Specific Gravity Formula

Specific Gravity Formula

Specific gravity is a concept that we’ve all seen, but don’t know what it’s called. This factor is also determined by the object’s density. Furthermore, we will discuss specific gravity, the Specific Gravity Formula and its derivation, and solved examples in this topic.

The course introduces students to a variety of topics and chapters, including the Specific Gravity Formula. Physics is made up of many formulas, like the Specific Gravity Formula, and it is critical that students understand these concepts. The Specific Gravity Formula is significant because it assists students in later classes and even higher education. It is, hence, important for students to thoroughly learn and revise the Specific Gravity Formula.

Students can learn more about the Specific Gravity Formula on the Extramarks platform. The Specific Gravity Formula, along with others, has been thoroughly explained, allowing students to gain a thorough understanding. Before they can answer questions about the Specific Gravity Formula, students must first understand everything about it.

Specific Gravity

Specific gravity is defined as the ratio of an object’s density to that of a reference material. Furthermore, the specific gravity of an object can indicate whether it will sink or float in reference material. Furthermore, the reference material is water, which has a density of one gramme per cubic centimetre or one gramme per millimetre.

In layman’s terms, specific gravity determines whether an object sinks or floats in water. Furthermore, many factors influence whether an object will float or sink.

Students are unable to progress past difficult topics such as the Specific Gravity Formula. They must face it and be prepared for it. There are several questions about the Specific Gravity Formula that can be asked in the exam, and they are weighted. Students must answer these questions from the Specific Gravity Formula.


The object’s density describes how heavy or compact the object is in the given volume. We also calculate it in mass per unit volume. It is also expressed as grammes per cubic centimetre (g/cm3), grammes per millimetre (g/mL), or kilogrammes per litre (kg/L).

Density is defined as the heaviness or lightness of an object in a given volume. Furthermore, because density is directly proportional to mass, the object with the most molecules will have a higher density, while the object with the fewest molecules will have a lower density.

Physics is a natural science that studies matter, its fundamental constituents, motion and behaviour in space and time, as well as the related entities of energy and force. Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, with the primary goal of understanding how the universe functions. A physicist is a scientist who specialises in the field of Physics.

Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, and possibly the oldest, due to its inclusion of astronomy. Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and certain branches of Mathematics were all part of natural Philosophy for much of the last two millennia, but during the 17th century Scientific Revolution, these natural sciences emerged as distinct research endeavours in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary fields of study, including biophysics and quantum chemistry, and its boundaries are not rigidly defined. New ideas in Physics frequently explain fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and point to new directions for research in these and other academic disciplines such as Mathematics and Philosophy.

Specific Gravity Formula

The Specific Gravity Formula uses water as its reference substance, and the formula is the ratio of an object’s density to the density of water. The Greek Symbol Rho also indicates density.

The formula is as given below:

Specific Gravity = density of the object/density of the water = ρobject/ρH2O

The specific gravity has no unit of measurement because the numerator and denominator of the formula are the same and cancel each other out.

Derivation of the Specific Gravity Formula

ρ  = refers to the Greek symbol that denotes the density

Object = refers to the density of the object

H2O = refers to the density of reference material (water)

Furthermore, for specific gravity, it is necessary to understand the density of the object as well as how to calculate the density of the object.

Density formula

Density is equal to mass divided by volume.


m = refers to the object’s mass.

v = refers to the object’s volume.

Furthermore, the object’s mass can be expressed in grammes, kilogrammes, or pounds. Additionally, the density is proportional to the object’s mass. So, we can calculate specific gravity by dividing an object’s mass by the mass of water.

Solved Example on Specific Gravity Formula

  1. A liquid has a mass of 10 grams and the volume of the water (reference material) is 12 ml. Then calculate the specific gravity of the object? Also, specify whether the object will sink or float in the water?

(Note: Consider the density of the water is 1 gm/ml)



The mass of the object = m = 10 grams

The volume of the water = V = 12 ml

The density of water = ρ


= 1gm/ml

We are asked to determine the specific gravity of the given object. Before we start calculating the specific gravity, we must determine the density of the given object.

Thus, the density of the given object is given by:

⇒ ρ


= mass/volume

= 1012

= 0.8 gm/ml …..(1)

Therefore, the specific gravity formula is given by:

⇒ S = ρobject/ρwater





– The density of the object or the material under consideration



– The density of the water

Substituting all the values in equation (2) and simplify. We get:

⇒ S = 0.81

Thus, the specific gravity of given object is 0.8. Since the specific gravity of the object is less than 1 i.e., S < 1, the object will float in the water.

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