NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16
In Chemistry 12th grade, the application of chemicals and chemical processes in daily life is discussed in Chapter 16. The chapter also discusses drug types and Classifications, such as those found in foods and cleansing agents. The therapeutic effects of various drug Classes and drug-target interactions are also discussed. The Chapter imparts some fundamental Chemistry understanding. NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 also explains how Chemistry has impacted our lives that we aren’t even aware of. We are constantly exposed to chemicals.
According to CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16, drugs are compounds with low molecular masses. They bind with macromolecular targets and cause a biological reaction. Medicines are substances that are used to diagnose, prevent, and treat diseases when the biological reaction is therapeutic and beneficial. By completing Extramarks NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16, you will be able to answer any questions you may have about this subject.
The textbook problems, MCQs, HOTS (Higher Order Thinking Skills), worksheets, exercises, and assignments are explained in detail in NCERT Solutions. In order to understand Class 12 Chemistry, students must be able to answer the questions at the end of each Chapter. The best option to answer these questions is to use Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16. For easier comprehension, these Solutions are presented in a step-by-step format. You can access these NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 from the sections below.
Key Topics Covered in NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16
Everyday Chemistry is concerned with the use of chemicals and chemical processes in everyday situations. The Chapter also goes into detail on Drugs and their categories. The following are the significant subtopics for these Chapters:
- Drugs and their Classification.
- Drug target interaction.
- The therapeutic action of various drug Classes.
- Chemicals in foods.
- Cleansing agents.
Apart from pharmacological Classification, the role of enzymes, inhibitory processes, and receptors are other essential topics students must prepare for the final term examination. To attempt brief and very short questions from this section, students should also understand various medications such as antacids, neurologically active pharmaceuticals, and antihistamines.
All key topics relating to chemical applications and medication classification are covered in the NCERT solution for daily Chemistry. The topics of cleansing agents, chemicals in food, and so forth are covered in depth. Subtopics such as enzyme functions, inhibitor processes, and receptors are thoroughly presented with examples and good visuals.
In addition, queries about antacids, neurologically active medications, antihistamines, antimicrobials, and infertility drugs are answered in great detail. Notably, NCERT Solutions cover all of these topics in two questions. The first section provides Solutions to all NCERT questions, while the second section provides answers to In-text questions to aid comprehension.
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16: Marks Weightage.
|Unit Name||Marks Weightage|
|Chemistry in Everyday Life||3|
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16: Exercises & Answers
Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 also states that most chemicals used as treatments are potential poisons if used in amounts higher than what was prescribed.
The importance of Chemistry in our daily lives is highlighted in ‘Chemistry in Everyday Life. Students learn to use Chemistry in three different fields:
- Cleaning agents
Solving the problems for NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 will help you better understand these concepts. Extramarks explains each and every topic in its comprehensive and carefully defined NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 in detail. You can look over the Solutions and save the links to use later.
Another one among the core topics includes ‘Macromolecules’ of biological origin that serve a variety of activities in a body. Enzymes, for example, are proteins that act as biological catalysts in the body.
Below are some links to Chapter 16 NCERT Solutions for Class 12:
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Ex 16.1
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Ex 16.2
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Ex 16.3
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Ex 16.4
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Ex 16.5
Important Questions from Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16
- What is Chemotherapy, and how does it work?
- What is the definition of a food preservative? Give an example.
- Which material can be used as a disinfectant and an antiseptic simultaneously?
- What is the name of the sweetening agent that is used to make diabetic sweets?
- Describe the cleansing function of soap in detail.
- What is a cationic detergent, and how does it work? Give an example to illustrate your point.
- What does the term ‘Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics’ mean?
- Identify the forces that keep medicines bound to enzyme active sites.
- Why is it that soap doesn’t work in hard water?
- Define the terms Cationic, Anionic, and Non-ionic detergent with examples.
- Why are soaps preferable to synthetic detergents?
- What is an Iodine Tincture? What is its purpose?
Our topic experts create NCERT Solutions to help students comprehend ideas more quickly and adequately. NCERT Solutions by Extramarks are step-by-step Solutions to textbook issues that are thorough. These Solutions are available to students from all grades.
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NCERT Exemplar Class 12 Chemistry
Students can use the NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Exemplars to help them score high marks in their NCERT Class 12 Examinations and graduate admission tests. NCERT Exemplar for Class 12 Chemistry includes solved Chapter-by-Chapter questions to help students quickly review the syllabus and perform well in Examinations.
Students can better understand the subject by practising problems from this guide, as all of the questions are answered by Extramarks’ subject expert team under the NCERT syllabus guidelines (2022-2023).
Q.1 Why do we need to classify drugs in different ways?
The classification of drugs and the reasons for classification are as follows:
(i) On the basis of pharmacological effect:
This classification provides doctors the whole range of drugs available for the treatment of a particular type of problem. Hence, such a classification is very useful to doctors.
(ii) On the basis of drug action:
This classification is based on the action of a drug on a particular biochemical process. Thus, this classification is important.
(iii) On the basis of chemical structure:
This classification provides the range of drugs sharing common structural features and often having similar pharmacological activity.
(iv) On the basis of molecular targets:
This classification provides medicinal chemists the drugs having the same mechanism of action on targets. Hence, it is the most useful to medicinal chemists.
Q.2 Explain the term target molecules or drug targets as used in medicinal chemistry.
In medicinal chemistry, drug targets refer to the key molecules involved in certain metabolic pathways that result in specific diseases. Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids are examples of drug targets. Drugs are chemical agents designed to inhibit these target molecules by binding with the active sites of the key molecules.
Q.3 Name the macromolecules that are chosen as drug targets.
The macromolecules chosen as drug targets are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
Q.4 Why should not medicines be taken without consulting doctors?
A medicine can bind to more than one receptor site. Thus, a medicine may be toxic for some receptor sites. Further, in most cases, medicines cause harmful effects when taken in higher doses than recommended. As a result, medicines may be poisonous in such cases. Hence, medicines should not be taken without consulting doctors.
Q.5 Define the term chemotherapy.
The use of chemicals for therapeutic effect is called chemotherapy.
Q.6 Which forces are involved in holding the drugs to the active site of enzymes?
Either of the following forces can be involved in holding drugs to the active sites of enzymes:
(i) Ionic bonding
(ii) Hydrogen bonding
(iii) Dipole − dipole interaction
(iv) Van der Waals interaction
Q.7 While antacids and antiallergic drugs interfere with the function of histamines, why do these not interfere with the function of each other?
Specific drugs affect particular receptors. Antacids and anti-allergic drugs work on different receptors. This is the reason why antacids and anti-allergic drugs do not interfere with each other’s functions, but interfere with the functions of histamines.
Q.8 Low level of noradrenaline is the cause of depression. What types of drugs are needed to cure this problem? Name two drugs.
Anti-depressant drugs are needed to counteract the effect of depression. These drugs inhibit enzymes catalysing the degradation of the neurotransmitter, noradrenaline. As a result, the important neurotransmitter is slowly metabolised and then it can activate its receptor for longer periods of time.
Two anti-depressant drugs are:
Q.9 What is meant by the term ‘broad spectrum antibiotics’? Explain.
Antibiotics that are effective against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria are known as broad spectrum antibiotics. Chloramphenicol is a broad spectrum antibiotic.
It can be used for the treatment of typhoid, dysentery, acute fever, pneumonia, meningitis and certain forms of urinary infections. Two other broad spectrum antibiotics are vancomycin and ofloxacin. Ampicillin and amoxicillin, synthetically modified from penicillin are also broad spectrum antibiotics.
Q.10 How do antiseptics differ from disinfectants? Give one example of each.
Antiseptics are applied to the living tissues such as cuts, wounds, ulcers and diseased skin surfaces. Iodine is an example of a strong antiseptic. Tincture of iodine (2 − 3 % of solution of iodine in alcohol − water mixture) is applied to wounds.
Disinfectants are applied to inanimate objects such as floors, instruments, drainage system, etc. Disinfectants are harmful to the living tissues. For example, 1 % solution of phenol is used as a disinfectant.
Q.11 Why are cimetidine and ranitidine better antacids than sodium hydrogen carbonate or magnesium or aluminium hydroxide?
Antacids such as sodium hydrogen carbonate, magnesium hydroxide and aluminium hydroxide work by neutralising the excess hydrochloric acid present in the stomach. However, the root cause for the release of excess acid remains untreated. Cimetidine and rantidine are better antacids as they control the root cause of acidity. These drugs prevent the interaction of histamine with the receptors present in the stomach walls. Consequently, there is a decrease in the amount of acid released by the stomach. This is why cimetidine and rantidine are better antacids than sodium hydrogen carbonate, magnesium hydroxide and aluminium hydroxide.
Q.12 Name a substance which can be used as an antiseptic as well as disinfectant.
Phenol can be used as an antiseptic as well as a disinfectant. 0.2 % solution of phenol is used as an antiseptic, while 1 % of its solution is used as a disinfectant.
Q.13 What are the main constituents of dettol?
The main constituents of dettol are chloroxylenol and α-terpineol.
Q.14 What is tincture of iodine? What is its use?
Tincture of iodine is a 2 − 3 percent solution of iodine in alcohol − water mixture. It is applied to wounds as an antiseptic.
Q.15 What are food preservatives?
Food preservatives are chemicals that prevent food from spoilage due to microbial growth. Table salt, sugar, vegetable oils and sodium benzoate (C6H5COONa) and salts of propanoic acid are some examples of food preservatives.
Q.16 Why is use of aspartame limited to cold foods and drinks?
Aspartame becomes unstable at cooking temperature. This is the reason why its use is limited to cold foods and drinks.
Q.17 What are artificial sweetening agents? Give two examples.
Artificial sweetening agents are chemicals that sweeten food. However, unlike natural sweeteners, they do not add calories to our body. They do not harm the human body. Examples of artificial sweeteners are aspartame and saccharin.
Q.18 Name the sweetening agent used in the preparation of sweets for a diabetic patient.
Artificial sweetening agents such as saccharin and aspartame can be used in preparing sweets for diabetic patients.
Q.19 What problem arises in using alitame as artificial sweetener?
Alitame is a high potency sweetener. It is difficult to control the sweetness of food while using alitame as an artificial sweetener.
Q.20 How are synthetic detergents better than soap?
Soaps work in soft water. However, they are not effective in hard water. In contrast, synthetic detergents work both in soft water and hard water. Therefore, synthetic detergents are better than soaps.
Q.21 Explain the following terms with suitable examples
(i) cationic detergents
(ii) anionic detergents and
(iii) non-ionic detergents.
(i) Cationic detergents
Cationic detergents are quaternary ammonium salts of acetates, chlorides or bromides. These are called cationic detergents because the cationic part of these detergents contains a long hydrocarbon chain and a positive charge on the N-atom. For example, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide.
(ii) Anionic detergents
Anionic detergents are of two types:
1. Sodium alkyl sulphates: These detergents are sodium salts of sulphonated long chain alcohols. They are prepared by first treating these alcohols with concentrated sulphuric acid and then with an alkali like sodium hydroxide. For example,sodium lauryl sulphate, C11H23CH2OSO3– Na+.
2. Sodium alkylbenzenesulphonates: These detergents are sodium salts of long chain alkylbenzenesulphonic acids. They are prepared by Friedel-Crafts alkylation of benzene with long chain alkyl halides or alkenes. The obtained product is first treated with concentrated sulphuric acid and then with sodium hydroxide. Sodium 4-(1-dodecyl) benzenesulphonate (SDS) is an example of anionic detergents.
(iii) Non-ionic detergents
Molecules of these detergents do not contain any ions. These detergents are esters of alcohols having high molecular mass. They are obtained by reacting polyethylene glycol and stearic acid.
Q.22 What are biodegradable and non-biodegradable detergents? Give one example of each.
Detergents that can be degraded by bacteria are called biodegradable detergents. Such detergents have straight hydrocarbon chains. For example: sodium lauryl sulphate. Detergents that cannot be degraded by bacteria are called non-biodegradable detergents. Such detergents have highly-branched hydrocarbon chains. For example: sodium -4- (1, 3, 5, 7- tetramethyloctyl) benzene sulphonate
Q.23 Why do soaps not work in hard water?
Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of long-chain fatty acids. Hard water contains calcium and magnesium ions. When soaps are dissolved in hard water, these ions displace sodium or potassium from their salts and form insoluble calcium or magnesium salts of fatty acids. These insoluble salts separate as scum.
This is the reason why soaps do not work in hard water.
Q.24 Can you use soaps and synthetic detergents to check the hardness of water?
Soaps get precipitated in hard water, but not in soft water. Therefore, soaps can be used for checking the hardness of water. However, synthetic detergents do not get precipitated either in hard water or in soft water. Therefore, synthetic detergents cannot be used for checking the hardness of water.
Q.25 Explain the cleansing action of soaps.
Soap molecules form micelles around an oil droplet (dirt) in such a way that the hydrophobic parts of the stearate ions attach themselves to the oil droplet and the hydrophilic parts project outside the oil droplet. Due to the polar nature of the hydrophilic parts, the stearate ions (along with the dirt) are pulled into water, thereby removing the dirt from the cloth.
Q.26 If water contains dissolved calcium hydrogen carbonate, out of soaps and synthetic detergents which one will you use for cleaning clothes?
Synthetic detergents are preferred for cleaning clothes. When soaps are dissolved in water containing calcium ions, these ions form insoluble salts that are of no further use. However, when synthetic detergents are dissolved in water containing calcium ions, these ions form soluble salts that act as cleansing agents.
Q.27 Label the hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts in the following compounds.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. How do soaps work?
Soap is cleaned, and an emulsifying agent is made mainly from sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids and created by alkali action on fat or fatty acids. It serves as a bridge between nonpolar oil molecules and polar water molecules. Oil-loving Water Phobic tails cling to it and trap it in the centre, where it can’t come into contact with water. As the oil securely encloses in the centre of the particle, the micelle becomes water-soluble.
2. What are drugs, and how are they Classified in Chapter 16 of Class 12?
There are six basic classes of drugs based on their chemical makeup: alcohol, opioids, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, barbiturates, and hallucinogens. Every medication (both prescribed and illegal) falls into these six categories.
The papers prepared by Extramarks on NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 ‘Chemistry in Everyday Life’ will assist you in resolving any questions that may arise during the preparation period. Extramarks recommend you visit the NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 links to have the best preparation. We also suggest that students solve papers from past years and take a suitable number of mock examinations independently.
3. How do we apply Chemistry in our daily lives?
To keep our clothes clean, we use chemicals. Chemicals are used to clean both kitchenware and clothing. Chemicals are utilised to manufacture cement and other building materials (paints, plaster). It’s fascinating to realise that the cooking process involves Chemistry. It can be found in the food we eat, the air we breathe, cleaning chemicals, emotions, and almost everything else we can see or touch. We have to pay attention and understand that various substances always surround us.
4. Why should I use Extramarks to get NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16?
Students usually consider Chemistry a complex subject since it involves derivations, concepts, structural formulas, and chemical reactions. Extramarks’ NCERT Solutions give students a good knowledge of the vital concepts for the examination. The Solutions comply with the NCERT’s latest syllabus. Students can access Extramarks’ links to analyse the questions and their answers from the Chapter.
5. What exactly do you mean when you say "Food Preservatives"?
Food preservatives are chemicals added to our food to prevent the growth of microbes. As this function often requires the preservative to be absorbed by the organism in question, the preservative’s chemical structure must be such that it can pass through the microbial cell wall. Food preservatives prevent food from rotting by suppressing microbial growth. In addition to emulsifying and stabilising chemicals, preservatives contribute to the product’s appearance and consistency.
6. What role does Chemistry play in the development of pharmaceuticals?
Chemistry is involved in medicines that are used to treat an ailment. Surgical materials are made and used with the help of Chemistry (sutures, artificial skin, and sterile materials). Many sutures used in today’s surgeries do not need to be removed because they dissolve in the body after a while. Chemistry procedures are used in many laboratory experiments. Medication development involves several sophisticated Chemical processes which can only be created with the knowledge of ‘Chemistry’.