CBSE Class 9 Social Science History Revision Notes Chapter 5

CBSE Class 9 History Chapter 5 Notes – Pastoralists in the Modern World

CBSE Class 9 History Chapter 5 discusses the nomadic pastoralists. Nomads do not live in one place; instead, they move from one place to another to earn their living. Chapter 5 covers how pastoralism had a significant influence in societies like Africa and India, how lives were impacted by colonialism, and how the people coped with modern society’s pressure. 

Extramarks offers CBSE Class 9 History Chapter 5 Notes to make understanding the chapter easier for students. These will help students save time while preparing for exams. In addition, students can revise the chapter quickly by referring to the notes prepared by the subject-matter experts at Extramarks. 

CBSE Class 9 History Revision Notes 2023-24

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CBSE Class 9 History Revision Notes
  • Chapter 5 – Pastoralists in the Modern World

Pastoralists in the Modern World Class 9 Notes History Chapter 5 

Access Class 9 Social Science Chapter 5- Pastoralists in the Modern World Notes

Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 5 Pastoralists in The Modern World Notes

  • The Gujjar Bakarwal Community arrived in modern-day Jammu and Kashmir between 1127-1154 AD, passing through the Pir Panjal mountain range. The grasslands of Kashmir were suitable for cattle grazing. 
  • They formed a Kafila and moved between the Shivalik Ranges and the Kashmir Valley according to the climate. They resided between these two places and set up their temporary homes.
  • The Gaddi Tribe lived in modern-day Himachal Pradesh. They resided in the villages of Lahaul and Spiti. They travelled to the lower elevations of the Shivalik Ranges during harsh winters and engaged in agriculture and cultivation.
  • Himachal Pradesh’s Bhutiya and Gujjar communities also lived in the grasslands. They were cattle rearers and traders. They used to travel to the forest regions of Garhwal and Kumaon (Bhabar).
  • There were no nomads on the plateaus. They only lived in the mountains and deserts.
  • The Dhangar tribe lived in today’s central Maharashtra and grew millets because of the dry weather and low rainfall. They travelled to the Konkan region after cultivating Kharif crops in October.
  • The Golla, Kuruma, and Kuruba communities residing in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh were forced to relocate from the Konkan region due to the arrival of the monsoon.  
  • The Banjaras resided in the north Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra. They were involved in livestock and travelled a lot for cattle grazing. They had no permanent houses and always travelled in the community and set up temporary houses en route.
  • The Raikas of Rajasthan were cultivated only during the monsoon and grazed cattle for the rest of the year.
  • The Maasai people of Africa live between Kenya and Tanzania. They had broad access to these lands, but the arrival of Europeans restricted their free movement. Massailand was a result. The Europeans engineered famines, and many cattle perished. 
  • The pastoral nomads were timekeepers. They reached geographically suitable places on time and maintained close bonds with locals and farmers. The cattle provided manure to the farm; in return, the farmers provided them with rice and other crops.
  • The policies of the British government proved to be disastrous for the pastoralists. The enactment of the Forest Acts barred them from taking forest resources. Instead, they were taxed on cattle and entered grasslands.
  • The colonial government exploited all the land to meet European market demands. They grew cash crops like coffee, tea, sugarcane, and cotton to maintain the supply chain and cope with the textile industry’s demand for cotton as a raw material.

Chapter 5 History Class 9 Notes will help students to understand the concept of Chapter 5, Pastoralists in the Modern World.

Pastoralist Nomads And Their Movements

Pastoralists were like nomadic people who moved from place to place in search of a suitable climate for their activities. For example, grasslands were required for cattle grazing, but as the winters arrived, the grasslands were covered in snow and moved to other places of lower elevation for cattle grazing. Some tribes avoided the rainy season, so they moved to desert areas. They kept travelling from one location to another.

These people abandoned the land once it became unsuitable for cultivation. In the meantime, the forest reclaimed its territory. The cattle also provided manure to the farm through their excreta.

In The Mountains

  • The Gujjar Bakarwal community migrated to Jammu and Kashmir in the 19th century for cattle rearing. They moved to lower elevated grounds by the end of September and marched north in April.
  • The Gaddi community of Himachal Pradesh followed a similar trend, moving to the Shiwalik ranges in winter and to Lahaul and Spiti in the months of summer.
  • The pastorals of Kumaon and Garhwal also moved to Bhabar, a dry forest during winters, and again marched to Bugyal, a high-altitude meadow. 
  • Other Himalayan communities, like Bhotiya, Sherpa, and Kinnauris, followed similar patterns. 
  • The continued movement of cattle also prevented the overuse of resources.

On The Plains, Plateaus, and Deserts

  • The Dhangar tribe of Maharashtra lived on the plateaus. They grew only millets because the region was arid. They marched to the Konkani regions during rainfall. They had good relations with the local Konkani farmers, and the cattle excreta provided organic manure to the fields.
  • The Golla, Kuruma, and Kurubu tribes lived in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh in the Deccan region. They reared cattle. Their lifestyle was different from that of mountain nomads. They cultivated small patches of land and maintained livestock too.
  • The north Indian Banjara tribe lived in the villages of Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh. They were cattle rearers. They set up temporary huts and kept travelling in search of suitable fields for cattle rearing.
  • The Raikas lived in Rajasthan’s Barmer, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, and Bikaner regions. They were both peasants and pastoralists. They reared camels and sheep. They moved to other places when grazing lands were empty.
  • They practised sustainability and caused the least harm to nature. They were timekeepers and had good terms with farmers on a give-and-take basis. Farmers provided them with crops, and their cattle manured the land.

Colonial Rule and Its Effects on Pastoral Movement

  • The Colonials considered uncultivated lands as wastelands. They exploited nature for commercial purposes to meet the growing European demand and generate revenue. 
  • Their policies were to convert the vacant lands into agricultural land and cultivate cotton, tea, sugarcane, and indigo.
  • They enacted forest laws and barred the entry of pastoralists into the protected regions. Instead, they had to seek permission to move from place to place. The British government deployed troops to the agricultural and forest lands to keep a check. 
  • Pastoralists were taxed on every animal they owned. Grasslands grew scarce. The pastoralists were forced to re-graze their cattle on the same land, which led to soil erosion and destroyed the quality of the soil, which was no longer as fertile as before.

Class 9 History Notes Chapter 5 will help students improve their grades and understand the concept per the latest CBSE guidelines.

How Colonial Rule Affected Lives of Pastoralists

  •  Cattle were no longer reared in the forests freely. It was against their practice of moving from one region to another. As a result, the number of livestock declined, and pastoralists entered other professions. In addition, overgrazing and soil erosion led to famines, and the nation was injured.
  • The Raikas community in Rajasthan could no longer move to Sindh after the partition in 1945. Such things had never been experienced before, leading to an alteration in the lifestyle of such communities worldwide.
  • These nomads no longer practised their way of life; they began purchasing lands and building permanent houses. 
  • Modern-day laws have severely affected the lifestyles of pastoral nomads. Their mobility has been targeted, and their lifestyle has deteriorated. 
  • They owned many cattle, were ancient people, and are still active in the modern world. 
  • Anil Kumar and Naresh Kumar published research papers about the Gujjar Bakarwal tribe of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • The Bhotiya, Gujjar, and Gaddi tribes of Himachal Pradesh were shepherds and used to reside in meadows and travel down to low elevations during unfair weather.
  • The Dhangars of Maharashtra travelled to Konkan during the time frame between Rabi and Kharif seasons. The cattle provided manure for the farm.
  • The Banjaras of north India followed a different pattern; they kept on relocating from place to place for cattle rearing.
  • Rajasthani Raikas moved to Sindh and other places during the dry seasons.
  • Pastoralists avoided heavy winters and practised sustainability; even in the modern world, their lifestyle is heavily regarded as the most efficient way of living. Moreover, it allowed forests to reclaim their territories and soil to regain fertility.
  • Under British rule and unfair Forest Laws, they lost their territories and anonymity. In addition, the troops heavily guarded agricultural lands and grasslands, and pastoralists were heavily taxed for every animal they owned.
  • British and other European colonies engineered various famines in India and Africa and only focused on their economies.

Pastoralists in The Modern World Class 9 Notes is the go-to source for the students to better grasp the basics of Class 9 Chapter 5 History.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. How did the pastoralists move from one place to another?

Pastoral nomadic communities were involved in cattle rearing; they required grasslands. When the mountains were unsuitable for grazing during the winters, they moved to lower-altitude places where cattle could graze. Some tribes avoided the monsoon, so they moved from place to place.


2. How did pastoral nomads practise a sustainable lifestyle?

The pastoral nomads used the land a few times, and when the land became unsuitable for cultivation, they would depart and move pasture to different regions.

In the meantime, the soil retains its fertility, and forests reclaim their territory. The excreta of cattle also added manure to the field.

3. How did colonial laws alter the lifestyles of pastoralists?

Britain faced an oak shortage during the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century. The British enacted Forest Laws and enabled scientific farming. Indian forests were heavily exploited, and oak and timber were transported to Europe and used in making railway sleepers. The forest was divided into three parts: protected, reserved, and village. Nomads and villagers were barred from going into reserved areas and using resources. The scarcity of grazing grounds, combined with overgrazing on the same land, resulted in a decline in the cattle population and a change in a nomadic lifestyle.

4. What were the Waste Land Rules?

The uncultivated lands have been designated as wastelands. To meet the European demands, the British started exploiting the land, which resulted in a decline in pastoral land.