CBSE Class 9 Social Science Economics Revision Notes Chapter 3

Class 9 Economics Chapter 3 Notes

The Class 9 Economics Chapter 3 Notes outline the situation of poverty in India, the causes of poverty and what are the measures taken to eradicate poverty. In Chapter 3 Economics Class 9 Notes, students will get to know the details of the chapter that are important for their final examination. Class 9 Economics Notes Chapter 3 will be a student’s last-minute revision guide providing all the necessary information. Along with Class 9 Chapter 3 Economics Notes, students can refer to Extramarks for previous years’ question papers to be thorough with their preparation for exams.

CBSE Class 9 Economics Revision Notes 2023-24

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CBSE Class 9 Economics Revision Notes

Poverty as a Challenge Class 9 notes Economics Chapter 3

Poverty as a Challenge Class 9 Economics Chapter 3 Notes: 

This chapter highlights the situation of poverty in India and the causes of poverty. According to the estimates of 2011-2012, approximately 70% of the population in India is poor.  There could be two causes of poverty, which you will read later in this below. There can be various reasons for poverty, including landlessness, illiteracy, unemployment, poor health or malnutrition, child labour, and more family members.

What is Poverty?

Poverty simply describes a situation of hunger and lack of shelter, wherein people cannot give their kids an education, and the kids are malnourished. Moreover, for some people, poverty means the unavailability of clean water and sanitation facilities. Every fifth person you encounter in India is suffering from poverty, which simply means 270 million or 27 crores of the population is poor. The fact and the most challenging situation for India is that it has the biggest single concentration of poverty-ridden people in the world. People like land labourers, people living in jhuggis in urban areas, children workers, daily wage workers, and beggars consider themselves poor.

Reasons for Poverty: 

Let’s study the two cases of poverty with examples, the urban and rural cases.

Urban Case of Poverty: 

Ramsaran, a daily wage labourer near Ranchi working on a wheat farm, manages to earn approximately INR 1500. However, this money is not sufficient to feed the family of six members, including his wife and four kids. Moreover, Santa Devi, his wife, works as a part-time maid and earns a meagre income of INR 800. The elder son is employed at a tea shop and manages to make money upto 300. However, this income is insufficient to send the children to school and they are undernourished and have no access to healthcare. .

Rural Case of Poverty: 

Lakha Singh is a landless labourer in a village near Meerut. He and his family work for big farmers with the land. After doing all the odd jobs and a hard day’s work, he manages to get an amount of INR 50. More often, compensation is given in kinds such as a few kg of wheat, vegetables, and dal. However, the family of eight members cannot even afford two square meals in a day.

Metrics to measure poverty: 

  • Social exclusion: According to the concept of social exclusion, poverty means when poor people live with other poverty-ridden people in a poor neighbourhood. They are excluded from better-off opportunities, and equality is given to other people. For instance, the caste system in India is the best example of how social exclusion deprives people of their basic human rights.
  • Vulnerability: Vulnerability is a measure which states that some individuals, including widows, handicapped people, and people from backward classes, will remain poor in the near future. This measure of poverty simply means that these people will be the ones most affected when they face floods and earthquakes because of their inability to handle them compared to others.

Other factors include illiteracy level, lack of resistance because of malnutrition, inability to access healthcare facilities, lack of job opportunities, inability to access clean drinking water, sanitation and so on.

Poverty line: 

The basic estimate to measure poverty based on consumption and income levels is the poverty line. Every country has a different poverty line, and it changes with time and increases the prices of basic products. While measuring the poverty line, food or calorie requirement, fuel, education, etc., are considered. The minimum level of calories in rural areas is 2400, and 2100 calories are needed in urban areas. According to the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) survey, a person living in a rural area with a family of five members and earning less than INR 4080 will be below the poverty line. In the urban area, a family earning less than INR 5000 is below the poverty line.

Additionally, certain parts or groups within our society, particularly Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, are particularly prone to poverty. In addition, 43 of the 100 destitute persons are members of Scheduled Tribes. Moreover, 23% are members of the Scheduled Castes community, and 34% live in casual urban areas. Additionally, the percentage of the impoverished varies among states. For instance, with 33.7 and 32.6 poverty rates, Bihar and Orissa are the two poorest states. On the other side, states like Maharashtra, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and West Bengal have seen a sharp decline in the poverty rate.

Causes of Poverty: 

One of the significant causes of poverty dates back to the British era when the colonial Government ruled India. They discouraged handmade products made by Indian people and did not promote the setting up of industries like textiles. This decreased the growth rate and income level of the population continued till the nineteenth century. The reduction in growth rate was further accompanied by a rise in population and a lack of job opportunities. The two significant spectrums to control poverty, the increase in economic growth and population control, failed drastically, and the cycle of poverty continued.

Anti-Poverty tactics: 

Economic growth is a major determinant in reducing and stopping the poverty cycle. In the eighteenth century, India’s economic growth rate rose from 3.5 per cent in the 1970s to 6 per cent in the 1980s and 1990s. Higher the rate of economic growth, less the poverty rate. The primary rationale why economic growth is so important is because it provides crucial resources to invest in human capital by encouraging children to go to schools, especially girls.

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) of 2005 ensures that rural households will be given 100 days of employment. Moreover, this scheme has provided employment to 220 crore people on days of work to 4.78 crore rural households. Also, the income or per day wage increased from INR 65 in 2006 to INR 132 in 2013 and 2014.

Another scheme commenced by the Government was the Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana (PMRY), wherein the Government will help people set up small-scale businesses. Moreover, the Rural Employment Generation Programme, which was launched in 1995, aims to promote self-employment opportunities with a vision to create 25 lakh jobs in rural areas. Furthermore, Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY), launched in 1999, aims to bring people above the poverty line with the help of central banks’ self-help groups and credit facilities.

The Importance of Notes in Class 9: 

Class 9 CBSE revision notes will be students’ last-minute guide when they appear for exams. These notes include all information from the CBSE syllabus of Class 9 Economics Chapter 3. Chapter 3; Poverty as a challenge is  crucial and scoring good grades is easy  if they follow the right strategy, stick to their study timetable, and have the right study material, it won’t be difficult. . Students can easily revise the entire syllabus by going through the study materials available at Extramarks particularly  as these notes include all the necessary information that can be expected  in the  question paper during exams. So these notes are an easy way to score good marks in any subject.

Extramarks provides students with a joyful learning experience and constantly strives to upgrade its products year after year to meet the changing demands of the curriculum and present its millennial generation with very simple and easy solutions for each and every student irrespective of their level.

Poverty as a Challenge Chapter Summary: 

This chapter highlights the situation of poverty in India and what are the causes of poverty. According to the estimates of 2011-2012, approximately 70% of the population in India is poor. It simply means that every 4th person you encounter is suffering from poverty. There could be two causes of poverty. The first is rural poverty, and the second is urban poverty.

Moreover, there are some specific groups or sections of our society that are vulnerable to poverty, especially Scheduled castes and Scheduled tribes. Furthermore, out of 100 poor people, 43 of them belong to Scheduled Tribes. 34% of them are casual urban, and 23% percent of them belong to the Scheduled Castes community. Plus, not all states consist of the same proportion of poor people. For instance, Bihar and Orissa are the two poorest states, with poverty ratios of 33.7 and 32.6. On the other hand, the poverty rate has drastically reduced in states like Maharashtra, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and West Bengal.

There are various causes of poverty, such as exploitation of the Indian population under British rule, huge income disparity and unequal distribution of resources, improper implementation of government policies, farmers taking loans which they are unable to repay, and so on. Moreover, the government has taken various anti-poverty measures like MGNREGA 2005, Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana 2000, the Rural employment generation program launched in 1995, and Prime Minister Rozgar Yojna of 1993.

Extramarks believes in incorporating joyful learning experiences through its own repository. The subject experts  have conscientiously prepared authentic, concise answers which students can trust and enjoy the process of learning.These notes will help students grasp the CBSE syllabus of Chapter 3, Economics, with ease and in less  time span. Extramarks also provide NCERT book notes, including formulas and CBSE past year’s question papers.

Benefits of the Notes: 

Class 9 CBSE revision notes will help students to prepare for their exams effortlessly and manage their time efficiently. Students can go through the notes provided by Extramarks to score high in their exams. Students must move from basic concepts to more challenging ones which brings clarity of concepts to better grasp the topics and help them to answer any challenging question easily.

While practising these questions students will get used to the questions with varying levels of difficulty and some of them are tweaked to test the understanding level of the students, questions are also repeated to strengthen their understanding and even provide enough practice to improve their speed and come out with flying colours.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is Social Exclusion?

Social Exclusion is a term referred to when people are living near the poor neighbourhood away from the elite and rich class. This is one of the causes and the result of poverty because it restricts people from enjoying equal social rights. Social Exclusion can also deprive people of potential opportunities that other classes of people are enjoying.

2. What is Poverty?

Poverty is a situation in which people are deprived of their basic needs and rights. People living in poverty cannot afford basic amenities, including food, shelter, clothing, proper sanitation, water, etc. Also, poverty is referred to when a person is deprived of elements beyond basic needs.