CBSE Class 9 Social Science History Revision Notes Chapter 3

CBSE Class 9 History Chapter 3 Notes- Nazism and the Rise of Hitler

CBSE Class 9 History Notes Chapter 3 discusses the rise of Hitler and Nazi politics. It also highlights the facts of how Nazis denied the right to live to minorities, the battle against democracy, anti-Jewish feelings, and other important topics. Chapter 3 is undeniably engaging and important from an exam viewpoint.

To help students with exam preparation, Extramarks provides CBSE Class 9 History Ch 3 Notes – Nazism and the Rise of Hitler. The notes are well-structured and cover all the important concepts. These can be of great help in last-minute revisions.

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CBSE Class 9 History Revision Notes

  • Chapter 3 – Nazism and the Rise of Hitler

Nazism and the Rise of Hitler Class 9 Notes 

The Defeat of Germany in The First World War

  • On 1st August 1914, Germany allied with the Central Powers and entered the first world war aiming to monopolize and dictate over its neighboring countries of Russia and France.
  • Belgium was under attack by the Germans, and Great Britain (Allied Powers) reacted by attacking Germany.
  • The war stretched across the world, and Germany was defeated in 1918 by the Allied Powers following the entry of the US in 1917.
  • The German army lost respect in the eyes of its people consecutively after the failed Schlieffen plan and Kaiser Wilhelm’s weak leadership.
  • Emperor Wilhelm abandoned the throne in 1918, and Germany became a parliamentary democracy and republic.
  • It was a massive embarrassment for Germany. A Peace Conference was held, and the Treaty of Versailles was signed between the Allied and Central powers. 

 The Peace Treaty of Versailles

  • The Treaty of Versailles was followed by The Paris Peace Conference.  
  • Germany was embarrassed and blamed for everything and was made to pay compensation to the Allied Powers.
  • Germany lost up to 13% of its territories to countries supporting the Allied Powers.
  • As a result, Germany lost all overseas territories. France regained the areas of France (Alsace and Lorraine). Germany also lost parts to Poland, Lithuania, and Denmark. 

Humiliation: Economic and Physiological

  • Germany entered the First World War with the objective of territorial expansion under the poor leadership of Wilhelm.
  • The Peace Treaty was a massive humiliation for Germany and the Central Powers.
  • The German economy and banking system collapsed, and territories were lost to allies and the parties that supported those Allied countries. Germany was made to pay six billion euros to the allied countries under the treaty.
  • As a result, the people lost faith in the army, and the emperor was replaced with the parliamentary form of governance or the Reichstag.
  • The Treaty of Versailles blamed Germany for initiating the war single-handedly and made it guilty.
  • Germany was heavily bombed by the US, lost the war and was even made to pay compensation.
  • Germany started witnessing aggressive nationalism due to economic distress and political turmoil. People turned against the Weimar Republic.

The Economic Crisis

  • Germany was made to pay a significant reparation amount to the Allies. They borrowed vast amounts of money to pay reparations and even sold resources. 
  • Germany was left with no money and refused to pay France the reparation amount. In return, France occupied the Ruhr province of Germany as compensation.
  • Germany witnessed significant inflation. The US bailed them out in 1929 after the depression, and even the US stopped giving them loans.
  • At that time, German manufacturing was at an all-time low; there was low industrial output, unemployment was at an all-time high, and about six million people were unemployed.

 Hitler’s Rise to Power Notes

  • Germany was facing a massive economic depression, and unemployment was at an all-time high. In addition, Hitler brought a wave of nationalism to the country.
  • Hitler was filled with toxicity and had a toxic nationalistic approach. German sentiment worked for him.
  • Hitler was a man who always aspired to be an artist but failed to get into the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna.
  • He joined the 16th Bavarian Reserve in 1913 after returning from Austria, an infantry regiment.
  • He was a patriot and a disciplined man. He joined the German Workers Party in 1919 and renamed the party the National Socialist German Workers Party. But unfortunately, the same later party became the Nazi Party.

The Dream of a Better Future

  • The German people lost all faith in their existing system of governance, and Adolf Hitler came to them as a ray of hope and portrayed himself as a messiah. 
  • In 1932, the Nazi Party formed the government, securing 37% of the vote. As a result, Hitler was chosen as the German Chancellor and later became a dictator by destroying all the democratic institutions.
  • The Nazi Party and Hitler’s opponents killed and banned any kind of assembly. Moreover, they murdered political opponents at the parliament when a baffling fire broke out.
  • They enacted the Enabling Act in 1933, which made the Nazi Party the single party to rule Germany and banned other political organizations. 
  • The Storm Troopers, the Gestapo, and the Surveillance Forces were given the power to put opponents in concentration camps in any corner of the country.
  • Hitler returned the lost territories to Czechoslovakia, Sudetenland, and the Rhine and even maintained the economy and free flow of cash.

The Days of Repression

  • Hitler believed in a racial hierarchy; he was against the union of blue-eyed Aryans and the Pygmies, Jews, and Polish people.
  • He believed that the Jews were the most inferior people, and his blind hatred resulted in the killing of six million Jews. He even killed people from Poland and Russia as well.
  • He strongly opposed the intermixing of races. The Jews were taken to concentration camps; they were massacred brutally. The event is known as Holocaust.

Racism and the Pogrom Aimed at Jews

  • The Polish were forced to leave their ancestral houses, and ethnic German people were moved in. Children were forcefully separated from their families, who were considered racially inferior.
  • Violence and aggression were glorified, and toxic nationality was promoted.
  • Jews were brought to the concentration camps located across Germany through ferry rails; they were gassed and killed.
  • Synagogues were destroyed, houses were burned and looted, and Jews lost the right to live among them.

Did You Know?

  • Denmark evacuated its Jewish nationals during the Holocaust using a boat.
  • Even Mahatma Gandhi and Hitler exchanged letters

Let’s discuss the chapter in a nutshell

  • Germany fought in the First World War alongside the Central Powers, which included the Austrian Empire.
  • The war turned into a massive financial crisis for Europe, and later, Germany was defeated in 1918.
  • As a result, imperial Germany turned into a republic.
  • There was this vast political turmoil in Germany. The increase in political radicalization and the elimination of free corps with the help of war veterans.
  • Germany witnessed a dip in the economy between 1929 and 1932.
  • Hitler, previously an art aspirant, joined the German Worker’s Party in 1919, and later the party came out to be the Nazi Party. Then, finally, he took over Berlin in the wave of nationalism. 
  • Hitler destroyed democracy, had a specific nationalistic ideology, and believed in racial supremacy. The Enabling Act of 3rd March 1933 established a prolonged dictatorship in Germany.
  • Hitler and his propaganda team worked on the reconstruction of the German economy. He reintegrated Poland and Austria into Germany and occupied the lost territory of the Rhineland. 
  • Germany has witnessed a boom in infrastructure, upcoming superhighways, and car manufacturing.
  • In 1939, Germany under Hitler invaded Poland with the objective of eastward expansion and capturing the Soviet Union.
  • Nazi Germany was segregated based on Hitler’s racial hierarchy. Jews were taken to concentration camps in Austewich and other corners of Germany.
  • The Jews were tortured, forcefully separated, and brutally massacred in the gas chambers.
  • This is the dark history of the Holocaust in German history. The German army even performed various experiments on the Jews and butchered the pygmies and Jews.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Who were the Central and Allied Powers?

Central Powers were Austria, Germany, and Turkey. Allied Powers were France, the UK, the US, Russia, Italy, and Japan.

2. What was the Holocaust?

The racial genocide of Jews in Germany during the regime of the Nazi Party was based on racial hierarchy. 

3. What was the last name of the Nazi Party?

The German Workers’ Party was later called the National Socialist German Workers’ Party, which later became the Nazi Party.

4. What is hyperinflation? Mention the factor responsible for this.

It is a situation when there is a very high price rise. For example, it occurred in Germany after the First World War due to too much currency printing.

5. What is Anne Frank famous for?

Otto Frank’s younger daughter, Anne Frank, wrote a diary, ‘The Diary of a Young Girl’, while escaping the Holocaust and gaining fame posthumously.