Resources and Development Class 10 Solutions

Geography is the study of the Earth’s surface, habitats, locations, and spaces, as well as their relationships. It tries to explain why things are the way they are and where they are. 

Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 introduces Resources and Development. Furthermore, by digging deeper into the chapter, students will discover India’s resource development and resource planning. They will learn about land resources and how to classify the various types of soils found in India. The chapter concludes with a discussion on soil erosion and conservation. Geography Chapter 1 Class 10 covers all of these topics in depth.

Extramarks has introduced Resources and Development Class 10 NCERT Solutions to enhance student’s understanding of the  chapter through detailed answers to the textual questions.  .Extramarks specialists have done significant research and then compiled these solutions diligently. As the explanations are comprehensive, the fundamentals of the chapter are understood by the students in a better way.

Not just Resources and Development Class 10 Solutions, but material such as NCERT exemplar , CBSE revision notes, CBSE sample papers, CBSE past years’ question papers, and more can be easily found on the Extramarks’ website for all classes.

Key Topics Covered in Resources and Development Class 10 Solutions

Listed below are the key topics that are covered in Resources and Development Class 10 Solutions:

  • Resources 
  • Types of Resources
  • Development of Resources
  • Resource Planning
  • Land Resources
  • Soil as a Resource
  • Classification of Soils
  • Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation

Let us look at Extramarks’ in-depth information on each subtopic in Resources and Development Class 10 Solutions.


Resources and Development Class 10 Solutions explains that ‘Resources’ refers to everything which our environment provides that is economically viable, culturally acceptable, and technologically accessible.

It helps to accelerate economic growth by forming an interaction link between nature, technology, and institutions.

Human beings are also a component of resources since they transform material present in the environment into resources and use them. Therefore, they fall under the category of human resources.

The following criteria can be used to categorise the resources:

  • Based on Origin- biotic and abiotic resources
  • Based on exhaustibility- renewable and non-renewable resources
  • Based on ownership- individual, community, national and international
  • Based on the status of development- potential developed stocks and reserves

Types of Resources

On the basis of Origin

Biotic Resources are living things that come from the biosphere.

Example- Humans, plants and animals, fisheries, cattle, etc.

Abiotic resources are all items that are made up of non-living organisms.

Example- Metals and rocks

On the basis of Exhaustibility 

Renewable or replenishable resources can be replenished or reproduced by physical, chemical, or mechanical processes. 

Examples include solar and wind energy, water, woods, animals, etc.

Non-renewable resources have existed for a very long period in geological history. The creation of these resources takes millions of years. 

Example- Minerals and fossil fuels.

On the basis of ownership

Individual Resources are owned by people individually. For example, those in villages own land, but people in cities possess plots, homes, and other assets.

Example- Plantations, grazing fields, ponds, and well water.

All members of the community can access Community Owned Resources.

For example, grazing fields, cemeteries, public parks, picnic areas, and playgrounds.

A country or a nation owns national resources. Minerals, water resources, forests, animals, and land inside political borders, as well as territorial water and resources up to 12 nautical miles (22.2 km) from the shore, belong to the nation.

International institutions govern international resources. Beyond 200 nautical miles from the exclusive economic zone, marine resources belong to the open ocean, and no country can use them without the approval of international agencies.

On the basis of status development

Potential Resources are resources that have been already discovered in a location but are yet to be used.

Developed Resources are resources that have been surveyed and their quality and quantity have been established to be used. The development of resources is determined by technology and the degree of their feasibility.

Reserves are a subset of the stock that can be used with the help of current technical “know-how” but their use has not been started. These can be put to good use in the future.

Development of Resources

Resources and Development Class 10 Solutions explains that humans have exploited resources indiscriminately, which has resulted in the following main issues:

  • Depletion of resources to satisfy the desire of a few people.
  • The concentration of wealth in a few hands split society into two groups: rich and poor.
  • Global ecological issues such as global warming, ozone layer depletion, pollution, and land degradation have emerged..

Resource management is essential in the prolonged survival of all forms of life. “Progress should take place without harming the environment, and development in the present should not sacrifice the requirements of future generations,” this is known as Sustainable Economic Development.

Resource Planning

Specific locations in India may be termed self-sufficient regarding resource availability, while others suffer acute shortages of important resources. This necessitates balanced resource planning at the national, state, regional, and municipal levels.

Resource Planning in India

Resources and Development Class 10 Solutions explains that resource planning is a complex process that includes:

  • Resource identification and inventory across the country’s regions. Surveying, mapping, and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of resources are all part of this process.
  • Develop a planning framework with the necessary technology, expertise, and institutional infrastructure to carry out resource development plans.
  • Planning for resource development in accordance with national development plans.

Resources can contribute to growth  only when they are accompanie by adequate technical advancements and institutional adjustments.. Since the launch of the First Five Year Plan following Independence, India has made significant attempts to achieve resource planning goals.

Land Resources

The value of land as a natural resource cannot be overstated. Natural flora, animals, human life, economic activity, transportation, and communication networks are all supported by it. India’s topography is covered in mountains, plateaus, plains, and islands, among other relief features.

Land Utilisation

The following are some of the uses of land resources:

  • Forests
  • Land unavailable for cultivation- Barre or wasteland and land put to agricultural use.
  • Other uncultivated lands such as culturable wasteland, grazing land, etc
  • Fallow land
  • Net sown area

Land use pattern in India

  • Physical elements such as terrain, climate, and soil types, as well as human factors such as population density, technical competence, and culture and traditions, are used to influence how land is used.
  • The net sown area pattern varies substantially from one state to the next. For example, Punjab and Haryana account for more than 80% of the entire area, whereas Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur, and the Andaman Nicobar Islands account for less than 10%.
  • The country’s forest acreage is significantly less than the intended 33% of geographical area, as indicated in the National Forest Policy (1952).
  • “wasteland” refers to stony, dry, or desert-like locations. Settlements, roads, trains, and industries are examples of non-agricultural uses of land.

Land Degradation and Conservation Measures

Land degradation has been worsened by human activities such as deforestation, overgrazing, mining, and quarrying. Mining sites leave deep scars and evidence of overburdening the ground. In addition, in many sections of the nation, industrial effluents as waste have become a significant cause of land and water pollution in recent years.

The following are some of the methods given by Resources and Development Class 10 Solutions in which one might address the issue of land degradation:

  • Afforestation and adequate grazing management.
  • Planting of plant shelterbelts.
  • The growth of prickly shrubs stabilises dunes.
  • Wastelands must be managed appropriately.
  • Mining operations are under control.
  • After treatment, proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes.

Soil as a Resource

The most valuable renewable natural resource is soil. It serves as a growing medium for plants and a habitat for various living species.

  • Soil formation up to a depth of a few centimetres takes millions of years. Various natural processes, including temperature changes, running water, wind, glaciers, decomposer activity, and so on, contribute to soil development.
  • Soil formation is influenced by parent rock or bedrock, climate, flora, other kinds of life, and time.
  • Organic (humus) and inorganic components coexist in soil.

Classification of Soils

The various types of soils of India are divided into distinct varieties based on the elements that cause soil formation, such as colour, thickness, texture, age, chemical, and physical features. Resources and Development Class 10 Solutions explains each type of soil in the following section:

Alluvial Soil

  • Alluvial soil covers the whole northern plains.
  • The Indus, Ganga, and the Brahmaputra are three major Himalayan River systems that deposit alluvial soil.
  • It’s also found in Rajasthan, Gujarat, and the eastern coastal plains, especially in the Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri River deltas.

Black Soil

  • This black-coloured soil is also known as regular soil. The production of black soil is influenced by climatic circumstances and the parent rock material.
  • The soil, also known as black cotton soil, is perfect for growing cotton.
  • The soil stretches southeast along the Godavari and Krishna basins, covering the Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh plateaus.

Red and Yellow Soils

  • This type of soil forms crystalline igneous rocks in low-rainfall sections of the Deccan plateau’s eastern and southern regions.
  • Due to iron diffusion in crystalline and metamorphic rocks, these soils become reddish. However, when it is hydrated, it has a yellow appearance.
  • Sections of Odisha, Chhattisgarh, the southern parts of the middle Ganga plain, and the piedmont zone of the Western Ghats are home to this species.

Laterite Soil

  • Laterite soil grows in tropical and subtropical climates with alternate rainy and dry seasons.
  • This type of soil is generally found in the southern states, the Maharashtra Western Ghats area, Odisha, certain portions of West Bengal, and the Northeast regions.

Arid Soils

  • The colour of arid soils ranges from red to brown.
  • The texture of this soil is often sandy, and it is saline. The salt concentration in some regions is relatively high, and common salt is created by evaporating the water.

Forest Soils

  • These soils are prevalent in mountainous and hilly places.
  • The soil texture on the valley sides is loamy and silty, whereas the top slopes have a coarser texture.

Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation

Soil erosion is the process of the soil cover becoming depleted and washed away. Human activities such as deforestation, overgrazing, building, and mining, among others, cause soil erosion. Soil erosion is also caused by natural factors such as wind, glaciers, and water. Defective agricultural techniques also contribute to soil erosion.

Sheet erosion occurs when water runs in a sheet across a vast area down a slope, washing away the topsoil. Wind erosion is the process of loose dirt blown off the flat or sloping ground by the wind.

Different ways of Soil Conservation

  • The flow of water down the slopes is slowed by ploughing following the contour lines. Contour ploughing is the term for this type of ploughing.
  • Erosion is limited by terrace gardening. This form of agriculture is used in the Western and Central Himalayas. 
  • When a vast field is split into strips, the grass is let to grow in the gaps between the crops. This then splits up the wind’s power. Strip cropping is the name for this technique.
  • Planting tree lines to provide shelter helps stabilise dunes and the desert in western India. The name given to such a series of trees planted in a row is Shelter Belts. 

Resources and Development Class 10 Solutions Exercise and Solutions

Extramarks Resources and Development Class 10 Solutions and other chapter solutions are a combination of explanations of necessary details and critical topics of the chapters. Click on the below links to view Resources and Development Class 10 Solutions:

Class 10 Geography Chapter 1: Very Short Answer Type Questions

Class 10 Geography Chapter 1: Short Answer Type Questions

Class 10 Geography Chapter 1: Long Answer Type Questions

Students may access Resources and Development Class 10 Solutions and other chapters by clicking here. In addition, students can also explore NCERT Solutions for other classes below.

NCERT Class 10 Social Science Books Available for:
NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science – Understanding Economic Development
NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science – India and the Contemporary World
NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science – Democratic Politics

By accessing Resources and Development Class 10 Solutions, students can easily go through extensive answers of the chapter – Resources and  Development.

Key Features of Resources and Development Class 10 Solutions

Students must go through NCERT Solutions to prepare for the Class 10 board examination. Each chapter’s concepts are covered in detail in these solutions. Extramarks Resources and Development Class 10 Solutions have several advantages, such as:

  • These solutions are a solved key to textual questions which have been prepared systematically to help students understand critical topics easily and have better retaining power.
  • After going through these solutions, students experience high confidence levels.
  • The answers in these solutions cover all the topics of the chapter concisely and systematically.

Q.1 Multiple choice questions.

(i) Which one of the following type of resource is iron ore?
(a) Renewable (c) Flow
(b) Biotic (d) Non-renewable

(ii) Under which of the following type of resource tidal energy cannot be put?
(a) Replenishable (c) Abiotic
(b) Human-made (d) Non-recyclable

(iii) Which one of the following is the main cause of land degradation in Punjab?
(a) Intensive cultivation (c) Over irrigation
(b) Deforestation (d) Overgrazing

(iv) In which one of the following states is terrace cultivation practised?
(a) Punjab (c) Haryana
(b) Plains of Uttar Pradesh (d) Uttarakhand

(v) In which of the following states black soil is predominantly found?
(a) Jammu and Kashmir (c) Rajasthan
(b) Maharashtra (d) Jharkhand


(i) (d) Non-renewable ✓

(ii) (b) Human-made ✓

(iii) (c) Over irrigation ✓

(iv) (d) Uttarakhand ✓

(v) (b) Maharashtra ✓

Q.2 Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) Name three states having black soil and the crop which is mainly grown in it.
(ii) What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast? Give three main features of this type of soil.
(iii) What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas?
(iv) What are the biotic and abiotic resources? Give some examples.


(i) Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Gujarat are states having black soil. Black soil is ideal for growing cotton.

(ii) Alluvial Soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast. Three features of alluvial soil:

  • It is very fertile.
  • Ideal for growing sugarcane, wheat and rice.
  • The regions of alluvial soils like northern plains are intensively cultivated and densely populated.

(iii) In hilly areas, soil erosion can be controlled by the following:

  • Ploughing along the contour lines can decelerate the flow of water.
  • Use of terrace farming techniques in agriculture.
  • Using strips of grasses to check soil erosion by wind and water.

(iv) Biotic Resources: The resources, which are obtained from the biosphere and have life, are called biotic resources. For example, flora, fauna, fisheries, livestock, etc.

Abiotic Resources: The resources, which are composed of non-living things, are called abiotic resources. Such as, water, metals, solar energy, wind, minerals such as gold, iron, copper, etc.

Q.3 Answer the following questions in about 120 words.

(i) Explain land use pattern in India and why has the land under forest not increased much since 1960-61?
(ii) How have technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources?


(i) The landuse of India is determined both by physical and human factors. Total geographical area of India is 3.28 million sq km, but landuse data is available of for 93% of the total area. Some areas of Jammu and Kashmir occupied by Pakistan and China have also not been surveyed. Land resources in India are primarily divided into forest, barren and unculturable wasteland, area under non-agricultural uses, permanent pasture, and grazing land, area under tree crops and groves, culturable wasteland, follow land, current follow, and new sown area. Wasteland includes rocky, arid, and desert areas, and land used for other non-agricultural purposes such as housing, roads, and industry. According to the recent data, about 46.24% of the total land area is net sown area, 22.78% is covered by forests, and 3.38% is used for grazing. The rest is wasteland, with traces of miscellaneous cultivation.

The land under forest has not increased much since 1960–61 because in the post-independence era demand for more land to expand agriculture, Industrialisation, urbanisation, developmental works, and infrastructural facilities, led to clearance of forests areas. Thus, land under forest has increased by only about 4% since 1960-61.

(ii) Economic development is determined both by the availability of natural resources and by the level of skilled workforce. Technological development also leads to economic development. When the economic condition of a country rises, the needs of people also rise. As a result, production increases ultimately leading to consumption of more resources. Economic development provides favourable environment for the development of latest technologies. It helps to make or convert various materials found around us into resources, and results into the consumption of available resources.

Q.4 Solve the puzzle by following your search horizontally and vertically to find the hidden answers.

(i) Natural endowments in the form of land, water, vegetation and minerals.
(ii) A type of non-renewable resource.
(iii) Soil with high water retaining capacity.
(iv) Intensively leached soils of the monsoon climate.
(v) Plantation of trees on a large scale to check soil erosion.
(vi) The Great Plains of India are made up of these soils.


(i) Resources

(ii) Minerals

(iii) Black

(iv) Laterite

(v) Afforestation

(vi) Alluvial

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