NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 5

History is one of the most exciting branches of Social Studies. It accounts for the information about the events that happened in the past. This subject stretches far and wide. Class 9 Social Science Chapter 5   History- Pastoralists in the Modern World is based on Nomadic pastoralists. The term ‘Nomads’ refers to people who do not live in one place and instead travel from one place to another in order to make a living. This chapter also discusses how pastoralism has influenced cultures such as India and Africa, as well as how colonialism has impacted their life and how they have dealt with the constraints of contemporary society. The chapter will begin with India and then go on to Africa.

Extramarks NCERT Class 9 History Chapter 5 Notes and Question Answer Solutions help the students grasp this historical topic thoroughly. With the help of Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 5, students can study all of the concepts in the chapter. In addition to the NCERT Solutions, students can use the Extramarks website to access a number of other study tools. NCERT books, CBSE revision notes, CBSE sample papers, CBSE past year question papers, and other materials are available to students.

Key Topics Covered In NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 5

The following key topics are covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 5- Pastoralists in the Modern World:

Pastoral Nomads And Their Movements
Colonial Rule And Pastoral Life
Pastoralism In Africa
Conclusion 

Let us take a look at Extramarks in-depth information on each subtopic in NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 5- Pastoralists in the Modern World.

Pastoral Nomads And Their Movements

In The Mountains

Refer to Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 5 to know more about the pastoral movements in the mountains. Gujjar Bakarwals from Jammu and Kashmir moved to the highlands in search of grazing for their livestock in the nineteenth century. During winter, they relocated to the low hills of the Siwalik range.. They began their journey  to the north in March for their summer grazing pastures at the end of April. A kafila is a name given for this journey. Gaddi shepherds in Himachal Pradesh have a similar seasonal migratory pattern. Many pastoral cultures in the Himalayas, including the Bhotiyas, Sherpas, and Kinnauris, followed this similar  pattern of  seasonal movement   between summer and winter pastures.

On  the Plateaus, Plains  and Deserts

Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 5 provides students with an insight into the movements of Nomads on the plains, plateaus and deserts. Dhangars were a significant pastoral population in Maharashtra, consisting mostly of shepherds, blanket weavers, and buffalo herders. They used to reside on Maharashtra’s central plateau during the monsoon. By October, the Dhangars had finished harvesting their bajra and relocated to the west. They were greeted by Konkani peasants when they arrived in Konkan. The fields were required to be fertilised and made ready for the rabi crop after the Kharif harvest was cut.

The dry central plateau of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh were covered with stone and grass, and cattle, goats, and sheepherders known as Gollas herded animals. Sheep and goats were raised by the Kurumas and Kurubas, who also sold woven blankets. They relocated to coastal areas during the dry season and departed when the rains arrived. Another well-known tribe of graziers was the Banjaras, who lived in villages across Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra.

Raikas resided in Rajasthan’s deserts. The Raikas of Barmer, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur, and Bikaner stayed in their villages during the monsoons because pasture was plentiful. They left in October in search of new pasture and water, only to return during the following monsoon.

A variety of reasons contributed to the survival of pastoral tribes. They needed to determine how long the herds could stay in one location and where they could find water and pasture. They needed to plan their movements and ensure that they could pass through different territories on time. They had to establish a connection with farmers along the road  to allow the herds to graze in harvested fields and fertilise the soil.

Extramarks provides NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 5 that give students pointwise  explanations of the chapter in detail. Browse through  these handy notes by Extramarks. .

Colonial Rule And Pastoral Life

Under colonial control, the lives of pastoralists were completely transformed. Their movements were restricted, their grazing sites were reduced, and the amount of revenue increased. Even their agricultural stock suffered losses, and their trades and crafts suffered as well. Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 5  explains how  the life of pastoralists changed dramatically :

  • The colonial authority sought to convert all grazing fields into cultivated farms so that they could expand agriculture and collect more income. Uncultivated land was considered a ‘wasteland.’ Waste Land Rules were adopted in various parts of the country from the  mid-nineteenth century. The uncultivated lands were taken over and distributed to select persons under these guidelines.
  • Various Forest Acts were adopted in various provinces by the mid-nineteenth century. Forests that produced economically valuable timber, such as deodar or sal, were designated as ‘Reserved,’ while other forests were designated as ‘Protected.’ Pastoralists’ lives were impacted by these Forest Acts since they were prohibited from accessing numerous woods.
  • Nomadic people were viewed with suspicion by British authorities. The colonial administration desired to control over a populated area. The Criminal Tribes Act was established by the colonial administration of India in 1871. Many groups of craftsmen, traders, and pastoralists were categorised as Criminal Tribes as a result of this Act.
  • Land, salt, canal water, trade items, and even animals were all subject to taxation. During the mid-nineteenth century, grazing taxes were imposed in majority pastoral areas of India. The authority to collect the tax was auctioned off to contractors between the 1850s and the 1880s. The government began collecting taxes  directly from pastoralists in the 1880s.

How Did  these Changes Affect the Lives  of Pastoralists

Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 5 provides an insight as to how these changes affected the lives of Pastoralists. It was due to these actions, there was a massive lack of pastures. The available amount of pastureland decreased as grazing pastures were taken up and converted to cultivated fields. As pasturelands were ploughed under, existing livestock was forced to eat whatever grazing area was left. When limits on pastoral movements were enforced, grazing fields were continually grazed, and  quality of pasture  deteriorated. As a result, there was an even greater scarcity of food for animals, resulting in the decline of animal stock.

How Did the Pastoralists Cope with these Changes?

Pastoralists  reduced their herd sizes and explored fresh pastures. The camel and sheep herding Raikas were unable to graze their camels on the banks of the Indus after 1947 due to the new political boundaries between India and Pakistan. Over time, some of the wealthier pastoralists acquired property and settled down, abandoning their nomadic lifestyle. Some became peasants by cultivating land, while others made a living via trade. Poor pastoralists, on the other hand, had to rely on moneylenders to survive. Refer to Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 5 to get detailed notes on how did the pastoralists cope with these changes.

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Pastoralism In Africa

Even today, nearly 22 million Africans rely on some type of pastoral work to support themselves. The lifestyles of African pastoralists, like those of Indian pastoralists, have altered considerably over the colonial and post-colonial centuries. Refer to Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 5 to get details on Pastoralism in Africa. 

Where Have The Grazing Lands Gone?

Maasai land formerly covered a large territory stretching from north Kenya to the northern Tanzanian steppes. It was divided in half in 1885 by an international border between British Kenya and German Tanganyika. The Maasai were driven into a narrow region in south Kenya and north Tanzania after the cut when the finest grazing fields were eventually taken over for European settlement. Pre-colonial times, Maasai pastoralists controlled both economically and politically their agricultural neighbours. The Maasai were confined to  a tiny region of land, and the loss of the best grazing fields and water supplies put pressure on the tiny area of land they were restricted to.The Maasai lost about 60 per cent of their pre-colonial lands.

The Closed Borders

The colonial government  began putting  various limitations on their migration in the late nineteenth century. Pastoralists’ life was abruptly  changed  by the new territorial borders and limitations imposed on them, which had a negative impact on both their pastoral and commercial activities. .

When Pastures Went Dry

The drought had an impact on the life of pastoralists all over the world. This is why pastoralists  typically move from place to place in order to endure harsh times and avoid disasters. Traditionally pastoralists are nomadic.  The Maasai, however,  had  been restricted   to a specific region, locked within a reserve, and forbidden from travelling in search of pastures since colonial times. As the grazing land reduced, the adverse effect of the droughts increased manifold.

Not All Were Equally Affected

Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 5 explains how not all   pastoralists were  equally affected. Not all pastoralists in Maasailand were similarly affected by the changes in the colonial period.. Maasai civilisation was separated into two social divisions before  colonisation: elders and warriors.

To handle the Maasai’s affairs, the British devised a set of measures  that had far-reaching consequences. They nominated Maasai leaders from several sub-tribes, who were given responsibility for the tribe’s affairs. Raids and warfare were also subject to restrictions.

The impoverished pastoralists, on the other hand, had a distinct life narrative. They lost practically everything through wars and famines. They had no choice but to search for a job in the towns. Some used to work as charcoal burners, while others had odd jobs to supplement their income.

Browse Extramarks website for various resources, including NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 5. We will keep you updated with all  the latest updated CBSE syllabus, important questions, CBSE past years’ sample papers, CBSE extra questions, etc.

Conclusion 

Changes  in the contemporary world have diverse effects on pastoral communities in different regions of the world. New regulations and boundaries have an impact on their mobility.. Pastoralists are unable to roam in search of pastures, making grazing difficult. Cattle perish in significant numbers when there is a drought. Pastoralists, on the other hand, adapt to changing times. They alter their yearly migration routes, lower their cattle herds, lobby for rights to access new regions, put political pressure on the government for relief, subsidies, and other types of assistance, and demand a say in forest and water resource management.

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NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 5 Pastoralists in the Modern World NCERT Solutions Article Links

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Key Features of NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 5

Everyone wants to excel in their examination, and in order to achieve this goal, the students must go through all the topics in depth. . Hence, NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 5 gives elaborate solutions to all the questions.  A couple of reasons why you should choose Extramarks:

  • The experienced faculty  and subject experts from Extramarks have put together the most crucial information on this topic based on the NCERT guidelines. The explanations are given in simple language to reach out to every student, regardless of their intellect. 
  • Students can access these notes on any device like mobiles, tabs, laptops, etc. It covers all topics with plenty of examples and informative materials. 

Q.1 Explain why nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another. What are the advantages to the environment of this continuous movement?

Ans.

(i) The pattern of continuous movement between summer and winter pastures was typical of many pastoral communities of the Himalayas, including the Bhotiyas, Sherpas and Kinnauris.

(ii) The pastoral communities had to adjust to seasonal changes and make effective use of available pastures in different places.

(iii) When the pasture was exhausted in one place, they moved their herds and flock to new areas.

(iv) This continuous movement also allowed the pastures to recover; it prevented their overuse.

Q.2 Discuss why the colonial government in India brought in the following laws. In each case, explain how the law changed the lives pastoralists:

  • Waste Land rules
  • Forest Acts
  • Criminal Tribes Act
  • Grazing Tax

Ans. Waste Land rules: By the Waste Land rules, uncultivated lands were taken over and given to select individuals. They were granted various concessions and encouraged to settle these lands. Some of them were made headmen of villages in the settled-areas. In most areas, the lands taken over were actually grazing tracts used regularly by pastoralists. So expansion of cultivation inevitably meant the decline of pastures and a problem for pastoralists.

Forest Acts: Through the Forest Acts, some forests with timber like deodar or sal were declared ‘Reserved’. No pastoralist was allowed access to these forests. Other forests were classified as ‘Protected’. In these, some customary grazing rights of pastoralists were granted but with severe restriction. The British officials believed that grazing destroyed the growth of forests; the herds trampled over the saplings and munched away the shoots. These Forest Acts now prevented the pastoralists from entering many forests that had earlier provided valuable forage for their cattle.

Criminal Tribes Act: The British officials were suspicious of nomadic people. The colonial government wanted to rule over a settled population because it was easy to control the rural people in villages with fixed rights on particular fields. The colonial officials recognized such a settled population as peaceable and law abiding; those who were nomadic were considered to be criminals. In 1871, the Criminal Tribes Act classified many communities of craftsmen, traders and pastoralists as Criminal Tribes; they were stated to be criminal by nature and birth. The Act forced these communities to live only in notified village settlements and prevented them from moving out without a permit. The village police kept a continuous watch on them.

Grazing Tax: To expand its revenue income, the colonial government imposed tax on land, on canal water, on salt, on trade goods, and even on animals. Pastoralists had to pay tax on every animal they grazed on the pastures. In the nineteenth century, the tax per head of cattle went up rapidly and the system of collection became efficient. In the decades between the 1850s and 1880s, the right to collect the tax was auctioned out to contractors. These contractors extracted as high a tax as they could to recover the money they had paid to the state and made huge profit. By the 1880s, the government began collecting taxes directly from the pastoralists. To enter a grazing tract, a cattle herder had to show the pass and pay the tax. The pass carried details on the number of cattle heads and the amount of tax paid.

Q.3 Give reasons to explain why the Maasai community lost their grazing lands.

Ans.

(i) Before colonial times, Maasailand stretched over a vast area from north Kenya to the steppes of northern Tanzania.

(ii) In the late nineteenth century, European imperial powers scrambled for territorial possessions in Africa, slicing up the region into different colonies.

(iii) In 1885, Maasailand was cut into half with an international boundary between British Kenya and German Tanganyika.

(iv) Subsequently, the best grazing lands were gradually taken over for white settlement and the Maasai were pushed into a small area in south Kenya and north Tanzania.

(v) The Maasai lost about 60 per cent of their pre-colonial lands. They were confined to an arid zone with uncertain rainfall and poor pastures.

Q.4 There are many similarities in the way in which the modern world forced changes in the lives of pastoral communities in India and East Africa. Write about any two examples of changes which were similar for Indian pastoralists and the Maasai herders.

Ans. There are many similarities in the way in which the modern world forced changes in the lives of pastoral communities in India and East Africa. Here are two examples of changes:

(i) All uncultivated land in these countries was seen as waste land by colonial powers. It produced neither revenue nor agricultural produce. This land was brought under cultivation. In most areas, the lands taken over were actually grazing tracts used regularly by pastoralists, so expansion of cultivation inevitably meant the decline of pastures Indian pastoralists and the Maasai.

(ii) In many regions, forests were reserved for exploiting timbers. No pastoralist was allowed access to these forests. In these, their movements were severely restricted. In some forest areas, the pastoralists were given a pass with details on the number of cattle and the tax paid on each cattle. They were not allowed to move out with their stock without special permits. Those found guilty of disobeying the rules were severely punished.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. Is it difficult to Prepare CBSE Class 9 History Pastoralists in Today's World?

Students can easily prepare the chapter with the help of the NCERT Solution for Class 9 History Chapter 5. For better revision, use the answers provided by Extramarks subject experts  for the practice questions.

2. Pastoralism has progressed in the modern world in what ways?

Pastoralism refers to the practice of moving cattle, sheep, camels, goats, and donkeys from one location to the next in search of water and food. People who wander from place to place to care about these creatures are known as nomads. Milk, meat, animals, skin, and wool are all produced by them. These individuals make a living through commerce and transportation, while others combine pastoral work with agricultural or work odd jobs because their income is meagre and  insecure.