Sulfate Ion Formula

Sulfate Ion Formula

It is one of the chemical compounds that are most widely used on Earth. Since it is mostly found in the environment as a result of atmospheric and terrestrial processes, it can be derived from naturally occurring minerals. Sulfur released by erosion of evaporating deposits, sulfide-containing rocks and minerals, and even volcanoes constitute the majority of its accessible forms. Salts, peroxides, and acid derivatives are frequently made using the Sulfate Ion Formula.

What is Sulphate Ion?

This page explains the Sulfate Ion Formula, commonly known as Sulfate Anion Formula or Sulfate Dianion Formula. It has the empirical formula SO4-2 and is a polyatomic anion. It is a sulfuric acid salt. The base of the sulfate anion is quite weak.

White barium sulfate and white lead (II) sulfate are insoluble in water, although the majority of sulfates, such as Na+, NH4+, and K+, are soluble in water. It is a weak oxidising agent that is created by deprotonating sulfuric acid’s OH groups (H2SO4). Industries use sulfate salts, peroxides, and acid derivatives of sulfate extensively.

Structure of Sulphate ion

It is composed of two oxygen atoms and one sulfur atom. Sulfur is located in the middle and is surrounded by four equivalent oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral shape. While oxygen is in the -2 oxidation state, sulfur is in the +6 oxidation state. Due to its overall charge of -2, the Sulfate Ion Formula is unstable and exists in the resonant form.

It forms single bonds with OH molecules and double bonds with two oxygen atoms. Sulfur and oxygen have a 149 pm bond length in sulfate atoms. The position of the atoms is 109.5 degrees.

Preparation of Sulphate ion

There are two techniques for preparing sulphate in laboratories.

Metal sulphides can be oxidised in the presence of oxygen, heat, and a catalyst to create it.

2Cu2S + 5O2 → 2CuSO4 + 2CuO

ZnS + 2O2 → ZnSO4

It can also be made by mixing sulphuric acid with a metal hydroxide, metal oxide, and pure metals.

Ba(ClO3)2 + H2SO4 → 2 HClO3 + BaSO4

Zn + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + H2

Cu(OH)2 + H2SO4 → CuSO4 + 2 H2O  

CdCO3 + H2SO4 → CdSO4 + H2O + CO2

Properties Of Sulfate Ion  

Students can access the reference materials available on the Extramarks website for comprehensive reference materials pertaining to this topic.

Physical Properties:

Here are some physical properties of Sulfate Ion Formula:

  • Sulphate is the ion’s IUPAC name.
  • The sulphate ion’s melting point is 270.47 degrees Celsius.
  • The Sulphate ion’s boiling point is 623.89 degrees Celsius.
  • Sulphate ion has a molar mass of 96.06 grammes per mole.
  • The majority of ionic Sulphates are quite water-soluble (Except Calcium Sulphate, Strontium Sulphate, Lead Sulphate, and Barium Sulphate which are poorly soluble).
  • The sulphate ion has a 0.00791 Pascal vapour pressure.
  • The most insoluble Sulphate currently known is Radium sulphate.

Chemical properties

Some of the important chemical properties of Sulfate Ion Formula:

  • The ability of the Sulfate Ion Formula to form bonds with metals is its most crucial characteristic.
  • 2NaCl + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + 2HCl
  • The Rodium Sulphate test is the most widely used test for the presence of sulphate ions.
  • 2BaCl + H2SO4 → Ba2SO4 + 2HCl.
  • The Sulphate ion readily precipitates, producing white powder.
  • The presence of the sulphate ion in the form of a resonant structure allows it to draw metals and bind with them.
  • Even though the sulphate atom has a lot of electrons, the oxygen atoms that are present around it act as ligands, making it unwilling to form bonds with other metals.
  • Sulphuric acid is the conjugate acid of the sulphate ion.
  • Sulphate is the conjugate base of the sulphate ion.

Uses and Applications of Sulphate Ion

Some uses and applications of Sulfate Ion Formula:

  • For their growth and development, vegetables require Sulphate ions, which are given in the form of Knapsack sprayers.
  • Sulphate is commonly utilised in industry.
  • Construction uses gypsum (hydrated calcium sulphate).
  • The most popular algaecide is copper sulphate, which is also used as an electrolyte in lab galvanic cells.
  • Iron is supplied via iron sulphate to the soil, living things, and many other things.
  • Therapeutic baths employ magnesium sulphate.
  • used as a foaming agent, detergent, and emulsifier.
  • Additionally, everyday products like toothpaste, body sprays, lotions, makeup, soaps, and shampoos contain sulphate compounds.

Harmful effects and Safety measures for Sulphate Ion

A few harmful effects and safety measures from Sulfate Ion Formula:

  • Depending on the atom it is coupled with, the two forms of sulphate have different detrimental effects.
  • Acid rain can result from burning biomass and fossil fuels, which can make the atmosphere more acidic.
  • This is due to the possibility of small particles being discharged into the air when these sulfate-containing components are burned (aerosols).
  • These aerosols can cause the skin to become dry, harm hair follicles, and cause hair to have a negative charge.

Sample Questions 

A few sample questions are given below for students’ understanding.

  1. Describe the atomic structure of sulphate ions.

It is composed of two oxygen atoms and one sulphur atom. It has a tetrahedral shape, with sulphur located in the centre and equal amounts of oxygen surrounding it. The oxygen is in the -2 oxidation state, whereas sulphur is in the +6 oxidation state. The total charge of the Sulfate Ion Formula is -2. It exists in the resonant form because it has a -2 charge over it. It forms single bonds with OH molecules and double bonds with two oxygen atoms. In an atom of sulphate, the distance between sulphur and oxygen is 149 pm. The position of the atoms is 109.5 degrees.

Chemistry Related Formulas
Cholesterol Formula Manganeseii Sulfate Formula
Copper Sulfate Formula Mercury Ii Sulfate Formula
Helium Gas Formula Net Ionic Formula
Partition Coefficient Formula Percarbonic Acid Formula
Potassium Acetate Formula Selenous Acid Formula
Potassium Nitrite Formula