CBSE Class 10 Social Science Political Science Revision Notes Chapter 5

CBSE Class 10 Political Science (Civics) Chapter 5 Notes – Popular Struggles and Movements

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CBSE Class 10 Social Science Political Science Revision Notes for the Year 2022-23

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CBSE Class 10 Social Science Political Science Revision Notes
Sr No. Chapters
1 Chapter 1 – Power Sharing
2 Chapter 2 – Federalism
3 Chapter 3 – Democracy and Diversity
4 Chapter 4 – Gender, Religion and Caste
5 Chapter 5 – Popular Struggles and Movements
6 Chapter 6 – Political Parties
7 Chapter 7 – Outcomes of Democracy
8 Chapter 8 – Challenges to Democracy

Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Notes Political Science (Civics) Chapter 5

System of Democracy and Struggles

  • Certain specific factors influence the dynamics of power in a democracy. 
  • People in power should learn the methods to balance the power assigned to them and work according to it for the best outcome. 
  • A common man plays a vital role in influencing the power and decisions related to democracy. 

Movement for Democracy in Nepal

  • Nepal was under monarchy rule but the people living there were not satisfied with the government. These events sparked a war between the king and the people. The movement ended when the king left his power and became a titular head. 
  • King Birendra accepted this transition and the country came under democracy. 
  • King Gyanendra ascended after King Birendra was found dead under mysterious conditions. He was not ready to accept the change. 
  • In 2005 the Prime Minister of the country was dismissed and the country again shifted to an absolute monarchy. 
  • People again started movements against the monarchy in 2006 by forming several parties. The major parties that formed an alliance were called the Seven Party Alliance and organised a four-day strike at Kathmandu. 
  • On 24th April 2006, the king accepted all the demands of the people, and the Parliament came back to power. Girija Prasad Koirala became the elected Prime Minister of the country. 

Bolivia’s Water War

  • Bolivia is a poor country and due to pressure from the World Bank, the government of the country sold their municipal water to a private enterprise. This led to high bills of water which were unaffordable for the people. 
  • Due to these, there were huge protests in the country in 2000 led by many leaders. Members of different organisations like community leaders, human rights and labour formed a new alliance called FEDECOR. Due to the excessive pressure, the government agreed to the terms of the people. But despite the efforts from the government no results were seen resulting in huge protests all over again. 
  • To control the protests the government imposed martial law but no effect was seen. At last, the MNC agreed and fled from the country resulting in water restoration for the normal people. 

Democracy and Popular Struggles

The movement held in Bolivia and Nepal demonstrated the power of people in democracy. It showcases that unity of people for their rights can change the course of history. Both the movements in different countries show that real power is in the hands of the common man. 

Mobilisation and Organisations

There are multiple ways through which organisations can influence governments. The two ways through which organisations can play their parts are as follows: 


  • Direct way: In this method, the opposition participates in competitive politics to keep themselves in the demand. Different people create parties and participate in the elections to get the desired results. 
  • Indirect way: Several people come together to form a particular organisation and perform activities so that the government can listen to their demands. The groups that can influence the government with their actions and activities without any particular political agenda are known as pressure groups. 
  • Sectional groups: The interest groups that focus on particular sections of society are known as sectional groups. 
  • Public interest groups: The grips that focus on the betterment of society through their actions and movements are known as public interest groups. 

Movement groups

The most common goals of the movement’s groups are as follows: 

  • The main goal of these movement groups is to gather support for a common cause. 
  • These groups plan protests and movements so that the government can agree to their demands. 
  • People of these movement groups can participate in various businesses. 
  • Political groups may lead to pressure groups. 
  • The political parties can grow out of the movement. 
  • The relationship between these parties cannot be direct in many cases. 

Importance of Pressure Groups

Most pressure groups play a pivotal role in the maintenance of democracy. They can help to modify the rulings, laws and policies. 

Important Questions and Answers:

Q1. Give some instances of the power struggle between the people and the government. 

A1. The most important instances of a power struggle between the people and government are: 

  • Women rights movement 
  • Anti liquor movement 
  • Narmada Bachao Andolan 
  • Bolivia water war 
  • The struggle faced by the people of Nepal. 

Q2 Define a pressure group with the help of an example. 

A2. When a particular group of people form an organisation or group to fight for a particular viewpoint or opinion, it is known as a pressure group. For example Bhartiya Kisan Union, All India Trade Union Congress, etc. 

Class 10 Social Science Political Science Chapter 5 Popular Struggles And Movements Notes

Popular Struggles And Movements in Nepal And Bolivia

Movements In Nepal 

Popular Struggles and Movements in Nepal

Bolivia’s Water Wars  

Mobilisation and Organisation 

Pressure Groups 

Q.1 What is the main feature of interest groups?

Interest groups or pressure groups are sectional by nature because they stand for a section of society; workers, employees, businessmen, professionals, industrialists, followers of a religion, caste group, etc. Their main concern is the betterment and well being of their members, not the general public.

But there are also interest groups which fight for the cause of general interest or common need of society; even if the members of group may not get benefited. The Bolivian organisation FEDECOR is an example of one such interest group.

Q.2 What is meant by constitutional monarchy?


It is a type of Government in which the King or Queen remains the head of the state acknowledged by the Constitution and an elected parliament. For example:- United Kingdom, Spain etc.

Q.3 Which movement took place in Bolivia in 2000?

People of Bolivia led a triumphant struggle against the privatisation of water in the year 2000.
Q.4 Which groups were involved in Bolivian Water War?

The dissent against water privatisation in Bolivia was not guided by any political party but by an organisation named FEDECOR though Socialist party supported it. That organisation consisted of local professionals, including engineers and environmentalists. They got support from federation of farmers, the confederation of factory worker’s unions, students of university of Cochabamba and city’s homeless street children.

Q.5 Which are the ‘third wave’ countries?


Third Wave Countries are those countries that had changed in to democratic government from either monarchy, dictatorship or from colonial rule. e.g. Nepal.

Q.6 What was the aim of the Movement in April 2006 in Nepal?


The movement of April 2006 was aimed at regaining popular control over the government from the king and restoring democracy.

Q.7 Who are the Maoist?


The communism that evolved in Russia spread to various countries and was influenced by local social conditions according to the nature of problem. In China, communism was established under the leadership of Mao Zedong through Chinese revolution in 1949. Maoists believed that communism can be exported or implemented forcibly. So, the communists who believe in the principles of Mao, seek to oust the government through an armed upheaval to institute the rule of the peasants and the labourers are known as Maoists.

Q.8 What were the main demands of SPA?

The main demands of Seven Parties Alliance (SPA) were:
(i) Restoration of Parliament.
(ii) Power to all-party government.

(iii) New Constituent Assembly should be formed.

Q.9 Define pressure group. Give any two examples.


Pressure groups are organizations that attempt to influence government policies. However, unlike political parties, pressure groups do not aim to directly control or share political power. These organizations are formed when people with common occupation, interest, aspirations or opinions come together in order to achieve a common objective. For example:- Movement for Right to Information, Anti-liquor Movement, Women’s Movement, Environmental Movement etc.

Q.10 What was the course of action followed for Bolivian water war?


Bolivian Water War was a war for humans’ basic need. In January 2000, a new group of labourers, human rights and community leaders organised a successful four day general strike in the city. The government settled for discussion and strike was called off. But no action was taken by the government later and it started repression by police action. People again went on strike which compelled the MNC officials to leave. This forced the government to approve all the demands. The contract of MNC got cancelled and water supply was brought back to municipality on old rates.

Q.11 What was the difference between the movement of Nepal and Bolivia?

The difference between the movement of Nepal and Bolivia are as follows:-
a) The movement in Nepal was to establish democracy, while the struggle in Bolivia involved claims on an elected, democratic government.
b) The popular struggle in Bolivia was about one specific policy, while the struggle in Nepal was about the foundations of the country’s politics. Both these struggles were successful but their impact was at different levels.
c) The popular struggle in Nepal was against Constitutional Monarchy and to establish a Democratic Government. The popular struggle in Bolivia was against a Government policy, i.e. privatization of water supply.

Q.12 Give any three differences between political parties and pressure groups.


The differences between political parties and pressure groups are s follows:-
a) A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government where as a pressure group is an organization formed when people with common occupation, interest, aspirations or opinions come together in order to achieve a common objective.
b) Political parties contest elections and forms the government, they are accountable to the people but pressure groups are not accountable to the people.
c) Political parties are formal, open and recognised part of the political system, the pressure groups are informal, closed and unorganised part.

Q.13 What was Kittiko-Hachchiko movement?

Karnataka government had set-up a company named Karnataka Pulp Limited in the year 1984 and it had given 30,000 hectares of land to the company on lease almost free. That land was mostly used by the farmers as pastoral field. The company had implanted eucalyptus trees for making pulp to manufacture paper. People had started a movement Kittiko-Hachchiko meaning pluck and plant useful saplings. It was a non violent protest, where people plucked the eucalyptus plants and planted saplings of trees that were useful to the people.

Q.14 In what ways different organisations play role for democratic struggles?

The different organisations plays a vital role in political struggles in two ways. One way is by manipulating the decisions and by taking part directly in the competitive elections by floating political parties, contesting elections and forming government. But it is not possible for every citizen to be part of direct politics except voting. The second way is lying in many indirect ways through which people can get government to hear their argument. This, they can do through forming an organisation and undertaking the activities which will float common view on a particular interest. These organisations are interest groups or pressure groups. Though, people can decide together without forming any organisation.

Q.15 Write a short note on promotional groups?


The promotional groups or public interest groups promote collective good instead of selective one. They aim to help the different groups rather than their own members. For instance, a group fighting against bonded labour is not fighting for own purpose but for those who are suffering under the bondages. Though in some cases, the members of a public interest group may undertake an activity that promotes their cause as well as of others. For example, BAMCEF (Backward and Minorities Community Employees Federation) is largely made up of government employees. Their campaigns against caste discrimination are significant. It tackles problems of their members also.

Q.16 Distinguish between short term and long term movements.


The short term movements need specific leadership and some organisation. The short term movements’ best example in India is Narmada Bachao Andolan. This movement started with a specific goal but changed into a wider movement questioning big dams.
Long term movement needs a large number of organisations and address more than one issue. E.g. Environmental movement is a brand name for a large number of organisations and issue-specific movements. All of these have detached organisations, independent leadership and often different views on policy related matters; yet all of these share a wide aim and have an alike approach.

Q.17 State an example of a long-term movement.


The environmental movement and the women’s movement are examples long-term movements. There is no single organization that controls or guides such movements.

Q.18 What was SPA and what was its role in Nepal?

SPA was the alliance of Seven Parties Alliance of Nepali Parliament which was formed to fight for the cause of democracy. For this purpose they also shook hands with the Maoist and started agitation for democracy in April 2006.
Q.19 What was the cause behind people’s struggle in Bolivia?

Bolivia is an underprivileged country of Latin America. The World Bank hassled the government to hand over the control of municipal water supply to MNC. The government did it so in Cochabamba and the company increased the rate of water four times. Many people received Rs. 1000 bill and those who got Rs. 5000 per month salary were not able to pay that amount. So people started to protest against it.
Q.20 What are the processes through which democracy evolves?

Democracy advances through popular struggles. There is a possibility of accord over important decisions. But the crucial moments of democracy generally grip with conflicts between power holders and power desirers. The democratic divergences are solved through mass mobilisation. Sometimes the institutions like parliament or judiciary decide the arguments. But when fierce disputes occurr, it catches these institutions in vain. Then only the public can give its verdict. So, mass mobilisation and conflicts are complimentary processes of democracy.
Q.21 Why is it necessary to use mass support properly for democratic causes?

The impulsive public participation or support becomes valuable with the help of organised politics. There can be many agencies for organised politics as political parties, pressure groups like trade unions, federations and other groups.
Q.22 What do you understand by pressure groups?

Pressure groups or interest groups are the organisations which endeavor to influence government policies or decisions. Pressure groups don’t aim for political power or its share. These organisations come into being when people with common occupation, interest, aspiration or opinion come on a common platform for an identical aim.
Q.23 What do you understand by movement?

A movement is an effort to influence politics instead of directly taking part in the politics. But contrary to pressure groups, it has loose organisation; its decision making is casual and bendable. The movements much more depend on natural mass involvement than interest groups. Few examples of movements are Narmada Bachao Andolan, and Movement for Right to information etc.
Q.24 Expalin two distinct forms of movements.

Most of the movements are explicit-concern movements that hunt for achieving a single goal within a limited time frame whereas some other movements are generic or usual movements that work to get a broad objective in a long span of time. For example, the Nepalese movement for democracy arose with the distinct aim of overturning the king’s order of deferment of democratic system. However, movements related to environment, child labour, women empowerment are generic movements.
Q.25 What is the impact of pressure groups over politics?

Pressure groups and movements affect politics in various ways:
1. Most of these groups try to obtain media attention and public support through activities like info campaign, meetings, filing petition etc.
2. They organise activities like strikes or disruption of government programmes to compel the government to hear their demands.
3. In some instances, pressure groups are the extended arms of political parties; either formed or led by political leaders. For example: Trade Unions, Student Unions, etc.
4. Some political parties are growing out of movements like DMK and AIADMK. They have evolved from long run social reform groups in Tamil Nadu.
5. Political parties take new issues and new leaders highlighted by these pressure groups.

Q.26 How far pressure groups are good for democracy?


A democracy must look after the interest of all and not a few. But pressure groups promote interests of one section. These groups wield power without responsibility. Political parties have to face elections while these groups have no such liability. Pressure groups and movements might not get the funds and public support but sometimes their narrow agenda attracts great money through little support. Though these groups and movements extended the democracy but sometimes small groups of rich and powerful people influence the policies. But on a broad scale these groups cause balance of power and accommodation of conflicting matters as they raise untouched issues and people’s demands.

Q.27 What is Green Belt Movement?

Green Belt movement took place in Kenya in which about 30 million trees were planted across the country.
Q.28 Who led the Green Belt Movement of Kenya?

The Noble Peace Prize winner Wangari Maathai led the Green Belt Movement of Kenya.
Q.29 How are common people affected by popular/ political struggles?

As common people participate and get involved in local struggles to establish their place in society; unknowingly they inculcate in themselves decorum and understanding of rights and duties. However, when these struggles become destructive, innocent common man is affected. He is made to suffer for no mistake of his. Popular struggles can grant to common man what he has not otherwise been able to acquire. Grant of adult suffrage is one such thing. These struggles also help in ending bureaucratic corruption too.
Q.30 What would you suggest as ways and means for active participation of citizens in deepening the root of democracy in India?

Many experts believe that greater citizen participation in decision making will result in pro-poor policies that reflect the needs and interests of the poor. Many development interventions focus on creating new spaces for the active participation of citizens in the decision-making process.

Participation is linked with citizenship, which implies certain social and political rights and duties. Rights-based approaches are popular and emphasizes that every citizen has an inherent right to engage in the decision-making processes that affect their lives. The ‘deepening democracy’ is possible if citizens engage in the political process. It is important to analyze how to ensure inclusiveness of participation and deepen citizen engagement in decision-making processes.. Efforts to strengthen voice and participation need to be accompanied by state mechanisms to ensure accountability and responsiveness.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are some movements held in India recently?

The most recent movements held in India are Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, MeeToo movement, Urban Naxal Movement and Climate Change movement. These movements brought different sections of the people together to fight for a particular right or cause. 

2. What is the meaning of mobilisation?

Mobilisation is the social act of assembling that can help in the formation of a particular group of organisations for a specific cause.