CBSE Class 10 Social Science Geography Revision Notes Chapter 6

CBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes – Manufacturing Industries

The Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes will give you a detailed account of the NCERT Social Science Chapter 6 – Manufacturing Industries. Here, you will find notes on the topic ‘Manufacturing Industries’ as curated by our subject matter experts based on the NCERT books updated as per the latest CBSE syllabus guidelines. You can also access the Class 10 Chapter 6 Geography notes along with some important frequently asked questions (FAQs) from the Extramarks website. Additionally, students can refer to the previous year’s CBSE question papers to practice for examinations.

CBSE Class 10 Social Science Geography Revision Notes for the Year 2022-23

Sign Up and get complete access to CBSE Class 10 Geography Chapterwise Revision Notes for the following chapters:

CBSE Class 10 Social Science Geography Revision Notes
Sr No. Chapters
1 Chapter 1 – Resources and Development
2 Chapter 2 – Forest and Wildlife Resources
3 Chapter 3 – Water Resources
4 Chapter 4 – Agriculture
5 Chapter 5 – Minerals and Energy Resources
6 Chapter 6 – Manufacturing Industries
7 Chapter 7 – Lifelines of National Economy

Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes Geography Chapter 6 

Importance of Manufacturing

The manufacturing sector is generally considered significant for a country’s development, particularly for its economic development, because it advances – 

  • Modernisation of agriculture, and employment opportunities for the rural population in secondary and tertiary sectors. 
  • Elimination of poverty, unemployment and regional inequality. 
  • Export of manufactured products, boosts trade and commerce thereby attracting foreign exchange.
  • Helps in quick transformation of raw materials into high-quality finished goods.

Agriculture and industry are complementary; while agro-based industries depend on agriculture for raw materials, they in turn aid agriculturists in increasing production and efficiency of production processes.

Contribution to Economy

Currently, India’s manufacturing sector contributes 16-17% to its GDP, far lower than the 25-35% of some East Asian countries. The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) was established in 2004 to advance policy dialogue for strengthening India’s manufacturing sector.

Industrial Location 

Government policies, and availability of raw materials, labour, capital, power, market etc. at least cost are some factors that determine an appropriate industrial location. Industrialisation propels urbanisation and they grow mutually, since industries too demand services that the cities provide. The benefits offered by such clustering of industries and people to gain from one another creates agglomeration economies. 

Classification of Industries

  • Based on source of raw materials – (i) Agro-based (ii) Mineral-based
  • Based on main role – (i) Basic or Key Industries (ii) Consumer Industries 
  • Based on capital investment – (i) Micro Enterprise (ii) Small & Medium-sized Enterprises (SME) (iii) Large Enterprise 
  • Based on ownership – (i) Public Sector (ii) Private Sector (iii) Joint Sector (iv) Cooperative Sector
  • Based on weight of raw material and finished good – (i) Heavy (ii) Medium (iii) Light 

Agro-based Industries

Agro-based industries use agricultural raw materials to produce finished goods. 

Textile Industry

The demand for cloth in the U.K. during the two world wars boosted the cotton textile industry of British colonised India. The Bombay Spinning and Weaving Company thus established in 1854 was India’s first successful textile mill. The textile sector is India’s second largest employment generator, substantially employing both skilled and unskilled labour. Globally, India is the largest producer of cotton and jute, the second largest producer of fibre and silk, and the second largest exporter of textiles and clothing.

Cotton Textile Industry

The traditional Indian cotton textiles utilising hand spinning and handloom weaving techniques suffered a setback with the advent of power-looms in the 18th century. Initially, the cotton textile industry was localised in Maharashtra and Gujarat, and was closely associated with the agricultural industry. Today, spinning is still centralised in Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu, and India’s spinning production is of world class quality.

Meanwhile, the weaving industry has become increasingly decentralised to incorporate traditional skills and designs. Weaving is carried out in handlooms, powerlooms and mills. The cottage industry provides huge employment to the weavers for their handspun, handwoven khadi. But since much of India’s high quality yarn production is exported, its weaving supplies are of low quality. Irregular power supply, outdated machinery, low labour output, and competition from the synthetic fibre industry are some other challenges. Resultantly, spinners export cotton yarn while garment manufacturers must import fabric. 

Jute Textiles

India is the biggest producer of raw jute and jute goods, and the second biggest exporter after Bangladesh. Today, the majority of mills are situated in West Bengal along the Hugli river bank due to favourable factors like (a) proximity to areas producing jute (b) economical water transport (c) good railway, roadway, and waterway network (d) abundant water (e) cheap labour, and (f) availability of services like banking, insurance and port facility for export. Despite facing tough competition from synthetic substitutes in the global market, the Indian jute industry finds opportunity in the rising internal demand due to favourable government policies of mandatory jute packaging, Duty Entitlement Passbook Scheme, Export Market Assistance, and the increasing global concern for eco-friendly biodegradable materials.

Sugar Industry

India is the second largest producer of sugar, and the leading producer of jaggery (gur) and khandsari. Although Uttar Pradesh and Bihar are home to 60% of the country’s sugar mills, a recent trend witnesses a shift towards the southern and western states due to availability of factors like higher sucrose content sugarcane, cooler climate, and successful cooperatives. Being seasonal in nature, the sugar industry is more suitable for the cooperative sector. Major challenges faced by the industry include its seasonal nature, inefficient production processes, transportation delays, and underused bagasse.

Mineral-Based Industries

Mineral-based industries use minerals and metals for raw materials to produce finished goods. 

Iron and Steel Industry 

Recent archaeological excavations in the Middle Ganges Valley indicate that manufacturing of practical metals first began in India, while the Iron Pillar of Delhi erected in the 4th century during Chandragupta II reign is the world’s first iron pillar.

An indicator of a nation’s development, the iron and steel industry is a heavy industry on which all other industries depend for their machinery.  India is the second largest crude steel producer, and the biggest sponge iron producer. A steel plant could be of two types – mini steel plant or integrated steel plant. Medium and small enterprises produce almost half of the country’s steel. Most PSUs market their steel through the Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL). 

Most iron and steel industries are concentrated in the Chota Nagpur plateau owing to advantages of (a) low iron ore cost (b) availability of high quality raw materials (c) cheap labour, and (d) growing potential of the domestic market. However, an inability to tap into our maximum potential remains because of (a) expensive and limited supply of coking coal (b) low labour productivity (c) irregular energy supply, and (d) poor infrastructure.

Aluminium Smelting

Aluminium smelting is India’s second most important metallurgical industry. India has 8 aluminium smelting plants situated in Odisha, West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. The two main factors determining an ideal industrial location are regular power supply, and availability of raw material (bauxite ore) at least cost.

Aluminium is increasingly preferred by industries as a substitute for steel, copper, zinc and lead because of its advantages of being lightweight, corrosion resistant, a good alloy, with good conductivity and malleability. 

Chemical Industries

The chemical industry of India is the world’s sixth largest, and contributes 7% to the country’s GDP. Comprising both small and large scale manufacturing units, India’s chemical industry has recorded a swift growth in both organic and inorganic sectors. The diversified Indian chemical industry is broadly categorised into (a) bulk chemicals (b) specialty chemicals (c) agrochemicals (d) petrochemicals (e) polymers, and (f) fertilisers. The industry itself is its biggest consumer. While the organic chemical plants are situated close to petrochemical plants or oil refineries, the inorganic chemical plants are widespread, owing to their use of lightweight raw materials that are cheap and easily transportable. Gujarat accounts for over half of the chemical plants in India, followed by Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh and Punjab.

Fertiliser Industry

Nitrogenous fertilisers (urea), phosphate-based fertilisers, and complex fertilisers are the three major products manufactured by the Indian fertiliser industry. The 1960s food crisis and an increasing demand for fertilisers led to the formation of Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative Limited (IFFCO) in 1967. The fertiliser industry thus spread to many other Indian states after the Green Revolution. Today, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Gujarat, Kerala and Uttar Pradesh account for half of the nation’s fertiliser production.

Cement Industry 

India is the world’s second largest cement producer. The first Indian cement plant was established in Chennai in 1904. As the cement industry utilises bulky raw materials, proximity to the source of raw materials is an important factor in determining the plant location, as also factors like the availability of coal, electricity and railways. Most cement plants are located in Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat.

Automobile Industry 

India is the world’s fifth largest automobile manufacturer. Nicknamed the ‘Detroit of Asia’, Chennai accounts for almost 60% of India’s automotive exports. Delhi, Lucknow, Jamshedpur, Kolkata, Indore, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Pune, and Jabalpur are other main automobile production centres.

Information Technology and Electronics Industry 

The Indian Information Technology (IT) industry originated in Mumbai in 1967 with the inception of Tata Consultancy Services. Today, India is the world’s largest IT exporter, while contributing 10% to India’s GDP. Bangalore is called the ‘Silicon Valley’, ‘electronic capital’ and ‘startup capital’ of India, while Hyderabad is home to ‘Cyberabad’ – India’s largest bioinformatics hub. Both the cities are significant global IT hubs, while Chennai, Pune, Delhi, Ahmedabad, and Kolkata are also major IT hubs. Accelerated by government schemes like Make in India, Digital India, Startup India and Skill India, the Indian consumer electronics market is amongst the world’s largest and growing.

Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation

Industries cause four types of pollution – (a) air (b) water (c) noise, and (d) land. Industries based on natural resources cause the highest pollution and are also growing quickly. India is home to 12 out of 20 cities in the world facing the worst air pollution, wherein toxic gas leaks such as the Bhopal Gas tragedy leave a lasting impact. Drainage of hot water from industries and thermal plants into rivers causes thermal pollution devastating for aquatic life. Polluted rainwater in turn pollutes the soil and groundwater. For every litre of waste water discharge by industries, eight times the freshwater quantity gets polluted.

Control of Environmental Degradation 

Some suggestions to reduce industrial pollution of freshwater are – (a) reusing and recycling the water used for processing (b) rainwater harvesting (c) hot water treatment before releasing it into rivers. Other measures to tackle industrial pollution include – (a) legal regulation of drawing groundwater reserves (b) installing smoke stacks in factories to reduce the emission of particulate matter in the air (c)  substituting coal with oil or gas to reduce smoke emission (d) using noise absorbing materials, fitting silencers and redesigning machinery to reduce noise.

Manufacturing Industries Notes: An Overview of Different Industries

In this chapter, you will learn about the various Indian manufacturing industries and their importance. There are different factors on the basis of which we classify the manufacturing industries, and also determine an ideal industrial location. We study the significance of Indian agro-based and mineral-based industries, comprising the cotton and jute textiles, sugar industry, iron and steel industry, and aluminium smelting. We learn about other significant industries such as the chemical industry, fertiliser, cement, automobile, information technology and electronics industries. Contemporary issues like industrial pollution, its types, the resulting environmental degradation, and suggestions to control it are also covered.

Did You Know? 

The first jute mill was established in 1855 at Rishra near Kolkata. Post the 1947 partition, while the jute mills stayed within the Indian territory, three-fourths of the area that produced jute went to Bangladesh.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is the importance of manufacturing industries?

These are the reasons why manufacturing industries are important- 

  • Modernisation of agriculture 
  • Employment creation, especially in the secondary and tertiary sectors
  • Expansion of trade and commerce
  • Poverty elimination and development of economy


2. What are the factors that influence industrial location?

Supportive government policies and easy availability of raw materials and resources at least cost determine an ideal industrial location. 

3. What are the different types of agro-based industries?

The different and prevalent types of agro-based industries in India include the cotton and jute textiles, sugar industry, vegetable oil industry, tea industry, coffee industry, and leather goods industry.