Class 10 Geography Chapter 3

Not just locations, coordinates, and position of things on the earth, there is much more that is discussed in geography. Geography is also concerned with the physical and human aspects of various locations. Geographers study the meaning, function, and history of locations and how they change and are perceived, from the size of a single room to the size of a cultural area or the entire world.

Water resources are the third Chapter in class 10 geography. The water sources, the water shortage, and the problems associated with it will be explored in the NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 3. The Water Resources Class 10 Solutions also mentions dams built across rivers. The issue of water conservation will be explored in the Water Resources Class 10 Solutions.

Extramarks has recently developed the concept of NCERT Solutions, which have become a hit among the students.  These solutions contain all the answers to the chapter end questions which can come in the board examination.Water Resources Class 10 Questions and Answers by Extramarks experts make it very convenient for students to remember all the concepts of the  chapters through solved textual questions. Subject experts prepare these solutions after great research on the subject.

Extramarks not only contain Class 10 Geography  3 NCERT Solutions but also material such as NCERT Exemplars , CBSE revision notes, CBSE sample papers, CBSE past  years’ question papers, and more.  

Key Topics Covered in Class 10 Geography Chapter 3

The key topics that are covered in Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 are mentioned below :

  • Water
  • Multi-purpose River projects and integrated Water Resource Management
  • Rainwater Harvesting

Let us look at Extramarks in-depth information on each subtopic in Class 10 Geography Chapter 3.

Water

Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 explains that although water covers three-quarters of the Earth's surface and is a renewable resource, only a small percentage of it is fresh water that can be used for human consumption. Therefore, water scarcity can be a major issue, despite its abundance.

Water Scarcity and the need for Water Conservation and Management

Water supplies vary in availability throughout time and place.

  • Over-exploitation, excessive consumption, and uneven access to water among different socio-economic groups are the causes of water shortage.
  • To extend irrigated regions for dry-season agriculture, water supplies are being over-exploited.
  • Water is adequately accessible in specific locations to suit the demands of the inhabitants. However, such areas may face water constraints due to poor water quality.
  • Post- Independence industrialisation

Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 states that our water resources must be conserved and always managed:

  • To protect oneself from health risks.
  • To secure food, the viability of our livelihoods, and the continuation of constructive activities.
  • To keep our natural ecosystems from degrading.

Multi-purpose River projects and integrated Water Resource Management

Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 explains that humans conserved water by building complex hydraulic structures such as stone rubble dams, reservoirs or lakes, embankments, and irrigation canals in the past. We have perpetuated this practice in modern India by erecting dams throughout most of our river basins.

Dams

Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 explains the concept of Dams in the following section.

A dam is a structure that obstructs, directs, or slows the flow of water, resulting in a reservoir, lake, or impoundment. The reservoir, not the building, is referred to as a "dam."

Uses of Dams

Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 says that the Dams are constructed for the following uses:

  • Impounding rivers and rainfall for later use as irrigation for agricultural lands.
  • For the production of electricity.
  • Water supply for both residential and industrial use.
  • Controlling floods.
  • Recreation, inland navigation, and fish spawning are important aspects of inland navigation.

Limitations of creating Dams:

  • River regulation and damming have an impact on their natural flow.
  • As a result, the ecosystems of aquatic life in rivers are deteriorating.
  • Fragment rivers hamper the migration of aquatic animals.
  • Dams built on floodplains bury existing plants and soil, resulting in their degradation over time.
  • Many new environmental initiatives, such as the 'Narmada Bachao Andolan' and the 'Tehri Dam Andolan,' have sprung up in response to the construction of big dams.
  • For the dam's construction, local people were forced to give up their land, livelihoods, and control over resources on several occasions.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 explains that most of the criticisms of the initiatives came from their inability to fulfil the aim for which they were designed. For example, most dams were built to manage floods, although they have themselves generated floods. Dams have also resulted in significant soil erosion. In addition, excessive water consumption has resulted in earthquakes, water-borne illnesses, pests, and pollution.

Rainwater Harvesting

Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 explains the concept of Rainwater harvesting in the following section.

Rainwater harvesting is a simple way of collecting and preserving rainwater for later use. The rainwater collected can be stored, used in various ways, or used immediately for recharge.

Rainwater harvesting has been done in a variety of ways in different regions.

  • People have created diversion channels for agriculture in hill and hilly terrain, like the guls or kuls of the Western Himalayas.
  • Rooftop rainwater collection is a prevalent practice in Rajasthan for storing drinking water.
  • People created inundation canals in the Bengal flood plains to irrigate their crops.
  • Agricultural fields were turned into rain-fed storage structures in dry and semi-arid regions, such as 'khadins' in Jaisalmer and 'Johads' in other parts of Rajasthan, to allow water to stand and saturate the soil.
  • The tankas are erected within the main house or courtyard as part of the well-developed rooftop rainwater gathering system. This is widely done in Rajasthan, notably in the districts of Bikaner, Phalodi, and Barmer, to conserve rainfall. In addition, many homes have built subterranean chambers adjacent to the 'tanka' to avoid the summer heat by keeping the space chilly.

Tamil Nadu is the first state in India to make rooftop rainwater collecting structures mandatory for all homes in the state. Defaulters are subject to legal consequences.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 Exercise and Solutions

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By clicking here, students may access Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 and other chapters. In addition, students can also explore NCERT Solutions for other classes below.

  • NCERT Solutions Class 1
  • NCERT Solutions Class 2
  • NCERT Solutions Class 3
  • NCERT Solutions Class 4
  • NCERT Solutions Class 5
  • NCERT Solutions Class 6
  • NCERT Solutions Class 7
  • NCERT Solutions Class 8
  • NCERT Solutions Class 9
  • NCERT Solutions Class 10
  • NCERT Solutions Class 11
  • NCERT Solutions Class 12

By accessing Class 10 Geography Chapter 3, students can easily understand all the concepts relating to Water Resources.

Key Features of Class 10 Geography Chapter 3

When preparing for board examinations, students are frequently recommended to read through NCERT questions. These NCERT questions are an excellent combination of all the concepts in the chapter. Extramarks' NCERT Solutions help students understand every concept in any challenging chapter. Here are some of the benefits of using Extramarks:

  • The answers in NCERT Solutions are explained in detail, which give students an idea of how to attempt a question in the board exam in the right manner
  • As the explanations are comprehensive, the fundamentals of the chapter are understood by the students in a better way.
  • These solutions help students in overcoming any hurdles in the challenging topics.
  • Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 is written in easy-to-understand language.

Q.1 (i)Based on the information given below classify each of the situations as ‘suffering from water scarcity’ or ‘not suffering from water scarcity’.
(a) Region with high annual rainfall.
(b) Region having high annual rainfall and large population.
(c) Region having high annual rainfall but water is highly polluted.
(d) Region having low rainfall and low population.

(ii) Which one of the following statements is not an argument in favour of multi-purpose river projects?
(a) Multi-purpose projects bring water to those areas which suffer from water scarcity.
(b) Multi-purpose projects by regulating water flow help to control floods.
(c) Multi-purpose projects lead to large scale displacements and loss of livelihood.
(d) Multi-purpose projects generate electricity for our industries and our homes.

(iii) Here are some false statements. Identify the mistakes and rewrite them correctly.
(a) Multiplying urban centres with large and dense populations and urban lifestyles have helped in proper utilisation of water resources.
(b) Regulating and damming of rivers does not affect the river’s natural flow and its sediment flow.
(c) In Gujarat, the Sabarmati basin farmers were not agitated when higher priority was given to water supply in urban areas, particularly during droughts.
(d) Today in Rajasthan, the practice of rooftop rainwater water harvesting has gained popularity despite high water availability due to the Rajasthan Canal.

Ans.

(i) (a) Not suffering from water scarcity
(b) Suffering from water scarcity
(c) Suffering from water scarcity
(d) Not suffering from water scarcity

(ii) (c) Multi-purpose projects lead to large scale displacements and loss of livelihood.

(iii) (a) Multiplying urban centres with large and dense populations and urban lifestyles have caused the over exploitation of water resources.
(b) Regulating and damming of rivers affect their natural flow and causes the sediment to settle at the bottom of the reservoir.
(c) In Gujarat, the Sabarmati basin farmers were agitated when higher priority was given to water supply in urban areas, particularly during droughts.
(d) Today in Rajasthan, the practice of rooftop rainwater harvesting is on the decline due to the Rajasthan canal.

Q.2 (i) Explain how water becomes a renewable resource.
(ii) What is water scarcity and what are its main causes?
(iii) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of multi-purpose river projects.

Ans.

(i) Water is a renewable resource as it is renewed by hydrological cycle itself through the processes of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation. The process of hydrological cycle is never ending and hence, water is a renewable resource.

(ii) Water scarcity is the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet water needs within a region. It is caused by an increase in population, growing demand for water, and unequal access to it.

(iii) Advantages: Multipurpose river projects help in irrigation, electricity production, flood control, inland navigation, fishing, etc.
Disadvantages: The reservoirs destroy local flora and fauna and displace millions of people. Many native villages are submerged, and people lose their livelihood, with little or no hope of rehabilitation. Dams have also led inter-state water disputes and have triggered floods due to sedimentation in the catchment area. Scientist also associates large dams with causing of earthquakes and spread of water-borne diseases in the surrounding areas.

Q.3 (i) Discuss how rainwater harvesting in semi-arid regions of Rajasthan is carried out.

(ii) Describe how modern adaptations of traditional rainwater harvesting methods are being carried out to conserve and store water.

Ans.

(i)Houses in the semi arid regions of Rajasthan have traditionally constructed tanks for storing drinking water. The tanks are constructed inside the main house, and are a part of the well-developed rooftop rainwater harvesting system. They are connected to the sloping roofs of the houses through a pipe. The rainwater falling on the rooftop is stored in the tanks. The first spell of rainwater is not collected due to its impurities. The rainwater or palar pani as commonly known in these parts is considered the purest form of natural water.

(ii)In many parts of India rooftop rainwater harvesting is being successfully adopted to store and conserve rainwater. In Gendathur village, Mysuru, Karnataka about 200 households have adopted the rooftop rainwater harvesting method, thereby making the village rich in rainwater. The state of Tamil Nadu is the first state of India, which has made it compulsory for all the houses to have rooftop rainwater harvesting structures. Defaulters are severely punished. Therefore, in modern homes rooftop rainwater is becoming more popular. Drains from rooftop are channelised to underground tank. The water is filtered, purified, and then stored. In air and semi arid regions, agricultural field were converted into rain fed storage structures that allowed the water to stand and moisten the soil.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. According to Class 10 Geography Chapter 3, which Indian state was the first to make rainwater collection mandatory?

Tamil Nadu is the first state in the country to make rainwater collecting mandatory for all homes in the state. Rainwater harvesting structures are required on the roofs of all homes. Those who do not comply with the legislation will face legal consequences.

 

2. How are Dams explained in Class 10 Geography Chapter 3?

A dam is a structure that was previously used to collect and store rainfall or river water for agricultural purposes. Dams are presently utilised to generate hydropower, store water for residential and commercial usage, and provide inland transportation, flood control, fish breeding, and recreational opportunities. Because of their numerous applications, dams are now referred to as multifunctional projects. The Bhakra Nangal Dam, the Hirakud Dam, and the Beas-Sutlej Dam are some of the well-known dams in India.

3. How does water become a renewable resource?

Water is regarded as a renewable resource. Because of three processes in the hydrological cycle, rainfall is the primary cause of surface and groundwater recharge in a short period. Evaporation, condensation, and precipitation are the three processes involved. Water shortage results from overexploitation of water sources. Water scarcity is simply a lack of water, and it can occur for various causes, including water consumption in dry-season agriculture, water contamination that renders water sources worthless, and so on.

4. What are the benefits and drawbacks of multiple-purpose river projects?

Irrigation, flood avoidance, hydrolytic energy production, inland navigation, and water supply for home and industrial needs are all advantages of multi-purpose river projects. However, aquatic flora and wildlife gets affected, river water gets diverted , land in the surrounding areas is inundated, large-scale land restoration is required, and numerous ecological effects result from multi-purpose river projects.