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The French Revolution, which led to creation of a collective identity and uniform laws, led to spread of nationalist ideas across Europe. French rule spread under Napoleon throughout Europe. Reaction to his rule, was initially welcoming, but soon became hostile. Napoleon was defeated and exiled, but he briefly returned before being finally defeated in 1815. He was exiled again and died in 1821. Idea of Nationalism emerged in 19th century Europe. New concepts, like Nation-State and various notions of Liberalism, emerged. Many changes introduced by Napoleon were undone by conservative regimes, who also imposed censorship of press. This led to formation of secret societies, which trained revolutionaries. Events like Greek War of Independence and July Revolution in France and Belgium revived nationalist spirit. By late 1840s, economic hardship led to revolts throughout Europe, culminating in revolution of 1848, which began in France. After 1848, Prussia, under Chief Minister Otto von Bismarck led German unification, which was completed in 1871. Initial efforts to unite Italy after 1815, by Giuseppe Mazzini, failed. After 1848, the Italian kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont, under Chief Minister Count Cavour, led Italian unification, along with Garibaldi. In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II became king of united Italy. There was no British nation till 18th century. But under England, Scotland and Ireland were incorporated into United Kingdom. Countries like France, Germany and Britain used various symbols, especially allegories to represent their respective nations. From late 19th century, European powers manipulated nationalist sentiments to for their own imperialist aims. This was especially so in the Balkans, where many European regions of the Ottoman Empire became independent. They then warred against each other to gain more territories.

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