Partial Differential Equations Formula

Partial Differential Equation Formulas

The Partial Differential Equation Formula is an equation with one or more derivatives, where a derivative is a quantity that expresses the rate at which a variable changes over time. In general, the equation that describes the functional dependency of one variable on several variables is the Partial Differential Equation Formula solution. Usually, the Partial Differential Equation Formula contains constant terms that were absent from the initial differential equation. Applications frequently use functions to describe physical values, derivatives to indicate the rate at which those quantities change, and differential equations to establish the connection between the three. A function that can be used to predict the behaviour of the original system, at least under some restrictions, is produced by the solution of the differential equation.

A differential equation is one that has a function and its derivatives. It can be referred to as either an ordinary differential equation (ODE) or a Partial Differential Equation Formula, depending on whether partial derivatives are present or not (PDE). On the website and mobile application for Extramarks, students may download the Partial Differential Equation Formula PDF.

What are Partial Differential Equation Formulas?

A differential equation containing several unknown functions and their partial derivatives is referred to as a (PDE). Numerous phenomena, including sound, heat, diffusion, electrostatics, electrodynamics, fluid dynamics, elasticity, gravity, and quantum mechanics are all represented by it.

The Partial Differential Equation Formula notes and solutions are also available in Hindi. All the solutions are according to the CBSE NCERT norms and regulations, making it easier to understand and comprehend for students. The Partial Differential Equation Formula notes are curated by experts while pertaining to the NCERT book norms, which will help students to study all concepts in the book without any hassle.

Partial Differential Equation Formulas Definition

The idea of a PDE is exciting and full of surprises, but they are also regarded as being rather challenging. So let’s dissect the idea of a PDE into smaller parts and explore each one in depth in order to completely grasp it. First, students need to understand what an equation is. A statement in which the values of the mathematical expressions are equal is called an equation.

The solutions for the PDE are made after extensive research and while taking into consideration the Previous Years Question papers. 

Experts have made sure that the framework of the solutions are such that students find it easy to comprehend the ideas and concepts contained in the solutions. The notes and solutions for the PDE are downloadable, meaning, students can download the notes and solutions for the 

PDE through the extramarks website and mobile application.

Partial Differential Equation Formulas Example

While the notes and solutions on the Partial Differential Equation Formula are students friendly, they are also extremely versatile in nature. Experts keep on improving the kind of content they believe will help students to comprehend the ideas contained in the solutions effectively.

The notes and solutions for the Partial Differential Equation Formula can be used before the final examinations to enhance student understanding of concepts and to retain the things they have learnt through the Partial Differential Equation Formula study materials.

Partial Differential Equation Formulas Formula

If f is a linear function of u and its derivatives, the PDE is said to be linear. The basic PDE is provided by; 

∂u/∂x (x, y) = 0 

The relationship mentioned above suggests that the function u(x, y), which is the reduced form of the Partial Differential Equation Formula mentioned above, is independent of x. The highest derivative term in the equation determines the order of the PDE.

Students can download the PDE notes which are extremely helpful while studying for their examinations. The PDE notes have been curated and compiled by the top subject-matter experts at Extramarks while keeping in mind that it pertains strictly to the CBSE norms.

Order and Degree of Partial Differential Equation Formulas

A certain finite element technique may be applicable for a given PDE-described issue, depending on the functions of each type of PDE. The equation and various variables that include partial derivatives with regard to the variables affect the answer. In mechanics, there are three different kinds of second-order PDE. Those are 

  • PDE elliptic 
  • Inverse PDE 
  • PDE hyperbolic 

Take the following example: aux+buy+cu=0, u=u (x, y). If b2-ac0, which is used to represent the equations of elasticity without inertial components, is true for a particular point (x, y), the equation is said to be elliptic. If the criterion b2-ac>0 is met, hyperbolic PDE can be used to model wave propagation. It ought to be true for the parabolic PDE when b2-ac=0. One illustration of a parabolic PDE is the equation for heat conduction.

The notes and solutions based on the PDE provided by the Extramarks experts are also available in Hindi. Students from other boards can also refer to these notes in Hindi and thus understand the concepts better leading to a better comprehension of the subject and concepts included in it.

Order of Partial Differential Equation Formulas

PDE is frequently used in applications and simulates how quickly a physical quantity changes in relation to time and place. Solve normally only functions with PDE with two independent variables at this level of development. 

The highest derivative that appears in a PDE determines its order. A first-order PDE is an equation from earlier. 

If its derivatives satisfy the specified PDE, then the function is a solution.

The above-mentioned PDE solutions can be used in making personal notes for students, which will further help them not only understand the topic but also retain everything while writing about it.

The notes based on PDE can also be used for a quick revision before the examinations, leading to improved grades.

Degree of Partial Differential Equation Formulas

The highest order derivative’s power in the PDE serves as a proxy for the differential equation’s degree. 

For the degree to be specified, the differential equation must be a polynomial equation in derivatives.

The solutions on PDE provided by Extramarks experts help students by providing them with step-by-step calculations for each problem in the solutions, leading to improved learning and better grades.

Partial Differential Equation Formulas Types

Partial Differential Equation Formula can be of several sorts, including 

  • Partial Differential Equation Formula of First Order 
  • Equation for Linear Partial Differential 
  • Equation for a Quasi-Linear Partial Differential 
  • Equation for Homogeneous Partial Differential

Equation of First-Order Differential 

In mathematics, the first derivative of the unknown function with variables is all that is present in the first-order Partial Differential Equation Formula. This is how it is expressed: 

F(x1,…, xm, u, ux1,…., uxm) = 0 

Equation for Linear Partial Differential 

Any PDE is referred to as a linear PDE if the dependent variable and all of its partial derivatives occur linearly, otherwise it is referred to as a nonlinear PDE. Examples (1) and (2) in the previous example are considered linear equations, but examples (3) and (4) are considered non-linear equations.

Equation for a Quasi-Linear Partial Differential 

When all PDE terms with the highest order derivatives of the dependent variables occur linearly and the coefficients of those terms are solely functions of lower-order derivatives of the dependent variables, the PDE is said to be quasi-linear. The occurrence of words with lower-order derivatives, however, is not restricted. In the list above, example (3) is a quasi-linear equation. 

Equation for Homogeneous Partial Differential 

A Partial Differential Equation Formula (PDE) is said to be homogeneous if all of its terms do not contain the dependent variable or its partial derivatives. In the four examples above, Example (4), in contrast to the previous three homogeneous equations, is non-homogeneous.

With the help of these notes provided by Extramarks experts, students will never need any external help. The notes provided by Extramarks based on the PDE teach children all the concepts as taught in the classroom, but with a lot of flexibility.

First-Order Partial Differential Equation Formulas

The greatest partial derivatives of the unknown function are of the first order in the first-order Partial Differential Equation Formula. Both linear and non-linear ones are possible. These variables’ derivatives cannot be squared or multiplied.

The notes and solutions provided by Extramarks experts on PDE are extremely helpful for teachers as well. They serve as fantastic teaching aid for teachers by helping and guiding them while also making the teaching process easier.

Second-Order Partial Differential Equation Formulas

Many concepts taught and discussed in the solutions for PDE are also topics that students might study for competitive examinations. Therefore, students must make sure that they practice these concepts in order to score well in competitive examinations.

The highest partial derivative of any order is found in second-order PDE. They might be non-linear, semi-linear, or linear equations. The complexity of linear second-order Partial Differential Equation Formula is significantly higher than that of non- and semi-linear second-order Partial Differential Equation Formula.

Quasi Linear Partial Differential Equation Formulas

Only linear terms in quasilinear Partial Differential Equation Formula give rise to the greatest rank of partial derivatives. In physics and engineering, first-order quasi-linear Partial Differential Equation Formula are frequently used to address a wide range of issues.

Students can practice the solutions for PDE in order to strengthen their basics and focus on achieving the best possible results.

Homogeneous Partial Differential Equation Formulas

The formulas and concepts that require extra focus and attention from students have been marked and highlighted in the solutions for PDE. Therefore, students need not worry about looking for formulas and definitions and other important concepts for hours. Everything is available in one study material only.

The homogeneity or non-homogeneity of a PDE depends on the type of variables used in terms. A Partial Differential Equation Formula that includes the dependent variable and its partial derivatives is known as a non-homogeneous PDE.

Partial Differential Equation Formulas Classification

The PDE has been categorised into three different parts, namely:

  • Elliptic
  • Parabolic
  • Hyperbolic
  • Parabolic Partial Differential Equation Formula: A parabolic Partial Differential Equation Formula is produced if B2 – AC = 0. The equation for heat conduction is an illustration of a parabolic Partial Differential Equation Formula
  • Equations with Hyperbolic Partial Differential: When B2 – AC > 0, such an equation is produced. As wave propagation may be represented by such equations, the wave equation is an illustration of a hyperbolic Partial Differential Equation Formula
  • Elliptic Partial Differential Equation Formula: The Partial Differential Equation Formula B2 – AC 0 are elliptic. An illustration of an elliptic Partial Differential Equation Formula is the Laplace equation.

The notes based on the PDE provided by the Extramarks experts will allow students to stop depending on other resources to study and help facilitate and encourage self-study. Once students start practising these solutions, they will notice positive outcomes that will help them clarify doubts independently.

Solving Partial Differential Equation Formulas

The finite element method (FEM), finite volume method (FVM), and finite difference method (FDM) are the three numerical techniques that are most frequently used to solve PDEs. Additionally, there is a class of techniques known as mesh-free methods that were developed to address issues where the aforementioned techniques have limitations.

These solutions on the other hand can also serve as a teaching guide to refer to when helping their children study and prepare for their final examinations. 

Partial Differential Equation Formulas Applications

Many disciplines, including mathematics, engineering, physics, and finance, use PDEs. Here are a few of their applications:

  • A Partial Differential Equation Formula with the solution uxx = ut may be used to illustrate the idea of heat waves and how they spread. 
  • A Partial Differential Equation Formula with the solution uxx – uyy = 0 may also be used to describe the notion of light and sound waves, as well as how they propagate. 
  • PDEs are also used in the fields of economics and accounting. The Black-Scholes equation, for instance, is used to build financial models.

Examples on Partial Differential Equation Formulas

  1. Reduce uxx + 5uxy + 6uyy = 0 to its canonical form and solve it.


Since, b2 − 4ac = 1 > 0 for the given equation, it is hyperbolic.

Let μ(x, y)=3x − y, η(x, y)=2x − y

μx = 3, ηx = 2

μy = −1, ηy = −1

u = u(μ(x, y), η(x, y))

ux = uμμx + uηηx = 3uμ + 2uη

uy = uμμy + uηηy = −uμ − uη

uxx = (3uμ + 2uη)x = 3(uμμμx + uμηηx) + 2(uημμx + uηηηx)

=9uμμ + 12uμη + 4uηη                 ……(1)

uxy = (3uμ + 2uη)y = 3(uμμμy + uμηηy) + 2(uημμy + uηηηy) 

= −3uμμ − 5uμη − 2uηη         .…(2)

uyy = −(uμ + uη)y = −(uμμμy + uμηηy + uημμy + uηηηy) 

= uμμ + 2uμη + uηη          .…(3)

Thus, the canonical form is given as: uμη = 0.

The general solution is: u(x, y) = F(3x − y) + G(2x − y).

Practice Questions on Partial Differential Equation Formulas

There are a number of practice questions available based on the PDE on the Extramarks website and mobile application, there are more than enough examples that have been stated wherever they’re needed in the solutions that serve as an aid to solve these practice questions.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are PDEs, exactly?

Differential equations with an unknown function, several dependent and independent variables, and their partial derivatives are known as Partial Differential Equation Formula.

2. Do PDEs have linear behaviour?

Partial Differential Equation Formula do not always have to have linear solutions. Partial Differential Equation Formula can also be semi- or nonlinear. One can access the study material and learning resources concerned with differential equations from the Extramarks website or mobile application. To be able to acquire the resources provided by Extramarks, students are required to register on the Extramarks website. Extramarks also provides online live session conducted by experts on various topics for a better understanding of students. Students may also download the needed study material in PDF format from the Extramarks website or mobile application.