NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science Contemporary India Chapter 5

Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Solutions

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 is on Minerals and Energy Resources. Minerals are an essential component of our daily lives. Everything we use is made of minerals, from tiny pins to tall skyscrapers or large ships. Minerals are used to make railway lines, road tarmac (paving) and our equipment and machinery. Cars, buses, trains and planes are made of minerals and run on energy produced by the earth. Even the food we consume has minerals in it. It is therefore imperative for students to have a thorough understanding of this chapter. The Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Solutions provided by Extramarks is an exceptional resource for students to understand the chapter easily. It includes topics such as an introduction to minerals, understanding their classification, conservation of minerals, energy resources and understanding conventional and non-conventional energy resources.

A thorough understanding of Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Solutions will help students understand minerals and energy resources and help them take a closer look at the concepts related to them. Minerals and energy sources form an important component of raw materials for the country’s industrial sector. It is important to understand where minerals are used and which region of the country is concentrated with which kinds of resources. Although it may look difficult to understand at first, with the easy-to-comprehend material provided by Extramarks, students will learn about crucial topics very easily.

Students are advised to read the NCERT Solutions for each chapter to improve their understanding and clarity of the material. Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Solutions was developed by Extramarks to empower students to learn, structure their answers, and refine them with the help of solutions. The NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 are written by subject matter specialists who abided with the most recent CBSE guidelines and did so in a manner that meets all students’ needs, irrespective of the level. Students benefit from solid knowledge of the subject matter, which enhances the overall academic performance of all students.

Apart from the Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Solutions, the Extramarks website has much more to offer students. Students can easily access resources such as NCERT books, CBSE study guides, practises tests, exam questions of previous years and more by registering on the Extramarks website. Employing these study resources will help students better understand and practise the content in various chapters.

Key Topics Covered in Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Solutions

Chapter 5 of Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Solutions for Geography introduces students to various topics. Students learn what minerals are, where they have formed and their different types. They also simultaneously learn about the important energy resources and the various conventional and non-conventional energy sources.

Some topics covered in Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Solutions are as follows:

  • What is a Mineral
  • Mode of Occurrence of Minerals
  • Classification of Minerals
  • Ferrous Minerals
  • Non-Ferrous Minerals
  • Non-Metallic Minerals
  • Rock Minerals
  • Conservation of Minerals
  • Energy Resources
  • Conventional Energy Resources
  • Non-Conventional Sources of Energy
  • Conservation of Energy Resources

Let us now look at the detailed information on each of the above-listed subtopics in the Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Solutions:

What is a Mineral

A mineral is a homogenous and naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure. Minerals are found in nature in a variety of forms, from the softest talc to the hardest diamond. Rocks are made up of homogenous materials known as minerals.

Which mineral will form from a particular combination of elements depends on the chemical and physical conditions that occur when the material forms. As a result, a specific mineral might have a wide range of colours, hardness, crystal shapes, lustre and density. Geologists use these characteristics to categorise minerals.

Mode of Occurrence of Minerals

Minerals are frequently found in “ores.” Any mineral concentration mixed with additional elements is referred to as an ore. To enable commercial extraction, the ore must have a considerable mineral content.

In the Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Solutions, minerals generally occur in these formations:

  1. In igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals can be found in cracks, fissures, faults and joints. They typically occur when gases and liquid/molten minerals are pushed upward via cavities and towards the earth’s surface. As they rise, they cool and solidify. Tin, copper, zinc and lead, among other metallic minerals are extracted from veins and lodes.
  2. Numerous minerals are found in beds or layers in sedimentary rocks. It happens due to deposition, accumulation and concentration in horizontal strata. The process of creation is through evaporation, particularly in arid areas.  Sedimentary minerals such as gypsum, potash salt, sodium salt, coal and some iron ore are popular examples of minerals found in the beds of rocks.
  3. Another process of production of minerals involves surface rock breakdown and the removal of soluble elements, leaving a residual bulk of weathered material containing ores. Bauxite is created in this manner.
  4. Certain minerals may occur as alluvial deposits in valley floor sands and at the base of hills. Gold, silver, tin and platinum are the most significant minerals found in these deposits which are known as “placer deposits” because they are not eroded by water.
  5. The oceans contain a large number of minerals, but the majority of them are too widely distributed to be economically significant. On the other hand, common salt, magnesium and bromine are primarily produced from ocean waters.

Classification of Minerals

Minerals are classified into the following categories.

  1. Metallic Minerals- are minerals from which metals are extracted.
  2. Non- Metallic Minerals- minerals that have no metal in them but are used to extract non-metals. Examples of non-metallic minerals include; mica, salt, potash, sulphur, granite, limestone, marble, sandstone, etc.
  3. Energy Minerals- are those that provide heat and energy. Examples of energy minerals include coal, petroleum and natural gas.

Metallic Minerals are further classified into the following categories:

  1. Ferrous Minerals- are those which contain iron. Examples of ferrous minerals include; iron ore, nickel, manganese, cobalt, etc.
  2. Non-Ferrous Minerals- are those which do not contain iron. Examples of non-ferrous minerals include; copper, lead, tin and bauxite.
  3. Precious Minerals- are rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical elements with considerable economic worth. Examples of precious minerals include; gold, silver, platinum, etc.

Ferrous Minerals

Ferrous minerals account for about three-fourths of the total metallic mineral production, and they provide an important base for the growth of the metallurgical industries in our country. India exports large quantities of ferrous minerals, after domestic demands have been met.

1.Iron Ore

  • Iron ore is one of the most basic minerals for industrial growth and development. India has fairly abundant iron ore resources.
  • In 2018-19, nearly all iron ore output (97%) came from Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka and Jharkhand. The remaining production (3%) came from other states.
  • Magnetite is the finest iron ore with 70% iron concentration. It also has excellent magnetic qualities and is used greatly in the electrical industry.
  • Hematite has a lower iron content (50-60%) than magnetite but is heavily used by industries in terms of volume.

The major iron ore belts in India are:

  • Odisha-Jharkhand belt
  • Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt
  • Bellary-Chitradurga-Chikmagalur-Tumkur belt
  • Maharashtra-Goa belt

2. Manganese

  • Manganese is used for manufacturing steel and ferromanganese alloy.
  • When it is added to iron, manganese acts as a cleanser in manufacturing steel and helps remove the glass. Nearly 10 kg of manganese is used to manufacture a tonne of steel.
  • Manganese is also used to manufacture insecticides, bleaching powder and paints.

Non-Ferrous Minerals

Non-ferrous minerals play a crucial role in several engineering, metallurgical and electrical industries. India does not produce large quantities of non-ferrous minerals. However, India does produce copper, bauxite, lead, zinc and gold.


  • Copper is ductile, malleable and a good conductor of electricity.
  • Due to its characteristics, it is heavily used in electrical cables, electronics and the chemical industry.
  • India is not abundant in reserves of copper. The leading producers of copper in the country include; the Khetri mines in Rajasthan, The Balaghat mines in Madhya Pradesh, Singhbhum district of Jharkhand.

2. Bauxite

  • Bauxite is a rock composed mainly of aluminium-bearing minerals. A clay-like alumina is extracted from it, which later transforms into aluminium.
  • Aluminium is malleable, has good conductivity, extreme lightness and good strength like iron.
  • Bauxite deposits are formed by decomposing various rocks rich in aluminium silicates.
  • Amarkantak plateau, the plateau region of Bilaspur-Katni and Maikal hills, is where bauxite deposits form.

Non-Metallic Minerals


  • Mica is a mineral composed of a sequence of plates or leaves. It easily breaks into thin sheets. A thousand of the mica sheets can be put on top of the other into a few centimetres-high mica sheets.
  • Mica is one of the most important minerals in the electric and electronic sectors because of its superior dielectric strength, low power loss factor, insulating qualities and resilience to high voltage.
  • Koderma Gaya – Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand is the prime producer of mica. Mica deposits can also be found on the northern edge of the Chota Nagpur plateau. The Nellore mica belt of Andhra Pradesh is also a crucial producer in India. Ajmer is a major mica-producing city in Rajasthan.

Rock Minerals


  • Limestone is found in combination with rocks made of calcium and magnesium carbonates or calcium carbonates.
  • Limestone is the prime raw material used in the cement industry and is required for the blast furnace to smelt iron ore.
  • Rajasthan had the highest share in the production of iron ore in the year 2018-19, followed by Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Chattisgarh.

Conservation of Minerals

  • Workable mineral reserves make up only 1% of the earth’s crust, which is negligible. We are rapidly depleting mineral resources that took millions of years to form and consolidate.
  • Because mineral creation is a geological process, replenishment rates are infinitely low concerning current consumption rates. Therefore, mineral resources are limited and non-renewable.
  • A coordinated effort is required to exploit our mineral resources in a planned and sustainable manner. Nations must regularly develop improved technologies to utilise low-grade ores at low costs.
  • Metal recycling, using scrap metals and various replacements are all measures toward safeguarding our mineral resources for the future.

Energy Resources:

All activities require energy. It is necessary for cooking, generating light and heat, moving objects forward and powering industrial machinery. The sources of energy can be divided into two parts:

  1. Conventional Sources of Energy
  2. Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

A detailed description of the sources of energy is provided in the Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Solutions.

Conventional Energy Resources

Conventional energy resources are also known as non-renewable sources of energy. It includes coal, petroleum, natural gas, cattle dung cake, firewood and nuclear power. In India, firewood and cattle dung cake is the most used energy sources accounting for nearly 70% of the energy production.

The most popular energy source is oil. About 90% of the commercial energy output of the world comprises coal, petroleum and natural gas, while just 10% comprises hydroelectric and nuclear power.

Below is a detailed description of a few conventional sources of energy as mentioned in the Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Solutions:


  • The most widely used fossil fuel is coal. It generates electricity, provides energy to industries, and meets household demands.
  • Lignite is a soft, low-grade brown coal with high moisture content.
  • Bituminous coal is coal that has undergone high temperatures and deep burial.
  • Anthracite is the highest grade of hard coal.
  • Important coalfields in India include Bokaro, Jharia and Raniganj.

2. Petroleum

  • Petroleum is used to provide heat and light, as well as lubricants for machinery and raw materials for various manufacturing industries.
  • For the synthetic textile, fertiliser and numerous chemical industries, petroleum refineries function as a “nodal industry.”
  • Major petroleum production areas in India include Mumbai High, Gujarat and Assam.

3. Natural gas

  • Natural gas is a significant source of clean energy. It is regarded as a low-impact or eco-friendly fuel.
  • The two industries that consume natural gas most heavily are the electricity and fertiliser industries.
  • Vehicles employ compressed natural gas (CNG) to replace liquid fuels.
  • Large natural gas deposits have been discovered in the Krishna-Godavari basin.

4. Electricity

  • There are primarily two methods for producing electricity.
  1. Hydroelectricity is produced by hydro turbines driven by moving water. It is a source of energy that is renewable. India has several multipurpose projects, including the Kopili Hydel Project, the Damodar Valley Corporation and the Bhakra Nangal.
  2. Thermal power is created by using other fuels, such as oil, coal and natural gas, to power turbines. It generates power using fossil fuels that are not renewable.

Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

Non Conventional sources of energy are also called renewable energy sources. It includes; sources like solar energy, tide, wind, biomass and energy from waste materials, etc. These are environmentally friendly energy sources that lower our carbon footprint while not emitting greenhouse gases that pollute the environment.

Here is a detailed description of some forms of non-conventional sources of energy as given in the Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Solutions:

1.Solar Energy

  • Heat energy from the sun is captured and used in various applications utilising a solar energy collector or concentrator. Sunlight is immediately converted into power via photovoltaic technology.
  • Solar energy is utilised in solar ovens, water heaters, air heaters, crop dryers, freezers and other devices.
  • India is a tropical nation. Solar energy harvesting has a huge potential. Gujarat’s Madhapur, close to Bhuj, is home to India’s largest solar power facility.

2. Wind Energy

  • Wind power is used to generate wind energy. Wind turbines are used for this purpose.
  • Wind energy plants/turbines are primarily localised in coastal areas, requiring winds blowing steadily at high speed to operate efficiently.
  • India’s largest wind farm cluster is in Tamil Nadu, from Nagercoil to Madurai.
  • Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra and Lakshadweep also have important wind farms apart from the farm cluster of Tamil Nadu to Madurai.

3. Biogas Energy

  • Biogas is a biofuel that is naturally produced by decomposing organic waste. It is the most efficient way to utilise cow dung. It raises the quality of manure.
  • People can make it from green kitchen waste, agricultural waste containing manure and plant parts, municipal garbage and sewage.
  • Because it is widely available, biogas is a cheap source of energy for electricity production.
  • In rural India, the plants that use cow manure are referred to as “Gobar gas plants.” These give the farmer two benefits: energy and increased manure quality.

4. Tidal Energy

  • Tidal energy is a kind of hydropower that uses tides to produce useful forms of energy, primarily electricity.
  • Floodgate dams are constructed across inlets. When the gate is closed during high tide, water flows into the inlet and becomes trapped. When the tide falls outside the floodgate, the water trapped rushes back to the sea through a pipe that passes through a power-generating turbine.
  • The Gulf of Khambhat, the Gulf of Kachchh in Gujarat on the western coast, and the Gangetic delta in the Sunderban districts of West Bengal provide ideal conditions for tidal energy utilisation in India.

5. Geothermal Energy

  • Geothermal Energy is created when heat from the earth’s interior generates heat and electricity.
  • The groundwater in these regions takes heat from the rocks and becomes heated. It is so hot that when it reaches the earth’s surface, it transforms into steam, which is used to power turbines and generate electricity.
  • There are numerous hot springs and geothermal energy sites in India. Among them, the Parvati Valley near Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh is essential.

Conservation of Energy Resources

  • Agriculture, industrial, transportation, commercial and residential sectors require energy inputs.
  • The usage of all energy sources has been continuously increasing across the country.
  • There is an urgent requirement to build a sustainable energy development path. The two pillars of sustainable energy are encouraging energy efficiency and expanding the use of renewable energy sources.
  • As concerned citizens, we can do our part by choosing public transportation systems over private automobiles, turning off the electricity when not in use, utilising power-saving tools and turning to alternative energy sources.

Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Solutions: Exercise and Solutions

Students can get reliable, practical and trustworthy study materials from Extramarks. Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Solutions comprises multiple-choice (MCQ), short-answer, and long-answer questions. Students can utilise them to master their exams and improve their grades.

Students can view Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Solutions by clicking on the links below:

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5: Very Short Answer Type Questions

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5: Short Answer Type Questions

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5: Long Answer Type Questions

Students may access Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Solutions and other chapters by clicking on the links below. In addition, students can also explore NCERT Solutions for other classes below.

NCERT Class 10 Social Science Books Available for:
NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science – Understanding Economic Development
NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science – India and the Contemporary World
NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science – Democratic Politics

Key Features of Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Solutions

The Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Solutions from Extramarks make it easier to comprehend the fundamental concepts of the chapter. Students may quickly review the main concepts taught in class by using this resource to help them revise, which will ultimately help them earn good exam scores.

The essential features of the Geography Class 10 Chapter 5 Solutions provided by Extramarks include the following:

  • The format of the NCERT solutions provides a comprehensive and straightforward overview of India’s mineral and energy resources.
  • Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Solutions by Extramarks gives in-depth replies to chapter questions that allow students to answer end-text queries and example test questions to assist students in becoming well enough in the chosen topics.
  • The Chapter 5 Geography Class 10 notes are created by educated and experienced academics who adhere strictly to the most recent NCERT textbooks to give students authentic and trustworthy study material.
  • Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Solutions by Extramarks are updated regularly following the CBSE Board. Since the NCERT covers most of the questions on Board exams test papers, students may benefit from these useful notes in the future.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is nuclear energy? Where is it produced in India?

Nuclear or atomic energy is generated by modifying the structure of atoms. When such a change is made, a lot of energy is released. The power is in the form of heat, which is used to produce electricity. Atomic and nuclear energy are produced utilizing the uranium and thorium found in Jharkhand and the Aravalli Mountains of Rajasthan. Thorium is also abundant in Kerala’s monazite sands.

Students can use the Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Solutions provided on the Extramarks website to learn about various energy sources.

2. What is peat?

Peat is the earliest stage in the creation of coal. It gradually transforms into lignite as pressure and temperature rise as sediment is stacked on top of partially decaying organic waste. It includes between 40 and 55 per cent carbon. Peat also produces less heat and more smoke and has a high moisture content.