NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Democratic Politics Chapter 2 Federalism


Consider the following statements.
  1. In a federation the powers of the federal and provincial governments are clearly demarcated.
  2. India is a federation because the powers of the Union and State Governments are specified in the Constitution and they have exclusive jurisdiction on their respective subjects.
  3. Sri Lanka is a federation because the country is divided into provinces.
  4. India is no longer a federation because some powers of the States have been devolved to the local government bodies.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
  1. A, B and C
  1. A, C and D
  1. A and B only
  1. B and C only


(c) A and B only


Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:
List I List II
  1. Union of India
  1. Prime Minister
  1. State
  1. Sarpanch
  1. Municipal Corporation
  1. Governor
  1. Gram Panchayat
  1. Mayor
1 2 3 4
(a) D A B C
(b) B C D A
(c) A C D B
(d) C D A B




Examine the following pairs that give the level of government in India and the powers of the government at that level to make laws on the subjects mentioned against each. Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched?
  1. State Government
State List
  1. Central Government
Union List
  1. Central and State Governments
Concurrent List
  1. Local Government
Residuary powers


(d) Local Government

Residuary powers



A few subjects in various lists of the Indian Constitution are given here. Group them under the Union, State and Concurrent Lists as provided in the table below:
  1. Defence
  2. Police
  3. Agriculture
  4. Education
  5. Banking
  6. Forests
  7. Communications
  8. Trade
  9. Marriages
Union List
State List
Concurrent List


Union List

  1. Defence; E. Banking; G. Communications

State List

  1. Police; C. Agriculture; H. Trade

Concurrent List

D. Education; F. Forests; I. Marriages



The distinguishing feature of a federal government is:
  1. National government gives some powers to the provincial governments.
  2. Power is distributed among the legislature, executive and judiciary.
  3. Elected officials exercise supreme power in the government.
  4. Governmental power is divided between different levels of government.


  1.  Governmental power is divided between different levels of government.


State any two differences between the local government before and after the Constitutional amendment in 1992.


  • Prior to the Constitutional amendment of 1992 –
    •  Elections to the local bodies were not held regularly.
    • The local governments did not have any powers or resources of their own.
  • After the amendment of 1992 –
    • It became constitutionally mandatory to hold regular elections to local government bodies.
    • State governments are required to share revenue and some powers with the local government bodies.


What is the main difference between a federal form of government and a unitary one? Explain with an example.


  • In a unitary government, the national government has all the powers whereas federalism is a system of government in which the power is divided between a central authority and various constituent units of the country.
  • India has a central government to rule the country as well as state governments at the regional level. Therefore, India is a federal republic.
  • In Sri Lanka, the national government has all the powers. Therefore, Sri Lanka is an example of unitary form of government.


Point out one feature in the practice of federalism in India that is similar to and one feature that is different from that of Belgium.


Both India and Belgium are federal republics. Both the countries have Central and State governments. The states enjoy autonomy in both the countries.

In Belgium, the state government is not subordinate to the Centre. But in India the Centre has more powers. The Centre can even dismiss the state government. However, the Supreme Court of India has now made it difficult for the Centre to dismiss a state government in an arbitrary manner.


Identify and shade three federal countries (other than India) on a blank outline political map of the world.



Here are three reactions to the language policy followed in India. Give an argument and an example to support any of these positions. Sangeeta: The policy of accommodation has strengthened national unity. Arman: Language-based States have divided us by making everyone conscious of their language. Harish: This policy has only helped to consolidate the dominance of English over all other languages.


I agree with Sangeeta’s statement. The policy of accommodation has actually strengthened national unity.

  • Initially, the demand for formation of states on the basis of language was resisted by our leaders. It was feared that it would lead to disintegration. On the contrary, it made the country more united and also helped in administration.
  • The Indian Constitution did not give the status of national language to any one language. However, Hindi was made the official language.
  • Apart from Hindi, 21 other languages were declared as Scheduled Languages. There were safeguards to protect these languages. A person may take up an examination for central government positions in any of these languages.
  • The states too have their own official languages.
  • Thus, India’s language policy allowed it to avoid a Sri Lanka kind of a situation.


Fill in the blanks: Since the United States is a ___________________ type of federation, all the constituent States have equal powers and States are ______________vis-à-vis the federal government. But India is a _____________________ type of federation and some States have more power than others. In India, the ____________ government has more powers.


Since the United States is a coming together type of federation, all the constituent States have equal powers and States are strong vis-a-vis the federal government. But India is a holding together type of federation and some States have more power than others. In India, the Central government has more powers.


Locate the following States on a blank outline political map of India:
  • Manipur, Sikkim, Chhattisgarh and Goa.


Benefits of NCERT Solutions

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4. Most of the questions in exams are asked in a similar arrangement from NCERT textbooks. Hence, students should altogether revise every chapter’s solution to get a good command in subjects

Tips & Strategies for Class 10 Exam Preparation

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6. Practice an ample number of question papers to make your concepts stronger.

7. Take rest and a proper meal. Don’t stress too much.

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