# Heat Release Rate Formula

## Heat Release Rate Formula

The HRR is a measure of the fire’s intensity based on the amount of heat energy it releases. For predicting fire cascade effects (transmission effects) in the environment and in particular on nearby cells in a battery, this is necessary. To a first approximation, other fire characterisation factors, such as mass loss or gas development, are directly related to the Heat Release Rate Formula.

### Meaning of HRR

Heat Release Rate Formula is the single most important parameter in fire accidents. A bench-scale calorimeter can be used to measure heat emission rates at various heat fluxes. Typical devices for this are based on oxygen demand theory, which states that roughly constant quantity of heat is emitted per unit weight of oxygen used across a variety of materials. Per gram of oxygen absorbed, 13.1 kJ of energy is spent. A large-scale oxygen consumption calorimeter can be used to measure the removal efficiency from room fires and burning commodities. Heat loss provided by the burner is precisely matched by energy generated by the burning sample. A sample’s heat emission rate is calculated by reducing the gas flow. Constant temperature eliminates inertia and allows for quick thermal efficiency adjustments.

### Measurement of HRR

As an energy value or as a normalized area value (e.g., kW m2), HRR can be expressed in either way. ISO 5660-1 specifies that the forced irradiance (heat flux) on the cell should be expressed in kW m2. Normally, HRR measurements are expressed as the mean HRR, which is calculated by dividing the total heat energy emitted by the fire’s duration.

### Formula of Heat Release Rate

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### Solved Examples

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