CBSE Class 10 Social Science Geography Revision Notes Chapter 5

CBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Notes – Minerals and Energy Resources

Minerals and energy resources are essential parts of human life. The Earth’s crust has several minerals in it that are in the form of rocks. The minerals are extracted from these rocks and refined for people’s use. CBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Notes will guide students into the world of minerals and energy resources. They will get familiar with what minerals and energy resources are, and also how they are useful for humans.  

CBSE Class 10 Social Science Geography Revision Notes for the Year 2022-23

Sign Up and get complete access to CBSE Class 10 Geography Chapterwise Revision Notes for the following chapters:

CBSE Class 10 Social Science Geography Revision Notes
Sr No. Chapters
1 Chapter 1 – Resources and Development
2 Chapter 2 – Forest and Wildlife Resources
3 Chapter 3 – Water Resources
4 Chapter 4 – Agriculture
5 Chapter 5 – Minerals and Energy Resources
6 Chapter 6 – Manufacturing Industries
7 Chapter 7 – Lifelines of National Economy

Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Notes Geography Chapter 5


Resources are physical materials that humans require to meet their daily needs. The resources can be related to land, air and water. These resources have high value worldwide, thus having great significance in the economy. However, the primary classification of human resources is into mineral and energy resources.

But these can be further classified in many ways. The planet we live on has a crust of solid rock minerals. The minerals are valuable, homogeneous natural resources that can be used as renewable and non-renewable. For example, fuel, ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Ferrous metals contain iron, while non-ferrous metals are without iron. 


An ore is a type of mineral with metallic properties. It is available in concentrated form on Earth. Humans refine the ore resources before using them to extract the metals. 

The sediment has one or more minerals. These are mined, treated and then sold at a profit in the markets. The Earth’s crust is the source of these minerals, and after refining, they become of great value for human consumption. 

Some examples of ore are cinnabar, ore of tin, and ore of mercury.

Classification of Minerals – Metalli

Metallic minerals are further classified into ferrous, non-ferrous and precious metals. Here we have them discussed one by one for student learning: 

Ferrous Minerals 

Iron Ore

Iron ore is the backbone of industrial development. It is an integral part of civilisation as everything we use comes from it. The tiny safety pins of the large buildings, roads, etc., are all steel and iron. We use it everywhere for our human needs and to make our lives convenient. There are four classes of iron ore: 

  • Magnetite is the refined quality ore, black.
  • Hematite is another good quality ore. It is a reddish colour ore with rich iron content. India is rich in iron ore deposits; with the map and details, students can know where they can find iron ore in India. 

Distribution of Iron Ore in India:

States  Mining Areas
Odisha  Gorumahisani, Badampahar in Mayurbhanj 
Jharkhand  Singhbhum, Noamundi
Chattisgarh  Dalli-Rajhara, Bailadila in Bastar District 
Goa  Bicholim, Ratnagiri District 
Karnataka  Kudremukh in Chikmagalur, Bellary district



Manganese is a mineral that is found in several components. It is used in manufacturing ferro-manganese alloy and steel. Almost 10 kg of manganese is required for manufacturing one tonne of steel. The mineral is also used for making paints, bleaching powder, and insecticides. 

Non-Ferrous Minerals

Non-ferrous metallic minerals are non-iron metals. These are used in many valuable items like copper, bauxite, lead, zinc and gold. 


Copper is a ductile metal. It is the chemical element with the symbol Cu, and the atomic number is 29. It is a soft metal with high thermal conductivity. Therefore, the metal is suitable for manufacturing electric wires. 

Chemical and electronics industries use metal for their operations. 

State-wise distribution of copper ore in India: 

State  Mining Area
Madhya Pradesh  Balaghat 
Jharkhand  Singhbhum 
Rajasthan  Khetri 



Bauxite is a rock metal with aluminium oxides. 

Aluminium is an essential metallic mineral. It is light and resistant to corrosion. Many industries use it to combine the strength of metals like iron ore. 

Odisha is the leading producer of bauxite. Other than this, the metal is available in Koraput and Sambalpur. 

Non-Metallic Minerals

Non-metallic minerals are unique chemical elements. Therefore, the metal cannot be melted to generate new products. 

Examples are mica, sand, clay, limestone and marble. 


Mica has thin crystal layers and is brittle. The metal can be easily broken into sheets and has a low power-loss factor.

It is resistant to high voltage and is used in electrical products. 

Many electronic industries use mica for their manufacturing.

State-wise distribution of mica in India: 

State  Mining Area
Jharkhand  On the northern edge of the Chota Nagpur plateau, Koderma Gaya of the Hazaribagh belt is India’s leading mica producer.
Rajasthan  Ajmer 
Andhra Pradesh Nellore


Energy Resources

Energy resources are the leading energy-producing resources. The resources can be derived from various sources. For example, humans use them to produce heat and light. Also, we need it to make food, get electricity and run vehicles. 

Energy resources are classified into two types: 

  • Conventional resources 
  • Non-conventional resources

Conventional Energy Resources

Conventional energy resources are broadly used in daily lives. Humans use it on a large commercial scale to generate electricity. Power generation is done using the resources. 

The resources include non-renewable fossil resources of coal, natural gas and petroleum. With the resources, they also use water to make power. 


Coal is a natural ingredient that is made from the remains of plants. The plants get buried in deep layers of Earth. After millions of years, these form coal. It is used for various purposes like generating electricity, cement production and commercial heating. 

Types of Coal:

Coal is classified into the following types: 

  • Peat (first stage)
  • Lignite or Brown coal (second stage with 30-40% carbon)
  • Bituminous coal (third stage with 40-80% carbon content) is the most popular in commercial use. 
  • Anthracite coal (fourth stage with 90% carbon content) is the hard coal.

Importance and Uses of Coal

  • Coal is an essential component and source of power in India. 
  • In addition, coal is a domestic fuel with high use in the market. 

Regional Distribution of Coal

  • The primary source of Gondwana coal is in Damodar Valley. 
  • Jharia, Bokaro, and Giridih in Jharkhand are essential coalfields.


A significant resource that is of high use to drive vehicles, it is formed from dead plants and animals buried under the Earth’s surface. These are in the rocky strata on the ocean ground. 

It is helpful for domestic and industrial purposes and is referred to as liquid gold. 

Regional Distribution of Petroleum

  • Bombay High has 60-63% of the country’s total petroleum production. 
  • 18-19% of the mineral resources of petroleum are from Gujarat. Ankleshwar is an oil mining field in Gujarat. 
  • 16% of petroleum comes from Assam. It has the oldest field in India, located in Digboi.

Natural Gas

Natural gas is a clean environment energy resource. This is because it emits less carbon dioxide from its combustion. 

The mixture occurs naturally of the gases in the air. 


Hydro-electricity is a water-based resource. The water is stored and used to generate electricity by constructing dams on the rivers. The water falls from the height through dams over the turbines. 

The turbine blades move and, using the force of falling water, generate power. Some of the famous Indian dams are Bhakra Nangal, Hirakund and Damodar valley. 

Thermal Electricity

Thermal electricity is produced at thermal power stations. It converts heat energy into electrical energy. Fossil fuels like coal, natural gas and petroleum generate thermal energy. 

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear energy is the conversion of one atom of a chemical element into another. The conversion releases nuclear energy. In India, many places have reserves of nuclear minerals. 

For example, uranium deposits in Rajasthan and Jharkhand. 

Non-Conventional Energy Resources

Non-conventional energy resources are eco-friendly. They reduce the carbon footprint and do not emit greenhouse gases. Thus, not polluting the environment. The resources are natural and can be renewed. 

Also, these are the flow resources as they are inexhaustible and sustainable. 

Solar Energy

Solar energy is heat-generating energy. The heat captured from the sun is used to convert it into electricity. The solar energy collector and concentrator are used in various applications. 

It can be used for domestic and commercial purposes. To generate the power, it is used with solar panels, solar cookers, solar water heating systems, air heating systems and refrigerators, etc. 

India has sizable solar energy plants, and its largest plant is in Madhapur, Gujarat. 

Wind Energy

The wind is a good source of creating electricity. The high wind moves the turbines and makes power. These are efficient ways of generating electricity. The main plant of wind energy is in Tamil Nadu. 

The coastal areas of Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Maharashtra have steady winds. These have high speed moving the machine to have power generation. 

Biogas Energy

Biogas is an organic gaseous mixture used to make electricity—the organic matter without oxygen breakdowns, primarily methane and carbon dioxide. The kitchen waste, agricultural waste and plant waste are used for it.

It is a natural process of degrading matters. The manure is used to generate power and is a cost-efficient system.

Tidal Energy

Tidal energy is generated from the tides of oceans. The areas situated in coastal regions are a great source of energy. The Bay of Bengal is an example of such a place. The energy is extracted from the tides making power available to humans. 

Geothermal Energy

Geothermal is heat energy. It is available in deep rocks where the groundwater absorbs the heat from the rocks. As a result, the water is warm at such places when reaching the Earth’s surface. 

With the help of turbines, the energy is converted into electrical energy. For instance, the Parvati Valley in Himachal Pradesh is a geothermal energy source in India. 

Important Questions and Answers

  1. State some products used in daily life and are made of metals.

Ans- Railway lines, machinery, and cars are made of metals and used in everyday life.

  1. Name the metals doing the cleansing work.

Ans- Cleansing work is done by Manganese metal. Examples are silica, oxide and phosphate minerals. 

  1. Which rock consists of a single mineral only?

Ans- Limestone 

  1. Define mineral, or, what is a mineral?

Ans- Mineral is a homogeneous mixture. It occurs naturally with a definable internal structure. 

  1. How do geographers study minerals?

Ans- Geographers study the mineral composition as part of Earth’s crust. They better understand the landforms and get a deep understanding of the surface. 

  1. State some non-metallic minerals?

Ans- Some non-metallic minerals include; mica, salt, sulphur and granite. 

  1. What type of mineral is copper?

Ans- Copper is a metallic mineral. 

  1. What are energy minerals?

Ans- Energy minerals are natural resources formed under the Earth’s crust. Examples of energy minerals are coal, petroleum and natural gas. 

  1. Where can one find minerals?

Ans- Minerals are found in ores. 

  1. Which minerals are formed as a result of evaporation?

Ans- Potash salt and sodium salt

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Notes

The Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Notes give a detailed analysis of minerals and resources. Students can learn about the resources and how they are formed, and their types. 


A mineral is a solid chemical substance. It has well-defined chemical properties and a specific crystalline structure. 

The substance occurs naturally in a pure form. 

Natural substances like coal, natural gas, petroleum, salt, and oil are good examples of minerals. 

Classification of Minerals

Minerals are classified into metallic and non-metallic, per the Chapter 5 Geography Class 10 Notes. Metallic minerals contain metal in raw form. In contrast, non-metallic minerals are minerals which cannot be melted to form new products. 

Ferrous Minerals

Ferrous minerals contain iron. These are 75% of the total production of minerals in India. Moreover, the minerals are exported from the country for profit-making. Hence, it contributes to economic growth. 

Iron ore and manganese are two essential ferrous minerals available in India. 

Non-Ferrous Minerals

Non-ferrous minerals are the opposite of ferrous minerals. They do not contain iron. 

Examples of non-ferrous minerals are aluminium, copper, lead, and zinc. Humans use them for various purposes. 

Like copper is used in electric wires or to make utensils. 

Non-Metallic Minerals

Non-metallic minerals do not contain any mineral substance. Minerals are highly available in young folded mountains and sedimentary rocks. Some of the non-metallic minerals are: 

  • Cork 
  • Adhesives 
  • Lubricants 
  • Felt 
  • Fibre 
  • Rubber 
  • Plastic 

Rock Minerals

Rock minerals are a solid collection of minerals. There are three main types of rock minerals: sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic. 

Conservation of Minerals

Minerals are rapidly consumed, reducing the resources on the Earth’s surface. Therefore, humans need to conserve minerals for future generations. For that, they can use the following tips: \

  • Reduce wastage in mining.
  • Recycle metals using scrap metals. 
  • Use alternative renewable sources.
  • Use minerals in a sustainable and planned manner.
  • Develop improved technology to reduce the cost of mining. 

Energy Resources

Energy resources are the natural power-making sources available to humans. The Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Notes have defined them and their types. Examples of energy resources are coal, wind, thermal, and geothermal. 

Conventional Sources of Energy

Conventional energy sources are the ones that, once exhausted, do not replenish themselves within a period. Therefore, they are also called non-renewable resources. 

Coal, gas and oil are examples of such energy sources.  

Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

Non-conventional energy is the one that cannot be replenished. It is generated from natural elements like wind, water and the sun’s heat. Examples of non-conventional sources of energy are: 

  • Wind energy 
  • Solar energy 
  • Hydroelectric energy 
  • Geothermal energy 
  • Biomass 

Conservation of Energy

Conservation of energy is to save the environment resources from depletion. Humans, to meet their daily needs, are excessively using energy resources. It will make the resources extinct one day. 

To save the environment and provide future generations with the sources. Humans need to reduce their dependence on such resources and find alternatives. 

Did You Know?

  • The Government of India is taking steps toward sustainable development. It has set a target for energy development by installing 175 GW of renewable energy capacity by 2022. 
  • By 2030 the government aims to have 60% electricity generation with renewable energy.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are minerals?

Minerals are homogenous, naturally occurring substances. They have various forms on the Earth’s crust with a definable internal structure. 

2. How many kinds of minerals are there?

The formation of minerals depends on the physical and chemical conditions of the minerals. Therefore, it is classified into two categories: metallic and non-metallic minerals. 


Metallic minerals contain iron, while non-metallic minerals do not have iron in them. 

3. What is a resource?

A resource is anything that can meet the needs of human beings. Therefore, it can have natural resources and human-made resources.

4. What are renewable resources?

Renewable resources are those that can be renewed. Once the resource is over, it can be regenerated using natural manners.

5. What are non-renewable resources?

Non-renewable resources are natural products which cannot be produced back once finished. Therefore, they should use it sustainably. 

6. What are energy resources?

Energy resources are the ones that are used to make electricity—for example, wind energy.

7. Give examples of ferrous minerals.

Ferrous minerals are steel, cast iron, aluminium, copper and lead.