CBSE Class 10 Social Science Geography Revision Notes Chapter 7

CBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Notes- Lifelines of National Economy

Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Notes give you a detailed account of the Chapter – Lifelines of National Economy. Class 10 chapter 7 Geography Notes are prepared by experts to give students a brief idea of the chapter in a short and precise manner. These notes will be useful to memorise key concepts and speed up last-minute revision before exams. You can easily access Chapter 7 Geography Class 10 Notes provided by Extramarks along with CBSE sample papers, CBSE past years’ question papers, and CBSE extra questions for board exams preparation. 

CBSE Class 10 Social Science Geography Revision Notes for the Year 2022-23

Sign Up and get complete access to CBSE Class 10 Geography Chapterwise Revision Notes for the following chapters:

CBSE Class 10 Social Science Geography Revision Notes
Sr No. Chapters
1 Chapter 1 – Resources and Development
2 Chapter 2 – Forest and Wildlife Resources
3 Chapter 3 – Water Resources
4 Chapter 4 – Agriculture
5 Chapter 5 – Minerals and Energy Resources
6 Chapter 6 – Manufacturing Industries
7 Chapter 7 – Lifelines of National Economy

Access Class 10 Social Science (Geography) Chapter 7: Lifelines of National Economy Notes


India has the second largest road connectivity worldwide, spanning a total of 54.7 lakh kilometres. Roadways or land transportation systems will always have an edge over the railways due to the ease of development and lower maintenance cost. Below is a list of points that highlights the importance of road versus rail transportation:

  • Constructing roads costs much less than building an entire railway line, which requires sophisticated materials and skilled labour. 
  • Road networks can stretch across the dissected topographies of the land. 
  • Moreover, roads can be easily built on slopes and traverse through mountainous terrains like the Himalayas. 
  • Road transportation is economical.
  • Due to the possibility of providing door-to-door service, the cost of loading and unloading the goods on roads is much lower. 
  • Furthermore, road transport links railway stations, airports, and seaports. 

The routes in India are divided into the following six types based on their carrying capacity:

  • Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways: The National Highway Authority of India (NHAI), along with the Government of India, have implemented the project to connect the metropolitan cities of India with Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways. The primary objective of launching the project is to reduce the distance between the metropolitan cities. In this project, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, and Mumbai will be linked via the super highway. Moreover, the north-south corridor linking Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu) and the East-West corridor linking Silchar (Assam) and Porbandar (Gujarat) are part of this project. 
  • National Highways: National highways are built to link the extreme parts of the country. These are the major road transportation systems maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD). The historic Sher Shah Suri Marg is the National Road Number 1 linking Delhi to Amritsar in Punjab.
  • State Highways: These roads link the state capital with several districts in the state itself. State highways are maintained by the State Public Works Department (PWD). 
  • District Roads: District roads connect the district head office to other locations in the district. These roads are managed by Zila Parishad. 
  • Other Roads: These are the rural roads connecting rural areas and towns to cities. They were given special attention under Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana. 
  • Border Roads: Besides all the roads mentioned above, border roads are of utmost importance. They are maintained by the Border Roads Organisation, which was created in 1960 to develop important highways in the northern and northeastern border areas. 


Indian Railways is the country’s largest public sector entity, which was first introduced in 1853. In India, railways are the main mode of transportation for carrying heavy loads and bulky goods over long and short distances. They have become an important part of the Indian economy. 

Let’s take a look at some major problems faced by railways in the country: 

  • Building bridges across broad riverbeds is crucial for the construction of rail lines.
  • In the hilly terrain of the peninsular regions, railway tracks are laid across tunnels, low hills, and interstices. 
  • The Himalayas are also unfavourable terrain for constructing railway lines due to scarcity in population, high elevation points, and lack of economic opportunities. 
  • It’s difficult to build railway lines on the sandy plains of western Rajasthan, swamps of Gujarat, and forested tracks of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, and Konkan.


Earlier, pipelines were used to transport water to different parts of the cities and industries. However, recently, pipelines have been used to transport crude oil, natural gas, and petroleum products from oil fields to major refineries. Solids can also be transported through pipelines when they are processed into manure. 

These are the three major pipeline systems across the country:

  • From oil fields in upper Assam to Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh, through Guwahati, Barauni and Allahabad. It stretches from Barauni to Haldia, through Rajbandh, Rajbandh to Maurigram and Guwahati to Siliguri.
  • From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar (Punjab) through Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi and Sonipat. It has branches to link Koyali, near Vadodara, Gujarat Chakshu and other places.
  • The gas pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat connects Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh via Vijaipur in Madhya Pradesh.


We all are well aware of the fact that since ancient times, India has been one of the seafaring countries. Water transport is the least expensive method for transporting heavy goods from one country to another in an environmentally-friendly manner. The inland navigation waterways of the country are 14,500 km in length, and out of these, only 3700 km are navigable by mechanised boats. 

The national waterways in India are as follows:

  • The Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia stretches over 1620 km in the Northwest. 
  • The second is the Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri, which stretches over 891 km. 
  • The West-Coast Canal in Kerala from Kottapuram to Kollam, Udyogamandal and Champakkara canals stretch over 205 km. 
  • Specific stretches of Godavari and Krishna rivers along with the Kakinada Puducherry stretch of canals is 1078 km. 
  • Moreover, the stretch of river Brahmani along with the Matai river, delta channels of Mahanadi, Brahmani rivers, and East Coast Canal is 588 km. 

India’s internal waterways include Mandavi, Zuari, Cumberjua, Sunderbans, Barak and the backwaters of Kerala through which transport takes place.

Major Sea Ports: 

Kandla in Kutch was the first port developed soon after independence due to the loss of the Karachi port to Pakistan. India has 12 major and 200 intermediate or non-major ports. Ninety-five per cent of world trade is conducted via seaports in the country. The import and export of granary takes place at Kandla port along the industrial belt across the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir and states like Punjab, Rajasthan, and Gujarat. 

Here is a list of the most important ports in India:

  • The Mumbai port is the most spacious and biggest in the country. The Jawaharlal Nehru port was developed to serve as a hub port in the Mumbai region. 
  • The Marmagao port in Goa is the most important port for exporting iron ore. This port accounts for about 50% of India’s iron ore export. 
  • The recently developed Mangalore port in Karnataka also serves as the country’s iron ore exporting port. 
  • Kochi is the south-western port located in the extreme of the region with a natural harbour. 
  • The Tuticorin port in Tamil Nadu lies has a natural harbour and rich hinterland. Moreover, it handles the trade of a large variety of cargoes to neighbouring countries like Sri Lanka, Maldives, and other coastal regions of India. 
  • Chennai is one of India’s oldest man-made harbours.
  • The Paradwip port in Odisha specialises in exporting iron ores. 
  • The Kolkata port serves the large and rich hinterland of the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin covering the states of eastern UP, Assam, Bihar, and West Bengal. 
  • The Haldia port was developed as a subsidiary port to alleviate the increasing pressure on the Kolkata port. 


Air travel is the country’s quickest, most comfortable and most prestigious mode of transportation. Air transport was nationalised in the year 1953. It eliminates the problems faced by roadways and railway transportation systems. Air transport makes it possible to commute easily over long distances, high mountains, overseas and rivers, forests, and deserts. 


Since the appearance of humans on earth, they have used many forms of communication. Personal or mass communication via television, radio sets, press, media, and films are the primary means of communication within the country. The Indian postal network is the largest in the world, which handles parcels and personal written communication. Cards and envelopes are considered to be first-class mail, which is carried by air between land and air stations. The second-class mail includes book packages, journals, and periodicals, which are transported via land and marine transportation. 

International Trade: 

The movement of goods and services from one part of the country to another or from one country to another is referred to as a trade. Moreover, the movement of goods between one country and another is known as international trade. The growth of a country’s international trade displays the country’s prosperity and economic development. 

  • The goods or commodities India exports to other countries include precious stones and jewellery, chemicals and related products, agriculture and allied products, etc. 
  • The goods or commodities that India imports from other countries include crude oil and products, gemstones and jewellery, chemicals and related products, base metals, electronic items, machinery, agriculture and allied products. 

Tourism as a Trade: 

More than 15 million people contribute directly to the tourism industry in India. Tourism promotes national integration and supports local handicrafts and cultural activities. It also helps in developing an international understanding of our culture and heritage.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is international trade?

International trade is the exchange of goods and services from one country to another. It is considered the economic barometer to identify the country’s growth and development

2. What do we mean by the lifelines of the national economy?

Lifelines of the national economy mean the various modes of transport via which goods, services, and people can traverse from one place to another.

3. What are the six classifications of roadways in India?

The six classifications of roadways in India are as follows:

  • National highways 
  • State highways 
  • District roads 
  • Border roads 
  • Golden quadrilateral super highways 
  • Other roads 

4. What is the significance of the lifelines of the national economy?

Transport plays a major role in the economic development of a country. Goods are produced in the primary and secondary sectors but need the tertiary sector to reach people.