Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Solutions
The current educational subject of geography has its roots in ancient practice, and it is concerned with the features of locations, mainly their natural surroundings and peoples, as well as their interactions. The Greeks, who combined the words “geo” and “graphein” to imply “earth writing” or “earth description,” were the first to create and name it, about 2,000 years ago.
All living things, including humans, are part of a complex ecological system. Chapter 2 of Class 10 Geography begins with the introduction of flora and fauna. The chapter then examines the importance of trees in the ecological system and how we may protect forests and wildlife in India. The chapter concludes by describing the numerous actions people have taken to protect our forest and wildlife resources. Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 NCERT Solutions covers all the details of the chapter.
Forest and Wildlife Resources is one of Geography’s exciting and most accessible chapters. Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 2 are made so students can easily retain all the chapter concepts. In addition, class 10 Geography Chapter 2 Questions and Answers are versatile and easy to understand.
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Key Topics Covered in Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Solutions
To make it convenient for the students, Extramarks has listed below the key topics that are covered in Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Solutions:
- Fauna and Flora in India
- What negative factors cause such fearful depletion of Fauna and Flora?
- Conservation of Forest and Wildlife in India
- Types and distribution of Forest and Wildlife Resources
- Community and Conservation
Let us look at Extramarks’ in-depth information on each subtopic in Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Solutions.
Fauna and Flora in India
Regarding biological variety, India is one of the wealthiest countries on the planet. India is home to diverse and vast forest and animal resources. Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Solutions explains that we can classify existing plants and animal species into the following groups based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN):
- Normal species: Cattle, sal, pine, rats, and other species whose population numbers are deemed normal for their survival.
- Endangered species: These animals are on the verge of extinction. Examples include blackbuck, crocodile, Indian wild ass, Indian rhino, lion-tailed macaque, sangai (brow centre deer in Manipur), and other animals.
- Vulnerable species: These populations have dropped to the point where they are likely to be classified as endangered soon if the trend continues. For example, blue sheep, Asiatic elephants, Gangetic dolphins, etc.
- Rare species: Species with a tiny population may be classified as endangered or vulnerable, if the negative factors continue to affect them. The Himalayan brown bear, wild Asiatic buffalo, desert fox, and hornbill are examples of such animals.
- Endemic species: These can only be found in a limited number of locations, mainly due to natural or geographical barriers. The Nicobar pigeon, Andaman teal, Andaman wild pig, and Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh are examples of such animals.
- Extinct species: These species may have vanished from a specific locality, region, nation, continent, or perhaps the whole planet—for example, the Asiatic cheetah and the pink-headed duck.
What negative factors cause such fearful depletion of Fauna and Flora?
Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Solutions states that the following are the causes of the depletion of Fauna and Flora:
- To meet human requirements, there is an excessive use of natural resources, such as wood, barks, leaves, rubber, medicines, colours, food, fuel, fodder, and manure.
- Agriculture, railways, commercial and scientific forestry, and mining industries are expanding.
- Project development and mining activities are done on a large scale.
- Unequal access to resources
Some causes of Environmental Degradation
The following are some other causes of Environmental degradation as explained by Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Solutions:
- As per the Forest Survey of India, over 26,200 square kilometres of forest land was converted into agricultural land across India between 1951 and 1980, and large portions of the tribal belts, particularly in northeastern and central India, were deforested to practise shifting cultivation (jhum), a type of slash and burn agriculture.
- Since 1951, around 5,000 square kilometres of forest area have been removed to advance river valley developments. For example, the Narmada Sagar Project in Madhya Pradesh required the clearing of about 40,000 hectares of forest.
- Large-scale deforestation is also a result of mining.
- The continuous dolomite mining threatens the Buxa Tiger Reserve in West Bengal.
- Poaching, over-exploitation, pollution, hunting, forest fires, and other issues all contribute to the dwindling of India’s tremendous biodiversity.
- Overpopulation is a significant contributor to environmental degradation in third-world nations.
Conservation of Forest and Wildlife in India
Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Solutions explains that conservation protects plants and animals’ genetic diversity and the ecological diversity of plants and animals.
- In 1972, the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act was enacted to safeguard habitats, and a list of protected species was produced for the whole country.
- The national government also made several efforts to conserve individual species. Hundreds of butterflies, beetles, moths, and one dragonfly have been added to the list of protected species due to the Wildlife Acts of 1980 and 1986.
- Plants were added to the list for the first time in 1991, commencing with six species.
- The tiger population declined from 55000 to 1,827 in 1973 at the turn of the century, forcing the government to take severe action.
- Tigers are facing severe dangers and are on the verge of extinction due to habitat loss due to increasing human population, poaching, and depletion of prey base species, are some of the factors.
- The tiger population is on the verge of extinction due to the trafficking of tiger skins and the use of tiger bones in traditional remedies, particularly in Asian nations.
- “Project Tiger” began in 1973 with the goal of not just saving tigers but also preserving biotypes.
- Some of India’s tiger reserves include the Corbett National Park in Uttarakhand, the Sunderbans National Park in West Bengal, the Bandhavgarh National Park in Madhya Pradesh, the Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary in Rajasthan, the Manas Tiger Reserve in Assam, and the Periyar Tiger Reserve in Kerala.
- Several hundred species of butterflies, moths, beetles, and dragonflies were added to the list of protected species under the Wildlife Act of 1980 and 1986.
Types and distribution of Forest and Wildlife Resources
The Forest Department or other government departments in India own and manage the country’s forest and wildlife resources. Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Solutions explains that the following categories are used to categorise these items:
- Reserved forests: More than half of India’s land has been designated as reserved forest.
- Protected forests: One-third of the forest area has been designated as protected forest by the forest department.
- Unclassed forests: Forests and wastelands belonging to the government and private people and groups are included in this category. Unclassified woods make up a large share of the forests in the northeastern states and parts of Gujarat.
Permanent forests, also known as reserved and protected forests, are kept to provide wood and other forest products and environmental protection. The state of Madhya Pradesh has the most permanent woods.
Community and Conservation
The preservation of forest and animal resources is very important. Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Solutions states that the following are a few steps that ordinary people undertook:
- Villagers in Rajasthan’s Sariska Tiger Reserve have used the Wildlife Protection Act to fight.
- The residents of five villages in Rajasthan’s Alwar district have designated 1,200 hectares of woodland as the Bhairodev Dakav ‘Sonchuri.’ Villages established their laws and restrictions prohibiting hunting. They’re also guarding the animals against any outside intrusions.
- The Himalayan Chipko movement was one effective attempt to combat deforestation in numerous locations. Community afforestation has also resulted from the movement.
- India’s joint forest management (JFM) initiative is an excellent model for incorporating local populations in forest management and restoration.
- Farmers and citizen organisations in Tehri and Navdanya, such as the Beej Bachao Andolan, have demonstrated that acceptable levels of various crop production can be achieved without synthetic pesticides.
Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Solutions Exercise and Solutions
Extramarks is a gold mine of high-quality study resources. Extramarks experts have developed study materials for students to thrive on examinations. Click on the below links to view Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Solutions:
Class 10 Geography Chapter 2: Very Short Answer Type Questions
Class 10 Geography Chapter 2: Short Answer Type Questions
Class 10 Geography Chapter 2: Long Answer Type Questions
Students can access Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Solutions and other chapters by clicking here. In addition, students can also explore NCERT Solutions for other classes below.
|NCERT Class 10 Social Science Books Available for:|
|NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science – Understanding Economic Development|
|NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science – India and the Contemporary World|
|NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science – Democratic Politics|
By accessing Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Solutions, students can easily understand all the concepts relating to Forest and Wildlife Resources through extensive answers to the textual questions.
Key Features of Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Solutions
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- The experienced teachers and experts from Extramarks have gathered the most crucial information based on the CBSE guidelines.
- The language used in compiling these solutions is simple and easy to understand.
Q.1 Multiple choice questions.
(i) Which of these statements is not a valid reason for the depletion of flora and fauna?
(a) Agricultural expansion
(b) Large scale developmental projects
(c) Grazing and fuel wood collection
(d) Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation
(ii) Which of the following conservation strategies do not directly involve community participation?
(a) Joint forest management
(b) Beej Bachao Andolan
(c) Chipko Movement
(d) Demarcation of Wildlife sanctuaries
(i) (c) Grazing and fuel wood collection
(ii) (d) Demarcation of Wildlife sanctuaries
Q.2 Match the following animals with their category of existence.
|Animals/Plants||Category of existence|
|Andaman wild pig||Endangered|
|Himalayan brown bear||Vulnerable|
|Pink head duck||Endemic|
|Animals/Plants||Category of existence|
|Andaman wild pig||Endemic|
|Himalayan brown bear||Rare|
|Pink head duck||Extinct|
Q.3 Match the following.
|Reserved forests||other forests and wastelands belonging to both government and private individuals and communities|
|Protected forests||forests are regarded as most valuable as far as the conservation of forest and wildlife resources|
|Unclassed forests||forest lands are protected from any further depletion|
|Reserved forests||forests are regarded as most valuable as far as the conservation of forest and wildlife resources|
|Protected forests||forest lands are protected from any further depletion|
|Unclassed forests||other forests and wastelands belonging to both government and private individuals and communities|
Q.4 Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) What is biodiversity? Why is biodiversity important for human lives?
(ii) How have human activities affected the depletion of flora and fauna? Explain.
(i) Biodiversity is immensely rich in wildlife and cultivated species, diverse in form and function, but closely integrated in a system through multiple networks of interdependencies.
Biodiversity is important for human lives because the human beings, along with the biodiversity, form a complete web of ecological system in which we are only a part and are very much dependent on this system for our own existence. For example, the plants, animals, and microorganism re-create the quality of the air we breathe.
(ii) Human activities have affected the depletion of flora and fauna. Habitat destruction, hunting, poaching, over-exploitation, environmental pollution, poisoning and forest fires are factors, which have led to the decline in India’s biodiversity. Other important causes of environmental destruction are unequal access, inequitable consumption of forest resources and differential sharing of responsibility for environmental well-being.
Q.5 Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
(i) Describe how communities have conserved and protected forests and wildlife in India.
(ii) Write a note on good practices towards conserving forest and wildlife.
(i) Indian forests are home to different communities. These communities have a complex relationship with their environment. The Mundas and the Santhal of Chhota Nagpur Region worship mahua and kadamba trees, and the tribal’s of Odisha and Bihar worship the tamarind and mango trees during weddings. The Bishnois of Rajasthan hold the antelopes in high reverence. Peepal and banyan trees are considered sacred. Villagers around the Sariska Reserve have opposed mining activities in the region as these activities endanger wildlife. Villagers in the Alwar district of Rajasthan have banned hunting and lumbering activities in a 1200-hectare area they have marked as Bhairodev Dakav ‘Sonchuri’. Such activities have helped in the conservation and protection of forest and wildlife in India.
(ii) The Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act was implemented in 1972, with various provisions for protecting habitats. A list of wildlife species that has to be protected was published and hunting of these animals was banned. Central and state governments in India have set up national parks and wildlife sanctuaries to protect forests and endangered species in wildlife. Project tiger was initiated in 1973 by the government of India to protect tigers. Under Wildlife Act of 1980 and 1986, several hundred butterflies, moths, beetles, and one dragonfly have been added to the list of protected species. Various communities, especially in tribal areas, who are dependent on forests for their living, are now taking an active role in this form of conservation.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. Give an overview of Chapter 2 of Class 10 Geography.
The second chapter of Class 10 Geography begins with a description of India’s flora and fauna. The importance of forests in the natural system is explained in this chapter. Several techniques for saving India’s forests and wildlife are also discussed in this chapter. It raises awareness about the importance of our woods and animal kingdom. At the end of the chapter, students will learn about the various steps people take to conserve our forest and wildlife resources.
2. What is unique about the solutions provided by Extramarks?
Extramarks’ solutions are developed after significant and in-depth research and analysis of the syllabus. The solutions prepared by the experienced faculty will help you to learn how to compose an answer that meets the question’s requirements and thereby hits the target. Another key skill you will acquire is conveying your answer clearly and concisely.
3. How is the Chipko Movement described in the Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Solutions?
The famous Chipko Campaign began in the Himalayan town of Reni and was a massive effort to save trees and curb deforestation. Sunderlal Bahuguna was the one who started it. It also helped to expand the number of afforestation committees around the country. Since deforestation rates were high and trees were being cut down regularly at that time, this historical event occurred to protect trees for a better future.