NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 4
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 – Reproductive Health
Biology is a branch of science and it’s probably the best science. It studies living creatures and their functions whether plants, animals, or microorganisms. It provides scientific understanding of how living and nonliving organisms interact with each other and an insight into how diverse life forms are.
NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 Reproductive Health refers to total well being in all aspects of reproduction and problems associated with it. It is an important topic for adolescents and young adults to get the right information from an authentic source and enhance their knowledge and understanding of it. It generates awareness and also raises questions like – Why is it significant to maintain reproductive health? What strategies can be adopted to attain a reproductively healthy society? Our country was the first nation in the world to initiate action plans at the national level of achieving a reproductively healthy society.
NCERT Solutions are highly recommended for students in high school to avoid any kind of exam pressure and help them excel in their exam. Extramarks has been constantly striving to provide students with exclusive NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 which helps students to take note of new concepts, additional information and important chapters quickly. NCERT solutions help students to complete with their revision and clear their doubts through live sessions taken up by Extramarks subject matter experts following the systematic approach and regular practice to master the topic. Our team of subject experts have created Ch 4 Biology Class 12 NCERT Solutions after a lot of research and analysis.
Not just the NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 4, Extramarks’ website has plenty of study material to help students in their educational journey. In addition, students can use the Extramarks website to access resources as per their needs and requirement.. For example, NCERT books, CBSE revision notes, CBSE sample papers, CBSE previous years’ question papers, and so on. Extramarks recommends you to browse through the resources and plan your studies smartly.
Key Topics Covered NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 4
Following are the key topics covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 4:
|Population Explosion and Birth Control|
|Medical Termination of Pregnancy|
|Sexually Transmitted Diseases|
Let us look at Extramarks’ in-depth information on each subtopic in NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 4- Reproduction.
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 describes Reproductive health as the state of total well-being in all aspects of reproduction, i.e, physical, emotional, behavioural, and social. A reproductively healthy society is one in which people have physically and functionally normal reproductive organs and normal relationships in terms of behaviour and emotion.
- In India, family planning measures were launched in 1951 to achieve complete reproductive health, and these tactics were examined regularly.
- Reproductive and Child Health Care (RCH) Programs are being implemented to raise public knowledge about many reproduction elements and help establish a reproductively healthy society by offering resources and assistance.
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 provides following steps to achieve reproductive health:
- Both governmental and non-governmental organisations use audio-visual and print media to establish awareness initiatives.
- Responsible individuals, instructors, parents, close relatives, and friends must give young adults and children accurate information and open discussions to make them aware of reproductive health.
- Sex education should be imparted in schools and universities.
- Sexually Transmitted Diseases, or STDs, must be made more widely known.
- People, particularly fertile couples and marriageable adults, need to be educated about birth control alternatives, pre-and postnatal care, and the need for childcare.
Population Explosion and Birth Control
Following World War II, specific species, particularly humans, experienced population boom , resulting in an increase in birth rate and a decrease in death rate, maternal mortality rate(MMR), infant mortality rate(IMR), and infant mortality rate(IMR). Human life expectancy has grown because of increased health facilities and better healthcare. and all this will put additional strain on all resources and the government needs to take serious measures to restrain this population growth
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 states causes of population explosion:
- The rate of newborn mortality is rapidly declining (IMR).
- The length of life expectancy is increasing.
- The rise in the number of persons of reproductive age.
- The mortality rate is rapidly decreasing.
- The rate of maternal mortality is quickly declining (MMR).
Steps to control Population Explosion
The following are some methods to control population explosion as per our NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 4:
- Smaller families are being promoted.
- Encouraging the adoption of contraceptive techniques.
- Raising the minimum age for marriage (18 years for females and 21 years for males).
- Appreciative measures for couples with fewer children.
What are key features of an ideal contraceptive?
- It should be simple to use.
- It should be simple to obtain.
- It should be efficient.
- Side effects must be minimal or non-existent.
- Reversibility should be possible.
- Individuals’ desires, sexual drive, or conduct should not be affected.
Methods of Contraceptive
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 illustrates different methods of contraceptives such as: :
Natural Methods are based on concepts that prevent the sperm and egg from fusing. Natural barriers do not employ chemicals. Thus, there are no adverse effects, yet their success rate is restricted, and the risks of failure are significant. They aren’t completely risk-free.
- Lactational Amenorrhea
- Periodic Abstinence
- Withdrawal or Coitus-interruptus
Barrier Methods- Certain physical barriers are utilised to prevent the union of sperm and ovum.
- Condom: They are physical barriers made of a thin rubber or latex sheath that protect the penis in men and the cervix in females. Condoms for both males and females may be disposed of effortlessly. Condoms effectively reduce STD transmission because they prohibit the exchange of genital fluids between couples.
IntraUterine Devices (IUDs) are devices put into a woman’s uterus through the vaginal canal with the assistance of physicians or experienced nurses. These contraceptives are the most often used contraception for ladies who want to ensure family planning.
Oral Contraceptives- This procedure involves taking tablets that include a mixture of oral progestogens or progesterone and oestrogen. They are taken for 21 days and are skipped during the first seven days of the menstrual cycle, following which they are retaken for seven days and should only be stopped when the ladies seek to conceive.
Injectables and Implants- Females can also take specific implants or injections under the skin. These are either progesterone alone or progesterone plus oestrogen in combination. They act similarly to tablets but for a more extended amount of time.
Surgical Methods- This procedure involves using surgery to stop the movement of gametes, resulting in a failed pregnancy. They are sometimes known as sterilisation since they are the final contraception techniques. Male sterilisation is referred to as vasectomy, whereas female sterilisation is referred to as tubectomy.
Medical Termination of Pregnancy
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 discusses another important aspect of Medical Termination of Pregnancy. Medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) is also known as induced abortion, and it occurs when a pregnancy is ended before it reaches full term. Though MTP is used to reduce population increase, it may also play a significant role in population reduction. The use of MTP was allowed by the Indian government in 1971, but only under tight conditions to prevent its abuse.
Why go for MTP?
- To avoid unintended pregnancies.
- It’s effective in situations where continuing the pregnancy could be fatal either for the mother, the foetus, or both.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), venereal diseases (VDs), and reproductive tract infections are illnesses or infections that are transferred through sexual activities and intercourse and infect a person’s reproductive system (RTI). Gonorrhoea, genital herpes, syphilis, genital warts, chlamydiosis, hepatitis B, trichomoniasis, and HIV/AIDS are all instances of STDs.
Abortions, pelvic inflammatory disorders (PID), ectopic pregnancies, stillbirths, infertility, and even cancer of the reproductive system are all consequences of STDs. STDs obstruct the development of a healthy society. As a result, in the case of STDs, the focus is on prevention or early identification, followed by treatment under reproductive healthcare programmes.
How to prevent STDs?
- To avoid having sex with multiple partners or strangers.
- Partners should use condoms during coitus.
- If discomfort is noticed, see an expert or a competent doctor for early illness detection and treatment.
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 briefly explains the topic of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the above section. Refer to Extramarks and access notes, sample papers, questions and answers etc. benefit from it.
Infertility is defined as the inability to create offspring following sexual contact due to various conditions, including hereditary, physical, pharmacological, psychological, and immunological.
The reasons could be many but there are special ways to help such couples – assisted reproductive technologies (ART), which include IVF and ET (in vitro fertilisation) (Embryo transfer).
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 Exercise and Solutions
Students can get NCERT Solutions for all chapters and other study tools, including previous year’s question papers, revision notes, past years’ question papers, etc. On the Extramarks website. Click on the below links to view NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 4:
Class 12 Science Biology 4: Very Short Answer Type Questions
Class 12 Science Biology 4: Short Answer Type Questions
Class 12 Science Biology 4: Long Answer Type Questions
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By getting access to NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 4, students can easily understand all the concepts of reproduction and its different concepts.
Key Features of NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 4
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- It will definitely help students get an edge over their peers with superior knowledge and understanding of the subject.
It saves time and students need not worry about the exam results, they will undoubtedly pass with flying colours.
Q.1 What do you think is the significance of reproductive health in a society?
According to World Health Organization, health means a state total well-being in all the aspects like: physical, emotional, behavioural and social. A society with people having physically and functionally normal reproductive organs with normal interactions among them in all sex-related aspects is called reproductively healthy society. The importance of reproductive health is as follows:
- The offspring of healthy parents will be healthy, thus the overall health of society will be good, in all aspects of life.
- Proper information about reproductive organs, adolescence and related changes, safe and hygienic sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), etc., will help people lead a healthy life.
- A reproductively healthy society will have correct information about pregnancy, child-birth and post-natal care. This will keep the mother and the child lead healthy and happy life. Such societies will well address the problems of uncontrolled population growth, sex-abuse and sex-related crime, etc.
Q.2 Suggest the aspects of reproductive health which need to be given special attention in the present scenario.
Aspects of reproductive health which need to be given special attention in the present day scenario are:
- Proper information about reproductive organs, adolescence and related changes, safe and hygienic sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases (STD), etc., so that people can lead a normal and healthy life.
- Sex education in schools should be made compulsory to help children understand the right facts about sexual practices and reproduction.
- Proper information should be made available to fertile couples and people in marriageable age group about available birth control options, care of pregnant mothers, post-natal care of the mother and child, the importance of breastfeeding, etc., for the well-being of mother and child.
- Society needs to be educated about the importance of bringing up a male and female child with equal opportunities so that female foeticide can be curbed.
- People should be made aware of the problems society faces when there is uncontrolled population growth resulting in social evils like sex-abuse and sex-related crime.
Q.3 Is sex education necessary in schools? Why?
Sex education is very important in schools as it provides the youngsters correct knowledge about various aspects of reproductive health like: reproductive organs, adolescence and related changes, safe and hygienic sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), etc. This would not just help them lead a normal healthy life, but also protect them from acquiring STDs and stay protected from sex abuse and sex-related crimes. The right information would discourage children from believing in myths and having misconceptions about sex-related aspects. This would help create a sexually conscious and healthy society.
Q.4 Do you think that reproductive health in our country has improved in the past 50 years? If yes, mention some such areas of improvement.
Yes, reproductive health in our country has improved in the past 50 years. This has been made possible by the successful implementation of various action plans, strong infrastructural facilities, professional expertise and material support. Some such areas of improvements are as follows:
- A statutory ban on amniocentesis (chromosome-based sex determination test) has resulted in a decline in female foeticide.
- Good medical assistance and care with better techniques and new strategies have helped overcome reproduction-related problems like pregnancy, delivery, STDs, abortion, contraception, infertility, etc. to a large extent. These steps have resulted in the rapid decline of maternal mortality and infant mortality rate.
- Massive child immunisation program has also been another successful program that has resulted in decreased infant deaths and healthy children.
- Large scale use of contraceptive methods due to massive awareness programmes and their easy availability have resulted in smaller families, thus checking the population growth.
Q.5 What are the suggested reasons for population explosion?
When the number of people in a group exceed the carrying capacity of the region due to rapid increase of a population it is called population explosion. Population of most of the developing countries has drastically increased. According to an estimate, by 2050 the world’s population will be between 7.9 billion and 10.9 billion. If this trend continues, very soon there will be massive scarcity of basic requirements like food, shelter, clothing, etc. Some of the suggested reasons for this population explosion have been all-round development and successful implementation of programs in various fields of reproductive health. Awareness and availability of better health facilities along with better living conditions are one of the major reasons for population explosion. A rapid decline in death rate, maternal mortality rate and infant mortality rate as well as increase in number of people in reproductive age are some other major reasons for an alarming increase in population.
Q.6 Is the use of contraceptives justified? Give reasons.
Contraceptives are devices, drugs, agents, sexual practices, or surgical procedures that prevent conception or pregnancy. Contraception helps women plan if and when they want to conceive. The use of contraceptives is very much justifiable due to the following reasons:
- It helps in checking population growth.
- Couples can plan when they want to have children and how many, without affecting their married life.
- Contraceptives prevent unwanted pregnancies and spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
Q.7 Removal of gonads cannot be considered as contraceptive option. Why?
Contraceptive methods should be user-friendly, easily available, effective and reversible with no or least side effects. Removal of gonads cannot be considered as contraceptive option because of following reasons:
- Complete removal of gonads will not just result in infertility, but will also devoid body of the hormones, released from these organs, which are important for normal functioning of other organs.
- This is an irreversible process and thus, couple can never conceive again after gonads are removed.
Q.8 Amniocentesis for sex determination is banned in our country. Is this ban necessary? Comment.
Amniocentesis is a medical process in which a long needle is passed through the abdominal wall of the pregnant mother to withdraw a small amount of amniotic fluid along with foetal cells. These cells are used for karyotyping to detect any kind of chromosomal abnormality. The main application of the technique is in pre-natal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and can be carried out after 16th week of pregnancy. Karyotyping not just gives information about the autosomal chromosomes, but also about sex chromosomes and thus, sex of the foetus can be determined through amniocentesis. In many places across India, birth of girl child is not desirable for various socio-economic reasons. Thus, people do not want a girl child. Therefore, they go for tests, like amniocentesis to find out the sex of the foetus. If they find that the foetus is a female child, they go for abortion. This is an illegal practice and leads to skewed male:female ratio in the society. In order to curb this, amniocentesis for sex determination has been banned in our country.
Q.9 Suggest some methods to assist infertile couples to have children.
Couples who are unable to conceive in spite of unprotected sexual intercourse are infertile couples. Many reasons contribute to infertility, for example, physical environment, congenital diseases, drugs and immunological health. In some cases, special techniques known as assisted reproductive technologies (ART) play a very important role in treating infertile couples. Various ART are as follows:
- In-vitro fertilisation or test-tube baby followed by ‘Embryo transfer’ (ET): This is a technique by which fertilisation is carried out outside the body under conditions similar to those inside the body. Ova from the wife/donor (female) and sperms from the husband/donor (male) are collected and induced to form zygote under ideal lab conditions. The zygote or early embryo (upto 8 blastomeres) is then transferred into the fallopian tube (ZIFT – zygote intra fallopian transfer) and embryos with more than 8 blastomeres are transferred into the uterus (IUT-intra uterine transfer) to complete its further development.
- Gamete intra fallopian transfer (GIFT): In this method, ovum is collected from a donor (female) and transferred into the fallopian tube of another female who cannot produce one, but can provide the right environment for fertilisation and further development of the embryo.
- Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): This is another very specialised technique where sperm is directly injected into the ovum under laboratory conditions.
- Artificial insemination (AI): The semen collected either from the husband or a healthy donor is artificially introduced either into the vagina or into the uterus of the female. This technique is useful in those cases where the sperm count in semen is either very low or male partner cannot inseminate.
Q.10 What are the measures one has to take to prevent from contracting STDs?
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are diseases or infections which are transmitted through sexual intercourse and are caused by viruses and bacteria. Humans do not have a good level of immunity to any of the STDs. Early symptoms are mild but if left untreated, they result in serious complications later. Thus, STDs are a major threat to a healthy society. Prevention is the best cure for not contracting STDs. Some simple measures that should be taken to prevent STDs are as follows:
- Information and knowledge of the facts related to STDs.
- Avoiding sex with unknown partners or multiple partners.
- Using condoms during coitus (intercourse).
- Immediately visiting a qualified doctor for early detection and taking complete treatment if diagnosed with the disease.
Q.11 State True/False with explanation
(a) Abortions could happen spontaneously too. (True/False)
(b) Infertility is defined as the inability to produce a viable offspring and is always due to abnormalities/defects in the female partner. (True/False)
(c) Complete lactation could help as a natural method of contraception. (True/False)
(d) Creating awareness about sex related aspects is an effective method to improve reproductive health of the people. (True/False)
Explanation: Abortion is the termination of pregnancy by the removal or expulsion of a foetus or embryo from the uterus before the time of parturation. It can be spontaneous also, called miscarriage. Miscarriage mostly occurs due to chromosomal problems which make it impossible for the foetus to develop. Other possible causes of miscarriage may be drug and alcohol abuse, exposure to environmental toxins, hormone-related problems, infections, obesity, physical problems with mother’s reproductive organs, etc.
Explanation: Infertility is defined as the inability to produce a viable offspring inspite of unprotected sexual intercourse. There can be many reasons for infertility such as physical abnormalities, congenital diseases, side-effect of drugs, weak immune system and psychological well being.
Explanation: Complete lactation could help as a natural method of contraception however, it is effective only upto a maximum period of six months following parturition or child birth. This is based on the fact that ovulation and therefore menstrual cycle, do not occur during the period of intense lactation (first six months) following childbirth. Thus, it is said that as long as mother breast feeds the child completely, chances of conception are nil. However, the chances of failure of this method are also very high.
Explanation: Reproductive health means total well-being in all the aspects of reproduction, e.g. physical, emotional, behavioural and social. Thus, a society with people who are well informed about the merits and demerits of sex-related issues will behave in accordance with it and thus; will remain healthy.
Q.12 Correct the following statements:
(a) Surgical methods of contraception prevent gamete formation.
(b) All sexually transmitted diseases are completely curable.
(c) Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among rural women.
(d) In E.T. technique, embryos are always transferred into the uterus.
(a) Surgical methods of contraception do not prevent gamete formation. Instead, they block gamete transport and thereby prevent conception. In males, it is called ‘vasectomy’ (a small part of the vas deferens is cut and tied up through a small incision on the scrotum) whereas, it is called ‘tubectomy’ in females (a small part of the fallopian tube is cut and tied up through a small incision in the abdomen or through vagina).
(b) All sexually transmitted diseases are not completely curable. Except for hepatitis-B, genital herpes and HIV infections, all other STDs are completely curable if detected early and treated properly. Medical advancements have still not found a complete cure for hepatitis-B, genital herpes and HIV infections.
(c) Oral pills are not very popular contraceptives among rural women. Intra Uterine Devices (IUDs) are one of the most widely accepted methods of contraception in India. These devices are inserted by medically trained personnel in the uterus through the vagina. They work by either increasing phagocytosis of sperms within the uterus, by releasing the Cu (Copper) ions that suppress motility and viability of sperms, or by releasing hormones that make the uterus unsuitable for implantation.
(d) In embryo transfer (E.T.) technique, embryos are not always transferred into the uterus. Ova from the wife/donor (female) and sperms from the husband/donor (male) are collected and induced to form zygote under ideal lab conditions. The zygote or early embryo (with upto 8 blastomeres) is then transferred into the fallopian tube (ZIFT – zygote intra-fallopian transfer) and embryos with more than 8 blastomeres are transferred into the uterus (IUT-intra uterine transfer) for its further development.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. Is Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 easy?
Biology in 12th grade might be challenging. However, it is the student who decides how easy or difficult the chapter is. The main reason is that students do find it challenging to grasp the concepts. This chapter introduces several new concepts that need attention and, as a result, are time-consuming. It can, however, become more manageable if a student devotes enough time and effort to grasp the topic being taught in class or online as the case may be. In addition, students can refer to Extramarks and get access to exclusive Notes and Solutions of this chapter to stay ahead of the competition.
2. What are the different ways an STD can be transmitted? ?
Although sexual intimacy is the most prevalent route of infection, different forms of illness occur depending on the condition. The most pervasive routes of infection are vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse. However, like in the case of herpes, skin-to-skin contact can be a route of transmission. In addition, infections such as syphilis and herpes can also spread through saliva.