CBSE Class 9 Social Science History Revision Notes Chapter 2

CBSE Class 9 History Chapter 2 Notes – Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

Class 9 History Chapter 2 is about the evolution of Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution. It shows how the revolution transformed society and questioned the well-being of peasants and workers, highlighting the practice of equality in the economy. Chapter 2 is important from a geopolitics perspective. CBSE Class 9 History Chapter 2 Notes can help students understand the chapter and prepare for their examinations.

CBSE Class 9 History Revision Notes 2023-24

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CBSE Class 9 History Revision Notes

  • Chapter 2 – Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

Socialism in Europe and The Russian Revolution Notes

The Three Political Paradigms

Just after the French Revolution, new paradigms emerged that were new to the political sphere of the period. They were:

  • Conservatives
  • Liberals
  • Radicals

The Problems with Industrialisation

Before European industrialisation, people could no longer sustain their livelihood using conventional farming and agriculture methods. A constantly rising population, regular wars, monarchies, etc., were reasons for the poor living standards of the people in Europe.

Many people reached out to work in multiple industries because wages were meagre.

Because of urbanisation, questions arose concerning housing and sanitation.

Both liberals and radicals needed solutions to similar issues.

The Emergence of Socialism

The socialists pushed property ownership to communities as they thought the properties owned privately were crony. A few socialists were Robert Owen, Louis Blanc, etc., who supported the formation of cooperatives to dismantle privately owned industries.

Karl Marx noted that the owners’ profit was due to the workers’ hard work. He thought that prevention of wealth accumulation needed to be done and dreamt of a world where society was prosperous.

Socialist Revolution in Russia

  • In Russia, there was a system of monarchy in the early 20th century.
  • Tsar Nicholas was the last emperor that the Russian empire witnessed. 
  • St. Petersburg and Moscow were the important cities where most industries were situated.
  • Workers were tortured and made to suffer by the owners of the industry.
  • On the other hand, workers were divided but pulled together to protest.

The 1905 Revolution

  • Inflation forced the wages of  Russian workers to be effectively meagre.
  • The Putilov Iron Works terminated four workers who were members of the Russian Workers’ Assembly. Hence, almost 110,000 labourers went on strike by gathering in St. Petersburg. And then, when they approached the Winter Palace, they had to face fire, and nearly a hundred of them were killed.
  • Because of the protests, the Tsar permitted the formation of the parliament, known as the Duma.

The February Revolution

Because of the involvement of Russia in World War I, the industries were unsuccessful in surviving, and the railways faced disintegration. The young men were forced to join the forces to fight the war, and the small workshops and the farming also suffered from the loss of workers.

The women played an essential part in the strikes. The workers circled the Winter Palace, but the soldiers did not shoot at them. The Tsar waived off his authority in 1917.

Russian revolution class 9 notes

This Class 9 History Notes Chapter 2 will help students understand the chapter easily. The Russian Revolution, part of Class 9 Chapter 2 History Notes, gives the students vast details about the event. Class 9 History Chapter 2 Notes help students understand the reasons behind the Russian Revolution of 1917 and its impact on the people in Russia and the world. The bond between the people of Russia and the Tsar was broken in 1917. The inefficiency of the administration and corrupt government was pervasive. The policies of the Tsar included the dissolution of the Duma. The disbandment of the government of Russia has spread disappointment to all the subtle elements. Several traditional minorities began to feel increasingly threatened by Russian dominance.

Russian Revolution Class 9

The results of the Russian Revolution were as follows:

  • The disintegration of the Czars and the Empire of Russia.
  • Nicholas II was strained to leave power because of the food shortage and persistent civil unrest.
  • Vladimir then led the Bolsheviks.
  • The remaining transfigured body of Czar Nicholas II and his family were found later in the 1970s.
  • War started between the Reds and the Whites, known as the Civil War.
  • Socialism rose in Russia.
  • Russia pulled back its name from World War 1.
  • Finland, the Baltics, and Poland became independent countries.
  • The dictatorship was established.

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Short Notes

According to the CBSE syllabus and the NCERT books, Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution are a vital portions from which important questions are expected to come in the exams. These Class 9 History Chapter 2 Notes are short and briefly prepared to make them the best go-to option for CBSE revision notes

Social Transformation in Europe

Multiple transformations began to take place on the continent of Europe after the Revolution in France. The ideals persuaded people of equality, justice, and liberty. They started to feel that the government must work in a different style. 

The three major groups were:

The Liberalists:

  • These were the people who wanted a change in their society. They wanted a religiously tolerant nation.
  • They wanted to protect the rights of the citizens and wanted a Parliamentary Government.
  • They were those people who were not Democrats and did not wish to have a universal franchise

The Radicals:

  • They wanted a government elected by the citizens of the country.
  • They wanted equality for women and supported women’s right to vote.
  • Radicals were not in favour of factory owners and landlords.

The Conservatives:

  • They were against every ideology and view of the radicals and liberals.
  • They wished for the more affluent class to continue rejoicing in their privileges and facilities.
  • They wanted a moderate transformation in society and admired the past.

History Class 9 Chapter 2 Notes

From the Class 9 History Chapter 2 Notes, you will learn the following:

  1. Socialist ideas became famous in Europe in the 19th century. It was believed that due to the peasants’ efforts, the workers in factories became rich. However, they did not worry about the workers’ well-being.
  2. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels wanted the properties to be owned by society as the factory’s profits were generated because of the workers.
  3. A Socialist Democratic Party in Germany, a Socialist Party in France, and a Labour Party in Britain were formed.

Russian Revolution and India

Chapter 2 History Class 9 Notes tell us about the influence of the Russian Revolution in India, which included:

  • People from all over India participated in Communist universities.
  • India formed its own Communist party in the mid-1920s.
  • In their writings, Tagore and Jawaharlal Nehru both mentioned Soviet Socialism.
  • Several Indian writers wrote regarding the Russian Revolution.
  • Many prominent Indian leaders visited Russia to learn about Socialist principles.

Did You Know?

  • The causes of the Russian Revolution were Czar Nicholas II’s weak and irresponsible leadership, Bloody Sunday, the March Revolution, meagre wages, and poor conditions in the lower communities.
  • The October Revolution, also known as the Great October Socialist Revolution due to an official term in the Soviet Union.
  • The February Revolution began when the country was suffering from a scarcity of food and the riots happened in Petrograd.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What were the major changes after the February Revolution in Russia?

The below-given changes followed the February Revolution in Russia:

  1. Public meetings and associations were now legally organised.
  2. Vladimir Lenin, the Bolshevik leader, came back in 1917. 
  3. Several trade unions were created, and their numbers increased immensely.
  4. The Military Revolutionary Committee fought against the central forces.
  5. The Prime Minister fled the city to assemble the forces. 
  6. The Bolsheviks achieved their victory in December 1917.


2. What were the changes that the Bolsheviks implemented after October?

Bolsheviks implemented the below-given changes after the October Revolution:

  1. The declaration of land as social property.
  2. The peasants were handed over the lands by the aristocrats.
  3. Nationalisation took place in all fields.
  4. Lenin let go of the assembly after losing the elections.

3. Why did civil war occur in Russia after the October Revolution?

The Russian civil war broke out during the October Revolution for the following reasons:

  • The tyrannical acts of the Bolsheviks, such as censorship, one-party rule, etc., disappointed other communities.
  • Aristocrats were also annoyed with the Bolsheviks because of their attitude toward land ownership.

4. How did the Russian Revolution impact the world?

The Russian revolution witnessed the creation of a socialist government in Europe for the first time. This ingrained a belief in other countries that the socialists could also create governments and steered the emergence of several socialist parties in the remaining regions of Europe.

5. How did the Bolsheviks turn Russia into a socialist society?

Russia became a socialist society as:

  1. All the businesses, industries, and banks were nationalized.
  2. All the land was made available to society.
  3. The government set regulations on the prices.
  4. Healthcare was made affordable.
  5. Modern education has been passed on to all children.