by the students

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Key Topics Covered in The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 Solutions

To make it convenient for students, Extramarks list the key topics that are covered in The Age Of Industrialisation Class 10 Solutions:

Before the Industrial Revolution
Hand Labour and Steam Power
Industrialisation in the Colonies
Factories Come Up
The Peculiarities of Industrial Growth
Market for Goods

Let us look at Extramarks’ in-depth information on each subtopic in The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 Solutions.

Before the Industrial Revolution

Proto-industrialization refers to the period before factories were established in England and Europe. Then, industrial manufacturing was on a vast scale for a worldwide market that was not dependent on factories. Merchants from Europe flocked to the countryside in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, offering money to peasants and artisans and asking them to produce for an international market. Because kings allowed separate guilds the rights to create and sell certain items, merchants were limited in their ability to extend their output inside towns. Poor peasants and artisans in the countryside happily agreed so that they could stay in the country and cultivate their little plots.

The Coming Up of The Factory

The first factories in England were established in the 1730s, but the number of manufacturers did not increase until the late eighteenth century. Cotton was the first symbol of the new era, and its production increased dramatically in the late 1800s. Richard Arkwright designed the cotton mill, which housed expensive machinery and combined all operations under one roof and control.

The Pace Of Industrial Change

Following are points in sequence about the pace of Industrial change as per The Age Of Industrialisation Class 10 Solutions by Extramarks. First, cotton and metals were the most active sectors in Britain. Up to the 1840s, cotton was the most important industrial sector, followed by the iron and steel industries. Second, it was difficult for emerging sectors to replace old industries. Third, while steam-powered cotton and metal industries drove the speed of change in the ‘traditional’ sectors, they did not remain stable. Fourth, technical advancements were gradual.

Hand Labour and Steam Power

The following describes the advantages of hand labor by The Age Of Industrialisation Class 10 Solutions. In Victorian Britain, human labour was in abundance. There was neither lack of labor nor excessive pay prices for industrialists. Industrialists required a considerable capital investment instead of machinery. In several businesses, labor demand was seasonal. Industrialists favored manual labor in all such companies where production changed with the seasons, engaging people for the season.

Life Of the Workers

The oversupply of labor in the market impacted the lives of the employees. Workers in a workplace should have established networks of friendship and familial links to secure a job. Instead, workers struggled to find work until the mid-nineteenth century. Wages were raised in the early nineteenth century. Workers were resistant to new technologies because they feared losing their jobs. Building activity in the cities increased after the 1840s, resulting in more job prospects. Roads were enlarged, new railway stations were constructed, railway lines were extended, tunnels were built, drainage and sewer systems were installed, and rivers were embanked.

Industrialization in the Colonies

The Age of Indian Textiles

Before the machine industries, silk and cotton commodities dominated the worldwide textile market in India. In this network of export commerce, a variety of Indian merchants and bankers were involved — funding manufacturing, transporting commodities, and supplying exporters. By the 1750s, the Indian merchant-controlled network was crumbling. The European corporations gained dominance by obtaining concessions from local courts and then obtaining monopoly trading rights. The change from the old to the new ports signalled the expansion of colonial power.

What Happened to The Weavers?

The consolidation of the East India Company in the 1760s did not immediately result in a drop in Indian textile exports. On the contrary, the East India Company had struggled to maintain a consistent supply of products for export until acquiring political authority in Bengal and Carnatic in the 1760s and 1770s. After gaining political power, the East India Company devised a management and control structure that would limit competitors, regulate costs, and assure a consistent supply of cotton and silk commodities. It was created by following a set of instructions as stated by Extramarks The Age Of Industrialisation Class 10 Solutions:

  • By removing current cloth traders and brokers from the equation and gaining greater direct control over the weaver.
  • By making it impossible for Company weavers to deal with other purchasers.

Once an order was placed, the weavers were given a loan to purchase the raw ingredients. Weavers who took out loans had to provide the Gomastha with the fabric they made.

Weavers set up looms in neighboring villages where they had a familial connection in various areas in Carnatic and Bengal. Weavers and village traders rose against the Company and its administrators in other regions. Many weavers eventually stopped taking out loans, closed their businesses, and turned to agricultural activity.

Manchester Comes To India

Unfortunately, India’s textile exports began to diminish around the nineteenth century. Exports of British cotton textiles skyrocketed in the early nineteenth century. Cotton piece-goods imports into India were prohibited around the end of the eighteenth century. Cotton weavers in India faced two issues as given in The Age Of Industrialisation Class 10 Solutions by Extramarks:

  • Their export market had collapsed completely.
  • The local market shrunk, and imports from Manchester flooded in.

Weavers confronted a new dilemma in the 1860s. They were unable to obtain adequate quantities of high-quality raw cotton. Raw cotton shipments from India also increased, causing the price to rise. By the end of the nineteenth century, markets were filled with machine-produced goods.

Factories Come Up

The first cotton mill in Bombay was established in 1854, and production began two years later. Four additional mills were built by 1862, and jute mills opened in Bengal about the same period. The first jute mill was built in 1855, followed by another seven years later in 1862. The Elgin Mill in Kanpur was established in the 1860s, while the first cotton mill in Ahmedabad was established later. Madras’ first spinning and weaving factory commenced operations in 1874.

The Early Entrepreneurs

The trade history dates to the late eighteenth century when the British in India began selling opium to China and receiving tea from China. Dwarkanath Tagore built his money in the China trade in Bengal. Dinshaw Petit and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata, both Parsis, developed massive industrial empires in Bombay. In 1917, a Marwari merchant named Seth Hukumchand established Calcutta’s first Indian jute factory.

However, Indians were prohibited from trading manufactured goods with Europe because of colonial dominance. Instead, they were forced to export raw materials and food grains, such as natural cotton, opium, wheat, and indigo, which the British demanded.

Where Did The Workers Come From?

Most of the laborers came from nearby regions looking for work. For example, in 1911, almost half of the employees in the Bombay cotton industry came from the neighboring district of Ratnagiri, while most textile workers in Kanpur mills came from the region’s villages. Workers went large distances in the hopes of finding work at the mills as word of employment spread.

Getting a job was challenging even when the need for workers grew. The number of people looking for employment significantly outnumbered the number of jobs available. So, most industrialists hired a jobber, who recruited from his town to recruit new labor.

The Peculiarities of Industrial Growth

Certain items, like tea and coffee, piqued the interest of European Managing Agencies. They started tea and coffee farms and mining, indigo, and jute businesses. These items were solely utilized for export. Indian entrepreneurs began establishing industries in the late 1800s. Indian spinning mills generated yarn utilised by handloom weavers in India or sold to China. Nationalists rejected imported textiles when the Swadeshi movement gained traction. Since 1906, when Chinese and Japanese mills saturated the Chinese market, Indian yarn exports to China had decreased. The war drastically transformed the situation, and Indian mills seized the opportunity. Over time, industrial production increased, but Manchester could never reclaim its former dominance in the Indian market after the war.

Small Scale Industries

The rest of the nation was still dominated by small-scale enterprises. Only a tiny percentage of the entire industrial workforce worked in enterprises that were registered. The rest of them worked in modest workshops and homes. Handloom fabric manufacturing grew in the twentieth century. It occurred due to technical advancements, as they began to embrace new technologies that allowed them to boost output without increasing expenses significantly.

Weavers and other artisans who increased output over the twentieth century did not always profit. Everyone, including women and children, worked long hours. Their lives and labor were crucial to the industrialization process.

Market for Goods

When new items were being developed, ads benefited in making them look desirable and necessary. They attempted to mold people’s thoughts and create new demands. Today, advertisements appear in newspapers, magazines, hoardings, street walls, and television screens. Advertisements have played a role in extending product markets and establishing new consumer culture since the dawn of the industrial age.

To designate the quality of the fabric bundles, Manchester manufacturers used labels. When purchasers saw ‘MADE IN MANCHESTER’ printed boldly on the label, they were meant to be confident in their decision to purchase the fabric. 

These labels featured images of Indian gods and goddesses. Manufacturers began printing calendars to popularise their products. Figures of gods were employed to promote new items in these calendars. Later, ads became vehicles for the swadeshi nationalist agenda.


The Industrial Revolution resulted in enormous technical advancements, factory expansion, and the formation of a new industrial labour force. Handicrafts and small-scale manufacturing were vital components of the industrial landscape.

The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 NCERT Solutions 

Extramarks The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 Solutions NCERT Solutions consists of explanations of essential concepts and other key topics covered in the Class 10 history subject. Students should read the chapter carefully a few times for an excellent understanding and a fast and accurate recall. 

Click on the below links to view NCERT Solutions for The Age Of Industrialisation Class 10 Solutions:

Class 10 History Chapter 4: Very Short Answer Type Questions

Class 10 History Chapter 4: Short Answer Type Questions

Class 10 History Chapter 4: Long Answer Type Questions

Students may access NCERT Solutions for The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 Solutions as well as other chapters by clicking here. In addition, students can also explore NCERT Solutions for other classes below.

NCERT Class 10 Social Science Books Available for:
NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science – Understanding Economic Development
NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science – Democratic Politics
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By getting access to NCERT Solutions for The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 Solutions, students can easily understand the conditions in India during the Age of Industrialisation.

Key Features of The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 Solutions

Students must study all the concepts to do well in the upcoming board examination. The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 Solutions by Extramarks have been curated systematically. These solutions simplify learning for students. Some of the primary reasons you must choose Extramarks include:

  • These solutions help students in overcoming any hurdles in the topic.
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Q.1 Explain the following:
a) Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny.
b) In the seventeenth century, merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages.
c) The port of Surat declined by the end of the eighteenth century.
d) The East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers in India.



When the Spinning Jenny was introduced in the woollen industry, women who survived on hand spinning began attacking the new machines. The fear of unemployment made workers hostile to the introduction of new technology and this conflict continued for a long time.


In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, merchants from the towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages. They supplied money and persuaded them to produce for an international market. The expansion of world trade and European colonies had increased the demand for goods. The merchants found it difficult to expand production within towns because here urban crafts and trade guilds regulated trade and production. Local rulers allowed the trade guilds to dominate trade in specific products. New merchants could not set up business in towns. So they turned to the countryside where poor peasants and artisans began working for the merchants.


Before the age of machine industries, silk and cotton goods from India dominated the international market in textiles. India produced finer varieties of coarser cottons. A vibrant sea trade operated through the main pre-colonial ports. Surat on the Gujarat coast connected India to the Gulf and Red Sea Ports. By the 1750s, this trade network controlled by Indian traders was breaking down. The European companies gradually gained power. They secured from local courts the monopoly rights to trade. This caused the decline of the old port of Surat.


After establishing power in Bengal and Carnatic, the East India Company eliminated the existing traders and brokers connected with the cloth trade, and it established a direct control over the weaver. It appointed a paid servant called the gomastha to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth. It prevented Company weavers from having direct dealing with other buyers. The Company introduced the system of advances; once an order was placed, the weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material for their production. Those who took loans had to hand over the cloth they produced to the gomastha. They could not sell to any other trader.

Q.2 Write True or False against each statement:
a) At the end of the nineteenth century, 80 per cent of the total workforce in Europe was employed in the technologically advanced industrial sector.
b) The international market for fine textiles was dominated by India till the eighteenth century.
c) The American Civil War resulted in the reduction of cotton exports from India.
d) The introduction of the fly shuttle enabled handloom workers to improve their productivity.


a) False
b) True
c) False
d) True

Q.3 Explain what is meant by proto-industrialisation.


Even before factories began to dot the landscape in England and Europe, there was large-scale industrial production for an international market. This was not based on factories. Historians refer to this phase of industrialisation as proto-industrialisation.

Q.4 Why did some industrialists in nineteenth-century Europe prefer hand labour over machines?


(i) In Victorian Britain, there was no shortage of human labour. Poor peasants and vagrants settled in cities in search of work.

(ii) Due to the availability of plenty of cheap labour, industrialists paid very low wages to the workers, and there was no problem of labour shortage or high wage costs. They did not want to introduce machines that got rid of the cheap labour and increased capital investment.

(iii) In many industries, the demand for labour was seasonal. Gas works and breweries were especially busy through the cold months. So they needed more workers to meet their peak demand.

(iv) Bookbinders and printers, catering to Christmas demand, too needed extra hands before December.

(v) In the shipping industry, only during the winter, ships were repaired and spruced up.

(vi) Due to this seasonal fluctuation in industries, industrialist owners usually preferred hand labour over the machine.

(vii) Machines could produce standardised goods for a mass market, but there were a range of goods that could be produced only with hand labour.

(viii) Often, there was demand for goods with intricate designs and specific shapes. In Victorian Britain, the upper classes (the aristocrats and the bourgeoisie) preferred things produced by hand. Such goods symbolized refinement and class.

Q.5 How did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers?


After establishing power in Bengal and Carnatic, the East India Company asserted a monopoly right to trade. Through a system of management and control, it wanted to ensure regular supplies of cotton and silk goods. It took the following steps:

  • First: the Company eliminated the existing traders and brokers connected with the cloth trade and established a direct control over the weavers. It appointed a paid servant called the gomastha to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth.
  • Second: it prevented Company weavers from dealing with other buyers by introducing the system of advances. Once an order was placed, the weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material for their production. Those who took loans had to hand over the cloth they produced to the gomastha. They could not sell their material to any other trader.

Q.6 Imagine that you have been asked to write an article for an encyclopedia on Britain and the history of cotton. Write your piece using information from the entire chapter.


Cotton was the first symbol of the new era in Britain. Its production boomed in the late nineteenth century. In 1760, Britain was importing 2.5 million pounds of raw cotton to feed its cotton industry. By 1787, this import increased to 22 million pounds.New technological inventions in the eighteenth century increased the cotton production process (carding, twisting and spinning, and rolling). They enhanced the output per worker. The workers could now produce stronger threads and yarn.Till the establishment of the cotton mill by Richard Arkwright, cloth production was carried out within village households. Cotton mills brought all the production processes together under one roof and management. However, when the American Civil War broke out and cotton supplies from the US were disrupted, Britain had to depend on the supply from India.

Q.7 Why did industrial production in India increase during the First World War?


The industrial production in India increased during the First World War because

(i)The war had created a new demand for goods in Europe.

(ii) British mills were busy with war production to meet the needs of the army, and Manchester imports into India declined.

(iii) This situation created a vast home market for Indian mills. As the war dragged for many years, Indian factories supplied goods and other war materials- jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddles and a host of other items. New factories were set up and old ones doubled production.

(iv) New workers were employed and they had to work longer hours. Over the war years, industrial production boomed in India.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Do these solutions help to save time?

The answer is yes. Subject experts have prepared these solutions very systemically and in such a way that it is easy to comprehend as well as recall. As a result, a student does not have to keep searching for answers in their books. 

2. What is the gist of History Chapter 4, The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 Solutions?

History Chapter 4, The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 Solutions covertopics such as the era before industrialisation, the rate of development during industrialisation, the lives of workers during this time, industrialisation in the colonies, the age of Indian textiles, the establishment of factories, and so on. This was a significant change in the textile business. The chapter explains details of the development and the misery of certain labourers.