Class 10 Civics Chapter 1

The study of rights and responsibilities of citizens in a society is called Civics. The term civics refers to the behaviour that impacts other people, especially in the context of urban development. Civics is also involved with the study of governance, emphasising people’s roles.

In Ch 1 Civics Class 10- Power Sharing, the concept of power-sharing is well described, with comparisons drawn between the Belgian and Sri Lankan situations. For the construction of democracy, a sensible distribution of power among the legislative, executive, and judiciary is essential.

Extramarks presents NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Civics Chapter 1. These Power Sharing Class 10 Solutions have been created by experts at Extramarks to make it easier for the students to grasp the fundamentals of the chapter. In addition, power Sharing Class 10 Question Answers allow the students to understand the chapter without the need to memorise it.

Students can access several study materials on the Extramarks’ website. NCERT Solutions, Additional Questions, Sample Papers, Revision Notes, CBSE past years’ question paper, and a lot more can be found on the Extramarks’ website. 

Key Topics Covered in Class 10 Civics Chapter 1

Extramarks make it easier for the students by creating the Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 as an aid to study well and score good marks. The key topics that are covered in Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 are as listed below.

Story of Belgium
Story of Sri Lanka
Form of Power Sharing

Let us look at Extramarks in-depth information on each subtopic in Class 10 Civics Chapter 1- Power Sharing:

Story of Belgium

Belgium is a small European country with over one crore people, around half that of Haryana. Fifty-nine per cent of the population speaks Dutch, 40 per cent speaks French, and the remaining 1% speak German. The wealthy and influential minority French-speaking community benefited from economic development and education. During the 1950s and 1960s, this produced conflicts between the Dutch and French-speaking communities.

Accommodation in Belgium

Belgium’s government handled the communal divide well. Belgian leaders changed their Constitution four times between 1970 and 1993, resulting in a new governance paradigm.

Extramarks Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 highlights the Belgian model that includes the following elements:

  • In the Central Government, the Constitution mandates that the number of Dutch and French-speaking ministers be equal. In addition, most members from each language group must approve certain specific legislation. Therefore, no single community can make choices on its own.
  • State governments are independent of the Central government.
  • Brussels has its government with equal representation for both groups.
  • There is a third type of government in addition to the Central and State Governments. This ‘community government’ is chosen by individuals who speak the same language — Dutch, French, or German – regardless of where they live. This government has authority for cultural, educational, and linguistic matters.

Extramarks Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 states that the Belgian model was complex, but it effectively prevented civil disputes between the two large communities.

Story of Sri Lanka

Let us now consider the scenario in another nation, Sri Lanka. It is an island nation with a population of roughly two crores, like Haryana. Sri Lanka’s population is varied. Sinhala-speakers (74 per cent) and Tamil-speakers are the two largest social groupings (18 per cent). Tamils have two subcategories: “Sri Lankan Tamils” and “Indian Tamils.” The Sinhala population in Sri Lanka had a more significant majority and imposed its will on the whole country.

Majoritarianism in Sri Lanka

Extramarks Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 explains the Majoritarianism in Sri Lanka, a country which became an independent nation in 1948. Because the Sinhala population was the majority, they constituted the government. They also implemented regulations that gave preference to Sinhala candidates for academic posts and government employment. However, the government’s actions increasingly worsened the feeling of estrangement among Sri Lankan Tamils. Sri Lankan Tamils believed that the constitution and government policies denied them equal political rights, discriminated against them in the employment market, and ignored their concerns. As a result, relations between the Sinhala and Tamil communities deteriorated.

 Sri Lankan Tamils formed political parties and fought for recognition of Tamil as an official language, regional autonomy, and equal access to schools and jobs. However, the government has continuously dismissed their request. The hostility between the two populations erupted into widespread violence, culminating in a CIVIL WAR. Thousands of individuals from both communities have been killed, therefore. A huge number of families have been forced to flee the nation as refugees, and many more have lost their jobs. The civil war ended in 2009, but it had a devastating impact on the country’s social, cultural, and economic life.

Lessons to be learnt from the stories of Belgium and Sri Lanka by Extramarks Class 10 Civics Chapter 1

  • Both countries are democracies, but they approach the notion of power-sharing in different ways.
  • Belgium’s authorities have realised that the best way to achieve national unity is to respect the sentiments and interests of various populations and regions. Consequently, mutually acceptable power-sharing agreements were reached.
  • Sri Lanka demonstrates how a majority society seeking supremacy over others and refusing to share authority may jeopardise the country’s unity.

Reasons why Power Sharing is desirable 

  • Power-sharing is beneficial since it helps to lessen the chance of social conflict.
  • The second argument is that democratic rule involves sharing power with people impacted by it and must live with its consequences. People have a right to be heard regarding how they are governed.

The first set of reasoning is referred to as prudential, whereas the second is considered moral. The prudential grounds emphasise that sharing power will result in better outcomes, whereas the ethical reasons emphasise the value of sharing power.

Form of Power Sharing

Most of you must believe that sharing power means sharing power and that sharing power means weakening the country. In the past, people thought something similar. All a government’s authority was supposed to be concentrated in one person or group of people in one location. Making timely choices and enforcing them would be extremely difficult otherwise. With the advent of democracy, however, these perceptions have shifted. People rule themselves in democracy through self-government institutions. Everyone must have an ability to influence how public policies are developed. As a result, political power in a democratic government should be dispersed among citizens.

Extramarks Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 highlights that power sharing in modern democracies can take numerous forms, as seen below:

  • Different government organs, such as the legislative, executive, and judiciary, share power. Because it permits various government organs at the same level to exercise distinct powers, this is known as horizontal power distribution. Because of this separation, none of the organs can exert infinite power. Each organ keeps an eye on the others. A system of checks and balances is the term for this setup.
  • Power can be shared across governments at several levels, including national and provincial or regional governments (federal governments).
  • Different social groupings, such as religious and linguistic communities, may also share power. Belgium’s ‘community government’ is an excellent illustration of this setup. This strategy ensures that minorities have a fair share of power.
  • The way political parties, pressure organisations, and movements control or influence those in power may also be considered part of power-sharing agreements. For example, when two or more parties create an alliance to run for office, and if they win, they form a coalition government and share power.

Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 NCERT Solutions 

Extramarks Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 NCERT Solutions has explanations of all the essential concepts as well as other key topics covered in the Class 10. Students should carefully read the chapter a few times to understand it thoroughly and for a fast and accurate recall.

Click on the below links to view NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Civics Chapter 1:

Class 10 Civics Chapter 1: Very Short Answer Type Questions

Class 10 Civics Chapter 1: Short Answer Type Questions

Class 10 Civics Chapter 1: Long Answer Type Questions

Students may access NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 and other chapters by clicking here. In addition, students can also explore NCERT Solutions for other classes below.

NCERT Class 10 Social Science Books Available for:
NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science – Understanding Economic Development
NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science – India and the Contemporary World
NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science – Contemporary India

By getting access to NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Civics Chapter 1- Power Sharing, students can easily understand the different forms of power sharing.

Key Features of The Class 10 Civics Chapter 1

The NCERT Solutions by Extramarks are made precisely for each chapter keeping in mind all the needs of the students. These solutions prove of great benefit to the students and help in grasping the fundamentals better and quicker. Why trust us? Here we tell you why:

  •  These solutions are prepared to keep in mind all the guidelines laid by CBSE.
  • Going through these solutions creates a sense of confidence in students, confident that they have grasped the central concepts of the chapter in one go.
  • These solutions have been prepared in a stepwise and detailed manner.

Q.1 What are the different forms of power sharing in modern democracies? Give an example of each of these.


In modern democracies, power sharing can be in the following forms:

  • Power sharing among different organs of the government – i.e. power is distributed among different organs of the government like legislature, executive and judiciary. This is done to ensure that no single organ exercises unlimited power. Each organ is checking the other. This allows a balance of power among various institutions of the government.
  • Power sharing among governments at different levels – such an arrangement is also referred to as Federal structure. In this system, there is a government at the centre for the entire country and governments at provincial or regional levels. In India, the government for the entire country is known as Central or Union government and the governments at regional level as State governments. The same principle is applied to extend power to even lower levels of government like municipality and panchayats.
  • Power sharing among different social groups – power may be shared between different linguistic and religious groups. In many countries, there are legal and constitutional arrangements to ensure the participation of women and weaker sections of the society in the government. In India, there are constituencies reserved for women and backwards in the Parliament and in assemblies.
  • Power sharing between political parties – In democracy, people have right to choose their representatives in elections. This takes the form of competition between different political parties. Such competition ensures that power is not concentrated in one hand. In the long run, power is shared between different political parties with different ideologies and social groups. Many a time, different political parties come together and form an alliance to contest elections. It the alliance wins, they form a coalition government.
  • Power sharing through interest groups – In democracy, there are different interest groups of traders, farmers, labourers etc. They influence the decision making process of government.

Q.2 State one prudential reason and one moral reason for power sharing with an example from the Indian context.


  • Prudential Reason: Power sharing is desirable because it helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups. Social conflict can lead to violence and political instability. Therefore, power sharing is a good way to ensure the stability of political order. Imposing the will of majority community over others may look like an attractive option in the short run, but in the long run it undermines the unity of the nation. Tyranny of the majority is not just oppressive for the minority, but it also brings ruin to the majority as well.
  • Moral Reason: Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy. A democratic rule involves sharing power with those affected by its exercise, and who have to live with its effects. People have a right to be consulted on how they are to be governed. A legitimate government is one where citizens, through participation, acquire a stake in the system.

Q.3 After reading this chapter, three students drew different conclusions. Which of these do you agree with and why? Give your reasons in about 50 words.
Thomman – Power sharing is necessary only in societies which have religious, linguistic or ethnic divisions.
Mathayi – Power sharing is suitable only for big countries that have regional divisions.
Ouseph – Every society needs some form of power sharing even if it is small or does not have social divisions.


I agree with Ouseph’s view that every society needs some form of power sharing even if it is small or does not have social divisions.

Here are the reasons why I agree with Ouseph –

  • Power sharing is the spirit of democracy. People have a right to be consulted on how they want to be governed. Everyone has a voice in shaping public policies. Therefore, in a legitimate democracy, power should be distributed among as many citizens as possible.
  • Power sharing among different organs of the government is also necessary so that one institution may check the functioning of the others. Therefore, power is distributed among legislature, executive and judiciary.

Q.4 The Mayor of Merchtem, a town near Brussels in Belgium, has defended a ban on speaking French in the town’s schools. He said that the ban would help all non-Dutch speakers integrate in this Flemish town. Do you think that this measure is in keeping with the spirit of Belgium’s power sharing arrangements? Give your reasons in about 50 words.


  • The measure to ban speaking French in schools is against the spirit of Belgium’s power sharing arrangement. The leaders of Belgium had realised that unity of the country was possible only by respecting the feelings and interests of different communities. Such a realization had resulted in the mutually accepted power sharing formula.
  • If the majority group forces its dominance over other groups, it can undermine the unity of the country.

Q.5 Read the following passage and pick out any one of the prudential reasons for power sharing offered in this. “We need to give more power to the panchayats to realise the dream of Mahatma Gandhi and the hopes of the makers of our Constitution. Panchayati Raj establishes true democracy. It restores power to the only place where power belongs in a democracy – in the hands of the people. Giving power to Panchayats is also a way to reduce corruption and increase administrative efficiency. When people participate in the planning and implementation of developmental schemes, they would naturally exercise greater control over these schemes. This would eliminate the corrupt middlemen. Thus, Panchayati Raj will strengthen the foundations of our democracy.”


A prudential reason for power sharing mentioned in the passage is:

  • Power sharing can reduce corruption as people will directly participate in planning and implementation of developmental schemes. This would give the people a chance to exercise greater control over these schemes. This will also eliminate the role of middlemen.

Q.6 Different arguments are usually put forth in favour of and against power sharing. Identify those which are in favour of power sharing and select the answer using the codes given below? Power sharing:
1. reduces conflict among different communities
2. decreases the possibility of arbitrariness
3. delays decision making process
4. accommodates diversities
5. increases instability and divisiveness
6. promotes people’s participation in government
7. undermines the unity of a country

(a) A B D F
(b) A C E F
(c) A B D G
(d) B C D G



Q.7 Consider the following statements about power sharing arrangements in Belgium and Sri Lanka.
1. In Belgium, the Dutch-speaking majority people tried to impose their domination on the minority French-speaking community.
2. In Sri Lanka, the policies of the government sought to ensure the dominance of the Sinhala-speaking majority.
3. The Tamils in Sri Lanka demanded a federal arrangement of power sharing to protect their culture, language and equality of opportunity in education and jobs.
4. The transformation of Belgium from unitary government to a federal one prevented a possible division of the country on linguistic lines.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. A, B, C and D
  1. A, B and D
  1. C and D
  1. B, C and D



Q.8 Match List I (forms of power sharing) with List II (forms of government) and select the correct answer using the codes given below in the lists:

List I

List II

  1. Power shared among different organs of the government
  1. Community government
  1. Power shared among governments at different levels
  1. Separation of powers
  1. Power shared by different social groups
  1. Coalition government
  1. Power shared by two or more political parties
  1. Federal government
1 2 3 4
(a) D A B C
(b) B C D A
(c) B D A C
(d) C D A B



Q.9 Consider the following two statements on power sharing and select the answer using the codes given below:
A. Power sharing is good for democracy.
B. It helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.
Which of these statements are true and false?

  1. A is true but B is false
  1. Both A and B are true
  1. Both A and B are false
  1. A is false but B is true



For viewing question paper please click here

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Can Extramarks help a student score well in Class 10 Civics Chapter 1?

This platform is a multiservice online learning site with chapters and modules that students can comprehend and prepare for their boards. The answers have been produced and developed by specialists in the subject who have a wealth of knowledge and experience. This allows the platform to empower the students by providing them with information. Thus, if any student of Extramarks who peruses our content and goes through it a few times,will definitely be able to score well.

2. According to Class 10 Civics Chapter 1, what is power sharing?

Chapter 1 of Class 10 Social Science Democratic Politics presents the notion of power-sharing. It entails both horizontal and vertical power-sharing. Different government organs exercise authority at the same level in the horizontal form, but a hierarchical structure is used in the vertical format. Authority sharing is an essential feature of democracy since it ensures that no government organ has unrestricted power.