CBSE Class 9 Social Science History Revision Notes Chapter 1

CBSE Class 9 History Chapter 1 Notes – The French Revolution

The CBSE Class 9 History Chapter 1 – The French Revolution explains how a revolution ended the French monarchy. The chapter discusses notions of freedom and equality, the Declaration of the Rights of Man, and anti-colonial movements in China, India, Africa, and South America.  The CBSE history class 9 chapter 1 notes by Extramarks will help students study the chapter comprehensively and better understand all the essential concepts discussed. The notes also help in quick revision. 

CBSE Class 9 History Revision Notes 2023-24

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CBSE Class 9 History Revision Notes

  • Chapter 1 – The French Revolution

French Revolution Class 9 Notes for History Chapter 1

  • Before the French Revolution

Before the French Revolution, the territories of France and  French society were similar to an ancient regime. They used to have feudal lords who had taken over the system of the country’s politics.  French society was classified into three categories – clergy, the nobility, and the peasants or workers. The higher two categories were considered closer to the ruling family and easily gained favor. The other categories had to pay several taxes and had a struggling life.

  • The Initial Stage of the Revolution

France’s financial condition was dreadful when King Louis XVI was on the throne. After taking advice from the Finance Minister, the king decided to summon the Estates-General to imply additional taxes on the citizens.

The election for the Estate General used to take place on a per-estate basis. The people of the Third Estate demanded that the election happens on a per-head basis. The King decided not to agree with that proposal, so the representatives of the Third Estate opted to walk out of the assembly.

  • The Tennis Court Oath

The Third Estate’s representatives formed a National Assembly, where they attempted to draught a constitution that would restrict the monarchical powers. The King and the clergy finally acknowledged it to the National Assembly. The powers of legislation were then moved from the possession of the King to the National Assembly.

The newly generated Legislative Assembly was categorized into different political groups:

  • The Constitutionalists
  • The Republicans (The Girondins and The Jacobins


  • The Rise of the Jacobins

Because of the war, France was devastated. The Girondins lost power, and the Jacobins got into a ruling position. They announced France as a Republic, but the nation lost its value when the rulers turned into dictators. It was considered to be a barbaric period of terror that the French had to witness. The leader of the community, Robespierre,  was killed in the year of 1794.

  • The Rise of the Middle Class

The middle class got stronger in the National Convention after the Jacobins were made to leave power. Then, yet again, the National Convention recreated the Constitution. The Legislative Assembly has turned into a bicameral.

The five directors comprised the executive. Two-thirds of the members were already part of the National Convention. The people did not accept it well and stormed the convention in the year 1795.

Napoleon, who was successful in stopping this attack, later turned into the commander in chief of the Army of France and was called the supreme leader of France in 1799.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Mention all the important dates or years related to the French Revolution and its relevance.

The significant years concerned with the French Revolution are mentioned below:

  • 1774 – Louis XVI was declared the King.
  • 5th May 1789 – The king calls out for Estates-General.
  • 20th June 1789 – Tennis Court Oath took place.
  • 14th July 1789 – The demolition of the Bastille and the official beginning of the French Revolution.
  • 1791 – Completion of the National Assembly and the draft of the new constitution where France is declared a constitutional monarchy.
  • 1792 – Declaration of France as a Republic by the National Convention.
  • 1793 -1794 – The Reign of Terror
  • 1794 – Robespierre was killed, and the Directory system was introduced.
  • 1799 – Napoleon Bonaparte turns into the first consul.

2. What was the reason behind women’s being disappointed by the French Revolution?

The new constitution of France treated women as passive citizens and gave them no rights as female citizens. The political clubs created by women were also banned. That is the primary reason women were disappointed with the French Revolution.

3. Mention a few of the democratic rights that we enjoy today that have their roots in the French Revolution.

Below mentioned are some of the democratic rights that originated from the French Revolution:

  • Democratic voting to choose leaders and political representatives
  • Right to Freedom
  • Right to Personal Liberty

4. How was the Universal Rights’ message contradictory in nature?

The Declaration of Rights called out all men as equal in front of the law. However, the right to vote was permitted only to those men who could pay taxes equal to their wages of three days. The women and non-tax-paying men were pointed out as passive citizens. Thus, many citizens were considered passive and had no authority to vote, making Universal rights a contradictory statement. Thus, in a way, the universal rights were not universal in nature.

5. How did the French philosophers contribute to the French Revolution?

The French philosophers had very little to contribute to the French Revolution. They are remembered today only for their ideologies, which laid the foundation of the revolution in the minds of the people.

6. Briefly explain the rise of Napoleon.

The political imbalance of the Directory created the way for the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon had won spectacular victories in battle. France understood that only a military leader like Napoleon could restore a balanced government.

He made himself emperor of France in 1804. He embarked on conquering other neighbouring countries in Europe, depriving dynasties and building kingdoms where he placed his family members. Napoleon appears to be a moderniser of Europe.

He introduced many laws, including the safety of private property and a uniform structure of weights and measures given by the decimal system. However, his time in power did not last for a long time.. He was ultimately defeated in the battle of Waterloo in 1815.