NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science Understanding Economic Development Chapter 1
NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 – Development
Economics Chapter 1, Development, predominantly walks us through the progress in our society in terms of economic development. Society is a community of people who have dreams and aspirations about their lifestyle and how their society should be. They look towards their country to help achieve those goals. They also expect a certain standard in the current economic development in their country and, going forward, to be on par with the rest of the world, which is covered in Class 12 economics.
Students study various topics under the Chapter Development, which has been compiled in NCERT solutions for Class 10 economics Chapter 1. Students will learn about the progress that has taken place in our society on the economic front and what further development might be required in the country. The exercises and NCERT solutions for Class 10 economics Chapter 1 accessible on Extramarks help students understand the topic better.
The NCERT solutions for Class 10 economics Chapter 1 is compiled by subject matter experts as per the NCERT guideline and are in line with the CBSE Class 10 economics Chapter 1 solution. It covers all aspects under the syllabus in addition to important questions, solutions and more. Students can easily grasp the content and will be prepared to appear before examinations.
Key Topics Covered In NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Economics Chapter 1
The key topics covered under NCERT solutions for Class 10 economics Chapter 1 are represented in a tabular format below.
|1.2||Indicators to development|
|1.3||Measurement of development|
|1.3.1||The criterion used by the World Bank|
|1.3.2||Limitations to the criterion|
|1.3.3||The criterion used by UNDP|
|1.4||Averages and their Limitations|
|1.5||Role of BMI and Nutrition in development|
A brief of the topics covered under NCERT solutions for Class 10 economics Chapter 1:
1.1 Introduction to Development
Chapter 1 Development showcases how the economy of a country goes hand in hand with the development, governed by key factors like per capita income, literacy rate, health index, HDI, IMR and sustenance. Development goals may vary amongst various individuals based on their social standing, lifestyle and aspirations. What development ensures is the purchasing power or the concept of PPP (purchasing power parity). It promises different perspectives and dimensions based on certain commonly used indicators and measurement techniques.
Growth in the economy builds expectations on income, future goals, a roadmap to higher salary and security in employment. Countrywide development takes the common man in its development path, where the nation develops the ability to improve the standard of living of each individual. It means to say that all factors like per capita income, literacy, health, gross domestic products etc., get a boost. Since the population rate varies between countries, states and even districts, it would be meaningful to compare section-wise and not average it out across the country. The calculations are to be based on per capita income, earnings, wealth, facilities provided to the public and sustenance in development.
1.2 Indicators for development
As explained in NCERT solutions for Class 10 economics Chapter 1, the development in any country is driven by its key factors, which are per capita income, literacy rate, health index, HDI, IMR and sustenance. Considering the Indian subcontinent, Sri Lanka tops the table (given below) on the various developmental aspects.
2004 Census Data on Indian Subcontinent
|Country||Per Capita Income (in USD)||Life Expectancy at Birth||Literacy Rate (15-49 years)||Gross Enrolment Ratio for three Levels||HDI Rank in the World|
This example given in NCERT solutions for Class 10 economics Chapter 1 enables the student to grasp the concept. From the table, it can be easily deduced that Sri Lanka has maintained the best performance on some of the key indicators like Gross National Income, Life Expectancy at Birth, average schooling of adults aged 25 years or above, and worldwide HDI ranking. Nepal stands at the bottom in terms of Gross National Income, whereas Pakistan has the lowest Life Expectancy at Birth. Myanmar and Nepal are the lowest average years of schooling for adults aged 25 years or above.
1.3 Measurement of development
A simple example illustrated in NCERT solutions for Class 10 economics Chapter 1 gives us a feel of how an average per capita income is calculated. Suppose there are five families in a country. The country has an average per capita income of Rs. 10000. If the income of the four families is Rs. 15000, Rs. 12000, Rs. 7000 and Rs. 8000, then what is the income of the fifth family?
(15000+12000+7000+8000+x)/5 = 10000
X = (5*10000) – (15000+12000+7000+8000) = 50000 – 42000 = 8000
The fifth family has an income of Rs. 8000.
- The World Bank Classifies the economy of a country as per the average per capita income using a direct division of the total income over the population of that country. For example, in the year 2017, those countries having a per capita income of at least USD 12,056 per annum were termed highly developed. And those with per capita income equal to or lesser than USD 955 per annum were declared poor or low income.
- The shortfall of this kind of Classification is that other critical factors like literacy rate, health,
and infant mortality rate were not taken into account. Unequal distribution of wealth was another factor ignored by The World Bank.
- A country’s economy cannot be the only indicator of its economic development. The UNDP, on the other hand, considers healthcare, literacy and per capita income.
1.4 Averages and their Limitations
Calculation based on averaging is also in practice since countries have their unique demography and population distribution. However, it does not bring out the unequal distribution of wealth across the country, nor does it showcase the difference in income of the people. An example provided in NCERT solutions for Class 10 economics Chapter 1 helps to illustrate this disparity. Let us consider two countries, A and B, with three people each. The income of A is USD 104, USD 5000, USD 500, with an average of USD 5604. The income of B is USD 5000, USD 5100, and USD 5050, with an average of USD 5050. The average income of country A is greater than that of B even though the distribution is unequal.
Another example of the flaw of considering the per capita income purely, as illustrated in NCERT solutions for Class 10 economics Chapter 1, is that of two Indian states, Kerala and Haryana. Even with lower per capita income, Kerala tops Haryana on Human Development because its healthcare, infant mortality rate and literacy are far superior to that of Haryana.
1.5 Role of BMI and Nutrition in development
The following table on BMI or Body Mass Index is available in NCERT solutions for Class 10 economics Chapter 1.
The proportion of adults aged 15-49 years in India with BMI below normal (18.5 kg/sqm)
Reference to this table given in NCERT solutions for Class 10 economics Chapter 1 shows people in Madhya Pradesh have lesser nutrition in their bodies as compared to Kerala. Though India boasts of high production of food crops, one-fifth of the population still suffers from malnutrition. This disparity is caused by some of the inherent issues in our country as listed below:-
- Ineffective Public Distribution System (PDS) where uniform food grains do not reach the length and breadth of the country
- A high rate of Illiteracy leads to unemployment, further leading to poverty and deprivation of necessities of food.
- Improper distribution of food grains in the Fixed Price Stores
1.6 Sustainable development
Man requires a source of energy for basic necessities of life like food, comfort, employment, transportation etc. This is his right, too, to exist in this world. And this energy is a constant need for present and future life and existence. But how much are we using, and how much are we conserving these energy resources.
The main energy sources in India are coal, firewood, crude oil, petroleum and natural gas. But these all are depleting fast, and if not checked and controlled, may lead to non-availability for future generations. Going forward, solar and wind energy can be tapped to compensate, but planned and judicious usage of available energy is the call of the day. It cannot be that the few rich and greedy take the lion’s share, leaving the larger diaspora with meagre resources, not enough to make the ends meet. So if there is no planned usage of the natural resource, future developments in the country will be hampered, leading to an economic downfall.
1.7 Environmental degradation
Another cause of concern in safeguarding the energy resources brought out in NCERT solutions for Class 10 economics Chapter 1 is the exploitation by a man causing environmental downfall. Excessive fuel consumption due to the growing number of vehicles, deforestation, mining, soil erosion, and Industrialisation add waste and result in air and water pollution. Environmental pollution causes depletion of the atmosphere, global warming and glacier melting, which in turn causes further degradation of nature and sources of energy.
Students may register at Extramarks to access various study materials in relation to NCERT solutions for Class 10 economics Chapter 1 – Development.
NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Exercises & Solutions
Students sometimes need some extra guidance apart from that provided in schools. The online sessions in Extramarks can give a new perspective to the same subject, which might help the student understand the subject better. Extramarks also provides solutions for other classes, which students can refer to by clicking on the links provided below.
|NCERT Class 10 Social Science Books Available for:|
|NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science – Understanding Economic Development|
|NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science – India and the Contemporary World|
|NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science – Democratic Politics|
|NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science – Contemporary India|
Furthermore, students may also access study materials such as revision notes, important questions, sample question papers and past years’ question papers in relation to NCERT solutions for Class 10 economics Chapter 1 on Extramarks.
Q.1 Development of a country can generally be determined by
- Its per capita income
- Its average literacy level
- Health status of its people
- All of the above
iv. All of the above
Explanation: Economic development or development of a country takes into account economic growth as well as social welfare. It includes important things required in life such as, health care facilities, education facilities etc.
Q.2 Which of the following neighbouring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India?
- Sri Lanka
ii. Sri Lanka
Explanation: Sri Lanka has performed better than India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan in human development according to the data of 2013. As per Human Development Report, 2014 Sri Lanka is much ahead of India in every aspect such as per capita income, life expectancy at birth and literacy rate. Sri Lanka’s HDI rank in the world is 73 whereas India’s HDI rank in the world is 135.
Q.3 Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these families is Rs. 5000. If the income of three families is Rs. 4000, Rs 7000 and Rs. 3000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family?
- Rs 7500
- Rs 3000
- Rs 2000
iv. Rs. 6000
Explanation: The average per capita income is the total income of the country divided by its total population.
Let income of the fourth family is X
Average Per Capita = X + 4000 + 7000 + 3000
⇒ 5000 x 4 = X + 14000 ⇒ 20000 – 14000 = X
⇒ X = 6000
Thus, income of fourth family is 6000
Q.4 What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any?
The main criterion used by the World Bank for classifying different countries is the “Per Capita Income”.
The limitations of Per capita income as a criterion for classifying different countries are as follows:
- It hides disparities: Per capita income is the average income which is the total income of the country divided by its total population. It does not show distribution of income.
- It ignores important factors: Factors like literacy level, infant mortality rate, etc. are ignored.
- A rise in per capita income only explains the rise of monetary value. It fails in explaining the rise in real output.
- It excludes non-marketed activities which are performed for happiness and satisfaction.
- There can be fall in per capita income due to rise in population. Simply by studying the per capita income one may fail to incorporate the reason of fall.
- The per capita income measure is failed to incorporate overall development of the economy. It may be the case a country with low per capita income is happier than the country with high per capita income.
Q.5 In what respect is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?
The World Bank report considers only per capita income as the indicator of the development; On the other hand the report published by UNDP i.e. Human Development Report considers health status, educational levels of the people and the per capita income of the citizens of the country as the indicator of the development.
Q.6 Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development.
We use averages because they are useful for comparison of different quantities or numbers of same category. For example comparison between different countries having different population, total income is not a useful measure, it will not tell us what an average person is likely to earn, hence we compare the average income i.e., total income of the country divided by its total population.
While ‘averages’ are useful for comparison, they also hide disparities.
For an example, if a country has very high per capita income then we cannot say that all of its citizens are very rich because we do not know about the distribution of income in that country. Some people might be very rich while other people may be very poor in that country.
Q.7 Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Haryana. Hence, per capita is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss.
No, I do not agree with the statement that per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Besides per capita income is only one of the criterion used to compare states. Kerala, with low per capita income has a better human development ranking than Haryana because it has better provisions of basic health and educational facilities.
Human development ranking is computed by using a combination of factors such as health, education and income. So this does not mean that per capita income is not useful. Rather per capita income is one of the important development factor and thus should not be ignored.
The per capita income as a criterion for comparing states and measuring development had certain limitations to overcome while determination of human development Index is computed using this criterion along with some other development criterion like health, education etc.
Q.8 Find out the present sources of energy that are used by the people in India. What could be the other possibilities fifty years from now?
The present sources of energy that are used by the people of India are electricity, crude oil, LPG, firewood, coal, cow dung and solar energy. The other possibilities fifty years from now given the present rate of extraction of crude oil and other natural resources would be nuclear energy, better utilisation solar energy and wind energy.
Q.9 Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?
Sustainable development means a continuous process of development is being maintained keeping in mind the welfare of the future generations. The issue of sustainability is important for development because if natural resources are not sustained then development will stagnate after a period of time.
It is true that the resources that we have inherited from nature are free and available in abundance. But if we do not use them prudently, they will destroy or deplete. As a consequence, our future generation would be left with no resources. This will ultimately undo the development that we may have achieved. Thus, we should use natural resources in such a manner that the needs of future generations can be fulfilled.
Q.10 “The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person”. How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development? Discuss.
This statement is relevant to the discussion of development since both natural resources (both renewable and non-renewable) and development go hand in hand. For the sustainability of development, the maintenance of resources is also crucial.
Human beings are over using the environment and natural resources in the name of development. For their progress, people resort to activities like deforestation, excessive use of fuel wood, shifting cultivation, encroachment in the forest lands and indiscriminate use of chemicals, etc. This cannot be sustained by our Earth and thus the resources are being depleted beyond re-production.
Judicious use of natural resources can satisfy all our desires and the resources would last for a long time. As the statement asserts, the Earth has enough resources to satisfy everyone’s needs; however, these resources need to be used with a view to keep the environment protected so that a balance between development and use of resources is maintained.
Q.11 List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you.
The few examples of environmental degradation are:
- Soil erosion
- Air and water pollution
- Depleting groundwater levels
- Depleting fossil fuel or crude oil reserves
- Global warming
- Ozone layer depletion
Q.12 For each of the items given in Table 1.6, Find out which country is at the top and which is at the bottom.
Table1.6 SOME DATA REGARDING INDIA AND ITS NEIGHBOURS FOR 2013
|Country||Gross National Income(GNI) Per capita (2011 PPP $)||Life Expectancy at Birth||Literacy Rate for 15+years
|HDI Rank in the World|
- Gross National Income(GNI) Per capita (2011 PPP $) – Top Country- Sri Lanka, Bottom Country – Nepal
- Life Expectancy at Birth – Top Country- Sri Lanka, Bottom Country – Myanmar
- Literacy Rate for 15+years Population 2005-2012- Top Country- Myanmar, Bottom Country – Pakistan
- HDI Rank in the World- Top Country- Sri Lanka, Bottom Country – Bangladesh
Q.13 The following table shows the proportion of adults (aged 15-49 years) whose BMI is below normal (BMI <18.5 kg/m2)in India. It is based on a survey of various states for the year 2015-16. Look at the table and answer the following questions.
- Compare the nutritional level of people in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh.
- Can you guess why around one-fifth of people in the country are undernourished even though it is argued that there is enough food in the country? Describe in your own words.
- In Kerala the proportion of undernourished adult males and females is 8.5% and 10% respectively, which is much less than that of the proportion of undernourished adult males and females in Madhya Pradesh i.e. 17% and 21% respectively. This clearly shows that the nutritional level of people of Kerala is much better than that of the people of Madhya Pradesh.
- Even though it was argued that there is enough food in the country, around one-fifth of people in the country are undernourished because of following reasons:
- Poverty: A large section of our country is so poor that it cannot afford nutritious food.
- Poor and inadequate coverage of Public distribution System (PDS): In many states of our country PDS does not work properly as a result many poor people could not get cheap nutritious food items.
- Inadequate Healthcare and Educational facilities: One of the biggest reason behind poor nutritional levels in India is lack of proper health care and educational facilities, which traps poor people in vicious cycle of poverty and hinders their ability to afford nutritious food.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. What are the main aspects covered in NCERT solutions for Class 10 economics Chapter 1?
The key points covered in Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 are the preferences of a common man about what they would like to do and how they would like to live their life in the country. The Chapter also covers points around sustainable development. The NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 are developed by expert teachers of Economics. The solutions provide easy and detailed answers to NCERT question given in the textbook
2. Would the NCERT solutions for Class 10 economics Chapter 1 be sufficient to prepare for the Class 10 CBSE Term I Examinations?
The Class 10 economics Chapter 1 NCERT solutions ensure that all topics, based on CBSE guidelines, are covered. Moreover, the answers to all behind the text questions are precise, to the point and effectively elaborated at places using tables/ bulletin points/subparagraphs, wherever required. Subject experts at Extramarks have assembled the content to equip the students to face the Class 10 CBSE Term I Examinations with full confidence.