Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Solutions

Civics is a subject in which students learn about the responsibilities and rights of various members of society. It is one of the most well-known social science disciplines. Civics is a field that studies the political, theoretical, and practical aspects of citizenship. According to the study, citizens should be concerned about duties, civil law, civil standards, and rights.

The goal of Chapter 5 Political Science class 10 - Popular Struggles and Movement is to thoroughly grasp India's different popular conflicts and movements. This  chapter of  Class 10's popular struggles and movements illustrates how the country's people had to strive for their rights and the things they deserve. In addition, students should have a solid comprehension of historical events to become an aware and responsible citizen of the country. 

The most straightforward approach to comprehending the principles of each chapter is to study the NCERT Solutions. As a result, Extramarks provides Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 NCERT Solutions. These NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 5 provide detailed answers to all the textual questions ·         As the explanations are comprehensive, the fundamentals of the chapter are understood by the students in a better way. This  assists students in learning the chapter and remembering its principles.

Apart from these solid Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Solutions, students can access several other study materials on the website of Extramarks. For example, material such as NCERT Exemplars , CBSE revision notes, CBSE sample papers, CBSE past years’ question papers, and more can be easily found on the Extramarks website for all classes.

Key Topics Covered in Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Solutions

The key topics that are covered in Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Solutions are mentioned below:

  • Movement for Democracy in Nepal
  • Bolivia’s Water War
  • Democracy and Popular Struggles
  • Mobilisation and Organisations
  • Pressure Groups and Movements 

Let us look at Extramarks’ in-depth information on each subtopic in Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Solutions.

Movement for Democracy in Nepal

This section of Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Solutions explains the movement for democracy in Nepal.

  • Nepal has been in a long-running power struggle between the government and the people. A monarchy has governed Nepal since its beginning. The people, on the other hand, were dissatisfied with the monarch.
  • The people and the monarch involved in a dispute due to this. This conflict ended when the country's then-king opted to relinquish power and become more of a ceremonial ruler.
  • The kingdom transitioned from an absolute monarchy to a democracy led by publicly elected authorities when King Birendra approved the shift.
  • This victory was short-lived, as King Gyanendra, who rose to the throne when King Birendra was found dead due to massacre of the royal family, refused to accept the alteration.
  • In 2005, he fired the Prime Minister and disbanded the parliament chosen by the people, restoring the absolute monarchy in the country.
  • In 2006, the people launched a campaign to reclaim public control of the country. The country's biggest political parties created the Seven Party Alliance and even staged a four-day walkout in Kathmandu, the country's capital. However, the Maoists quickly converted the protest into an indefinite strike, and numerous other parties joined the fight.
  • Even though curfews had been set, people took to the streets. The king's security systems failed to suppress the protests, which drew up to 3-5 lakhs of people. People asked that full authority be given to an all-party administration and that parliament be restored with a new constituent assembly. The monarch was served with a request for government demand.
  • On the final day of the request, April 24, 2006, the monarch was forced to accept their demands. The parliament was re-established, and Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala was chosen. The parties collaborated to develop adequate operating procedures for the new administration.
  • This is referred to as the second struggle movement.

Bolivia’s Water War

This section of Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Solutions explains Bolivia's water war.

  • Bolivia is a poor country in Latin America. However, due to pressure from the World Bank, the government was obliged to sell its municipal water service to a multinational company (MNC). This resulted in excessive water bills that were out of reach for most people.
  • As a result, large protests spearheaded by a coalition of labour, human rights, and other community groups erupted across the country in 2000. The government had consented to the parameters of the negotiations under duress. It, however, produced no results. People began protesting all over again as a result of this.
  • The administration did everything it could to put a stop to the demonstrations. To bring the protests under control, the government reinstated police violence and was obliged to impose martial law. However, in the end, the people's strength triumphed. As a result, the MNC's owners were forced to escape the country, and finally the government's water supply was restored.

Democracy and Popular Struggles

Both Nepal and Bolivia are excellent examples of the people's power in a democratic society. They demonstrate how individuals may influence the popularity of a country. The following are some of the highlights of the struggles mentioned above as explained by Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Solutions:

  • The evolution of democracy is people's power. In both instances, ordinary citizens joined a more significant battle against the ruling authority, whether it was a democracy or a monarchy. The struggle has the potential to establish, expand, and strengthen democracy.
  • The only way to end these conflicts is for people to come together in large numbers. Existing judicial institutions can assist in resolving disputes, yet, these officials are sometimes entangled in the conflict.
  • These conflicts are found in new political groups, and these organisations can mobilise people.

Mobilisation and Organisations

When we look back to both the protests, we will observe the major involvement of some organisations that led this struggle. Two of those in the Nepal protest were   the SPA (Seven Party Alliance) and Nepalese Communist Party (Maoists) They instituted an indefinite strike, which called for a massive uprising. Later, more political parties joined their fight. The movement's power came from the participation of ordinary people in the organisations. We can also observe that political and apolitical groups spearheaded the Bolivian resistance. FEDECOR was the most major apolitical group. They were a group of farmers that relied on water to irrigate their crops and cultivate their land.

In both cases, we can see how different types of organisations may substantially impact governance in a democracy. Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Solutions explains that there are two ways that these groups can contribute:

  • The Direct way: To fulfil its demand, the opposition engages in competitive politics. This entails forming political parties and voting in elections to become a member of parliament.
  • The Indirect way: People join groups and participate in events or protests to get the government to listen to their requests. Pressure groups are organisations that exert influence on the government through non-political activity. Movements and Pressure Groups Pressure groups are citizens who wish to influence the government without competing with politicians. Sectional interest groups and public interest organisations are the two sorts of pressure groups.

Pressure Groups and Movements

Extramarks Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Solutions explains the concept of Pressure groups and Movements in the following section.

Organisations that try to influence government policy are known as Pressure Groups. These groups arise when people with similar occupations, interests, goals, or viewpoints merge to pursue a shared goal.

A Movement tries to influence politics rather than directly participating in electoral competition. It's a small organisation that relies more on people's spontaneous mass engagement than an interest group.

Some examples of movements are the Women's movement, the Environmental movement, Narmada Bachao Andolan and more.

How do Pressure Groups and Movements influence Politics

Extramarks Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Solutions states that Pressure groups and Movements have a range of techniques to influence politics:

  • They use public awareness campaigns, gatherings, petitions, and other means to win public support and sympathy for their aims and actions.
  • They frequently organise protests, such as strikes or disruptions of government programmes.
  • Official bodies and committees that provide advice to the government may include members of pressure groups or movement groups.

Political parties and pressure parties can have a variety of working relationships. Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Solutions explain some direct and indirect methods:

  • In certain circumstances, pressure groups are formed or headed by political party officials or serve as political parties' extended arms. In India, for example, most labour unions and student organisations are either founded by or linked with one of the main political parties.
  • Political parties can emerge from movements.

The Asom Gana Parishad was formed when the Assam student uprising against "foreigners" came to an end.

  • In most situations, there isn't a direct link between political parties and interest or movement organisations. However, this scenario also involves communication and negotiation because most new political party leaders originate from interest or movement organisations.

Is the influence of Pressure Groups and Movements Positive?

Democracies have been strengthened through pressure organisations and movements. Governments are sometimes subjected to unfair pressure from a small group of wealthy and influential individuals. Public interest organisations and movements play an important role in counteracting excessive influence and reminding the government of ordinary citizens' demands and concerns. Sectional interest groups are especially important because no single group can acquire supremacy in a society where many distinct groups are active. As a result, the government can learn about the desires of various segments of the people.

Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Solutions Exercise and Solutions

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Q.1 In what ways do pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics?

Ans-

Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics in a variety of ways:

  • They try to gain public support and sympathy for their causes by organising meetings, creating awareness, filing petitions, etc. These groups try to influence media to gain more attention for their causes.
  • They resort to protest forms like strikes or disrupting government programmes. Employees’ associations, workers’ organisations use such tactics to make the government take note of their demands.
  • Business groups may employ professional lobbyists or sponsor costly advertisements. Some people from movement groups or pressure groups may participate in official bodies that offer advice to the government.
  • While interest groups and movements do not directly engage in party politics, but they do influence political parties. Most of the movement groups take a political stance without being a party. They have political ideology and political position on major issues. Relationship between pressure groups and political parties can take different forms, some direct and others very indirect.
  • In some instances, the pressure groups are either formed or led by the leaders of political parties or act as extended arms of political parties. For example, most trade unions and students’ organisations in India are either established by or affiliated to one or the other major political party. Most of the leaders of such pressure groups are usually activists and leaders of party.
  • Sometimes political parties grow out of movements. For example, when the Assam movement led by students against the ‘foreigners’ came to an end, it led to the formation of the Asom Gana Parishad. The roots of parties like the DMK and the AIADMK in Tamil Nadu can be traced to a long-drawn social reform movement during the 1930s and 1940s.
  • In most cases the relationship between parties and interest or movement groups is not so direct. They often take positions that are opposed to each other. Yet they are in dialogue and negotiation. Movement groups have raised new issues that have been taken up by political parties. Most of the new leadership of political parties comes from interest or movement groups.

Q.2 Describe the forms of relationship between pressure groups and political parties?

Ans-

The relationship between political parties and pressure groups can take different forms, some direct and others very indirect:

  • In some instances, the pressure groups are either formed or led by the leaders of political parties or act as extended arms of political parties. For example, most trade unions and students’ organisations in India are either established by, or affiliated to one or the other major political party. Most of the leaders of such pressure groups are usually activists and leaders of party.
  • Sometimes political parties grow out of movements. For example, when the Assam movement led by students against the ‘foreigners’ came to an end, it led to the formation of the Asom Gana Parishad. The roots of parties like the DMK and the AIADMK in Tamil Nadu can be traced to a long-drawn social reform movement during the 1930s and 1940s.
  • In most cases, the relationship between parties and interest or movement groups is not so direct. They often take positions that are opposed to each other. Yet they are in dialogue and negotiation. Movement groups have raised new issues that have been taken up by political parties. Most of the new leadership of political parties comes from interest or movement groups.

Q.3 Explain how the activities of pressure groups are useful in the functioning of a democratic government.

Ans-

  • All citizens may not have the skill or desire to take part in direct political activity. Therefore, they may take up indirect ways of making the government listen to their demands or point of view.
  • Forming a pressure group is one such way to put pressure on the government. These pressure groups mobilize the masses and influence the decision making of the government.
  • For example, in Bolivia there was a popular struggle when the government handed over the contract for municipal water supply to an MNC.
  • There were agitations followed by police repression and then more agitations. Finally, the government was forced to cancel its contract with the MNC.
  • The protest against water privatization in Bolivia was not led by any political party. It was led by an organisation called FEDECOR. This organisation comprised environmentalists, engineers, professional etc.
  • By the success of the popular struggle in Bolivia, it can be concluded that pressure groups play an important role in functioning of a democratic government.

Q.4 What is a pressure group? Give a few examples.

Ans-

Pressure groups are organisations that attempt to influence government policies. But unlike political parties, pressure groups do not aim to directly control or share political power.

Examples of pressure groups –

  • FEDECOR of Bolivia
  • BAMCEF (Backward and Minority Communities Employees Federation) of India.

Q.5 What is the difference between a pressure group and a political party?

Ans-

Pressure groups are organisations that attempt to influence government policies. Pressure groups do not aim to directly control or share political power. On the other hand, political parties directly contest in elections to form government or to share political power.

Q.6 Organisations that undertake activities to promote the interests of specific social sections such as workers, employees, teachers, and lawyers are called _____________________ groups.

Ans-

Organisations that undertake activities to promote the interests of specific social sections such as workers, employees, teachers, and lawyers are called sectional interest groups.

Q.7 Which among the following is the special feature that distinguishes a pressure group from a political party?
(a) Parties take political stances, while pressure groups do not bother about political issues.
(b) Pressure groups are confined to a few people, while parties involve larger number of people.
(c) Pressure groups do not seek to get into power, while political parties do.
(d) Pressure groups do not seek to mobilize people, while parties do.

Ans-

(c) Pressure groups do not seek to get into power, while political parties do.

Q.8 Match List I (organisations and struggles) with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists

List I List II
1. Organisations that seek to promote the interests of a particular section or group A. Movement
2. Organisations that seek to promote common interests B. Political parties
3. Struggles used for the resolution of a social problem with or without an organizational structure C. Sectional interest groups
4. Organisations that mobilize people with a view to win political power D. Public interest groups
1 2 3 4
(a) C D B A
(b) C D A B
(c) D C B A
(d) B C D A

Ans-

Correct match of above-given statements is as follows:
Organisations that seek to promote the interests of a particular section or group: Sectional interest groups
Organisations that seek to promote common interest: Public interest groups
Struggles launched for the resolution of a social problem with or without an organizational structure: Movement
Organisations that mobilise people with a view to win political power: Political parties
Therefore, option (b) is correct

Q.9 Match List I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:

List I List II
1. Pressure group
  1. Narmada Bachao Andolan
2. Long-term movement
  1. Asom Gana Parishad
3. Single issue movement
  1. Women’s movement
4. Political party
  1. Fertilizer dealers’ association
1 2 3 4
(a) D C A B
(b) B A D C
(c) C D B A
(d) B D C A

Ans-

Correct match of the above list is as follows:
A pressure group: Fertilizer dealers’ association
Long-term Movement: Women’s Movement
Single issue movement: Narmada Bachao Andolan
Political party: Asom Gana Parished
Therefore, option (a) is correct

Q.10 Consider the following statements about pressure groups and parties.

A. Pressure groups are the organised expression of the interests and views of specific social sections.

B. Pressure groups take positions on political issues.

C. All pressure groups are political parties.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. A, B and C
  1. A and B
  1. B and C
  1. A and C

Ans-

(b) A and B

Q.11 Mewat is one of the most backward areas in Haryana. It used to be a part of two districts, Gurgaon and Faridabad. The people of Mewat felt that the area will get better attention if it were to become a separate district. But political parties were indifferent to this sentiment. The demand for a separate district was raised by Mewat Educational and Social Organisation and Mewat Saksharta Samiti in 1996. Later, Mewat Vikas Sabha was founded in 2000 and carried out a series of public awareness campaigns. This forced both the major parties, Congress and the Indian National Lok Dal, to announce their support for the new district before the assembly elections held in February 2005. The new district came into existence in July 2005.

In this example, what is the relationship that you observe among movement, political parties and the government? Can you think of an example that shows a relationship different from this one?

Ans-

  • In the above example, the relationship between political parties and pressure groups is indirect. In such a relationship, political parties and pressure groups have entirely opposing views.
  • Here, all political parties were indifferent to the sentiment that Mewat should become a separate district.
  • It was only because of the pressure built by pressure groups that major political parties like the Congress and Indian National Lok Dal started supporting the cause.
  • In some other instances, the relationship between pressure groups and political parties is direct. For example, most students’ unions and trade unions in India are affiliated to one political party or the other.

Q.12 Organisations that undertake activities to promote the interests of specific social sections such as workers, employees, teachers, and lawyers are called _____________________ groups.

Ans-

Organisations that undertake activities to promote the interests of specific social sections such as workers, employees, teachers, and lawyers are called sectional interest groups.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. What will the students learn about Democratic Politics and Social Science in Chapter 5 of Class 10?

“Popular Struggles and Movements,” Chapter 5 of Class 10 Social Science, will teach students how people’s struggles and movements restrict a country’s leaders. Pressure groups and movements are an indirect method of influencing a country’s leadership. They will even look at a variety of movements from across the world to see how they influenced leadership and choices in that country. For case studies,  there will be instances of challenges faced by the people of Nepal and Bolivia.

2. According to Chapter 5 of Class 10 Democratic Politics Social Science, what can we learn from Bolivia's water war?

Bolivia’s water war is an example of how fights do not cease when democracy is established. They are, in fact, essential to the functioning of a democracy. Bolivians successfully fought the privatisation of their country’s water supply. The dispute forced the government to withdraw the contract from a multinational corporation to privatise water. People would have had to pay an outrageous amount for water if they had not protested. This would be devastating for them as a citizen of a low-income country.