NCERT Solution for Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 6 Staffing


‘Human resource management includes many specialized activities and duties.’ Explain.


Human resource management includes specialised activities and duties like:

  • Recruitment i.e., search for qualified people: The primary function of the human resource manager is to find out the number of employees required by the organisation and make provision for their recruitment.
  • Human resource manager renders certain services which require special knowledge, for example, job evaluation, performance appraisal and negotiating with trade unions.
  • Developing compensation and incentive plans: Human resource manager conducts research from time to time with the aim of improving upon the policies concerning personnel.
  • Training and development of employees for efficient performance and carrier growth.
  • Maintaining labour relations and union management relations.
  • Handling grievance and complaints: It is the responsibility of the human resource manager to establish cordial relations between the employer and the employees.
  • Providing for social security and welfare of employees.


‘No organisation can be successful unless it fills and keeps the various positions filled with the right kind of people for the right job.’ Elucidate


The ability of an organisation to achieve its goal depends upon the quality of its human resources.

Staffing function must be performed efficiently by all organisations. If right kind of people are not available, it will lead to wastage of materials, time, effort and energy, resulting in lower productivity and poor quality of products.

These enterprise will not be able to sell its products profitably.

It is, therefore, essential that right kind of people must be available in right number at the right time.


Why are internal sources of recruitment considered to be more economical?


Internal source of recruitment is the process of recruiting employees from within enterprise. Two sources of such recruitment are transfers and promotion. Internal source is cheaper in terms of time and cost. It saves the cost of advertisement and training also.


Distinguish between training and development.






It is concerned with teaching technical skill only

It is concerned in teaching technical, human and conceptual skill


It focuses on present requirements of the organisation

It focuses on future requirement of the organisation


It is a short term process

It is a long term process


A company is manufacturing paper plates and bowls. It produces 1,00,000 plates and bowls each day. Due to local festival, it got an urgent order of extra 50,000 plates and bowls. Explain the method of recruitment that the company should adopt in the given circumstances to meet the order.


To complete the order on time the company needs to recruit more people immediately and the most suitable method in this case is ‘labour contractors’.

Labour contractors maintain close contact with the labour in villages and rural areas and whenever there is vacancy or requirement for labour in factory or in the construction site, they bring the labour from villages and supply to the organisations. They charge commission for the same. This method of recruitment is suitable for labourers and unskilled workers.


An organisation provides security services. It requires such candidates who are reliable and don’t leak out the secrets of their clients. What steps should be incorporated in selection process?


Selection is the process of choosing the most suitable candidate to fill the vacant job position. To solve this problem personality test should be performed. This test is conducted to find out the human behaviour of the candidate. This test relates to intelligence, aptitude, attitude and interest of the candidate.


What is meant by recruitment? How is it different from selection?


Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation. The purpose of recruitment is to stimulate and attract more and more job applicants for different positions in the organisation.

The differences between recruitment and selection are:





It is a process of searching suitable candidates to fill up vacant job position

It is a process of screening and selecting the most eligible candidates and offering them jobs


Recruitment proceeds the staffing function

Selection starts where recruitment ends


It is a positive process

It is a negative process


The workers of a factory remain idle because of lack of knowledge of hi-tech machines. Frequent visit of engineer is made which causes high overhead charges. How can this problem be removed. (Vestibule training)


The problem mentioned in the above case study can be solved by providing vestibule training. Vestibule training is an off the job training method where employees are trained in an actual work environment in a class room where employees use the same materials and equipment. Employees learn their jobs on the equipment they would be using, but the training is conducted away from the actual work floor. Though expensive, vestibule training allows employees to get a full feel of doing their task without the real world pressures. Trainees are made to work on dummy equipments and after relevant expertise they are shifted to actual work.
This is usually done when the employees are required to handle expensive machinery and equipment.


The quality of production is not as per standards. On investigation it was observed that most of the workers were not fully aware of the proper operation of the machinery. What could be the way to improve the quality of production to meet the standards? (Training).


The way to improve is to impart Training to workers to make them learn use of machinery. The training method which will be suitable in this situation is Apprenticeship training. In apprenticeship training programme, a supervisor or a trainer guides the workers or learner regarding the skill of job. The trainer performs the job and the trainees observe him performing it.

The time period for apprenticeship programme varies between 1 to 2 years and the trainee is paid less than the skilled or qualified worker.


State the two important sources of recruitment.


The important sources of recruitment are:

  1. Internal sources: It is the process of recruiting employees from within enterprise. Generally based upon seniority of employees. Internal sources of recruitment enjoy economy of time, expenses and resources.
  2. External sources: It is the process of recruiting employees from outside the enterprise. Normally based upon the merit of employees. External sources are not as economical as internal sources.


What is meant by staffing?


Staffing may be defined as the managerial function of hiring and developing the required personnel to fill in various positions in the organisation. Staffing injects into the organisation which is otherwise an empty shell of job positions.


The workers of a factory are unable to work on new machines and always demand for help of supervisor. The Supervisor is overburdened with their frequent calls. Suggest the remedy. (Hint: training)


The workers of the organisation shall be given proper training. Training is the process by which the aptitudes, skills and abilities of employees to perform specific jobs are increased. It improves their performance on the current job or prepares them for any intended job.

The benefits of training are:

i. Training is a systematic learning which reduces the wastage of time and efforts.

ii. It enhances employee productivity, both in quality and quantity.

iii. It aims at moulding the employees so that they can develop positive attitude for the organisation.

iv. It helps in obtaining effective response to fast changing environment.

v. Training increases employee morale and reduces absenteeism and employee turnover.


Ms. Jayshree recently completed her Post Graduate Diploma in Human Resource Management. A few months from now a large steel manufacturing company appointed her as its human resource manager. As of now, the company employs 800 persons and has an expansion plan in hand which may require another 200 persons for various types of additional requirements. Ms. Jayshree has been given complete charge of the company’s Human Resource Department. Questions a. Point out, what functions is she supposed to perform? b. What problems do you foresee in her job? c. What steps is she going to take to perform her job efficiently? d. How significant is her role in the organisation?


  1. The main function Ms. Jayshree is supposed to perform is staffing. It is the managerial function of hiring and developing the required personnel to fill in various positions in the organization.
  2. The problem that she is likely to face is of appointing right people at the right time and at the right place. Selecting the required candidate that is suitable for the job is rigorous process. For this right source of recruitment is to be selected. Training is the part of staffing. So, arranging for the training is also expected to be done by Ms Jayshree.
  3. To perform her job efficiently, she should take following steps:
  1. Staffing plan should be developed to estimate the manpower requirements.
  2. Proper authority should be taken to appoint the required staff.
  3. Selection test and screening shall be designed for selecting the employees.
  4. For existing staff training sessions must be designed.
  1. Staffing has important role in an organisation. Managing the people element is pre requisite function of any organisation as it serves the basis of level of efficiency of an organisation. The success of any organisation depends on how effectively this function can be performed.
  2. Human resource department acts as link between workers and management. Handling grievances and complaints in an organisation is an essential part of the duty of human resource department. Staffing does not require a separate department. Staffing is the function performed by each manager. This also helps in utilisation of manpower


A major insurance company handled all recruiting, screening and training processes for data entry/customer service representatives. Their competitor was attracting most of the qualified, potential employees in their market. Recruiting was made even more difficult by the strong economy and the ‘jobseeker’s market.’ This resulted in the client having to choose from candidates who had the ‘soft’ skills needed for the job, but lacked the proper ‘hard’ skills and training. Questions
  1. As an HR manager what problems do you see in the company?
  2. How do you think it can be resolved and what would be its impact on the company?


  1. The problems here are:
  1. As competitor was attracting most of the qualified, potential employees in their market, there is shortage of qualified people.
  2. Candidates lack skills that is required for a good performance.
  1. To resolve this problem, training should be provided to employees. Also to attract skilled people, the recruitment can be outsourced.


A company, Xylo limited, is setting up a new plant in India for manufacturing auto components. India is a highly competitive and cost effective production base in this sector. Many reputed car manufacturers source their auto components from here. Xylo limited is planning to capture about 40% of the market share in India and also export to the tune of at least Rs.50 crores in about 2 years of its planned operations. To achieve these targets it requires a highly trained and motivated work force. You have been retained by the company to advise it in this matter. While giving answers keep in mind the sector the company is operating. Questions:
  1. Outline the process of staffing the company should follow.
  2. Which sources of recruitment the company should rely upon. Give reasons for your recommendation.
  3. Outline the process of selection the company should follow with reasons.


a. The steps company shall follow in the process of staffing are:

  1. Estimating manpower requirement
  2. Recruitment
  3. Selection
  4. Placement & orientation
  5. Training & development
  6. Compensation
  7. Promotion and career planning

b. Company should rely on external sources of recruitment. For the new plant, candidates from local area would be beneficial as they are familiar with working conditions, problems faced, etc. in the local region.

c. The process of selection the company should follow is

  1. Candidates shall be asked to appear for written and other tests.
  2. Tests shall measure skills and aptitude required for the job.
  3. Proficiency tests and personality tests also help in knowing the candidate.
  4. In the last, personal interview shall also be conducted before appointing the person.


Kaul Consultants have launched exclusively for senior management professionals. The portal lists out senior level jobs and ensures that the job is genuine through rigorous screening process. a. State the source of recruitment highlighted in the case above. b. State four benefits of the above identified source of recruitment.


a) External source of recruitment (Web Publishing). The consultants have launched a website and advertised for their posts.

b)The benefits of using external source of recruitment are as follows:

Qualified personnel: The management can attract qualified and trained people to apply for vacant jobs in the organisation.

Wider Choice: When vacancies are advised widely, a large number of applicants from outside the organisation apply. The management has a wider choice while selecting the people for employment.

Fresh Talent: External recruitment provide wider choice and brings new blood in the organisation.

Competitive Spirit: If a company hires external sources, the existing staff will have to compete with the outsiders. They will work harder to show better performance.


What are the advantages of training to the individual and to the organisation?


Training is important for the organisation as well as for the employees too.

Importance of training for organisation is:

  1. Training is a systematic learning which reduces the wastage of time and efforts.
  2. It enhances employee productivity both in quality and quantity.
  3. It aims at moulding the employees so that they can develop positive attitude for the organisation.

Importance of training for the employee is:

  1. Improved skills and knowledge due to training lead to better career of the individual.
  2. Training makes employee more efficient in handling machines.
  3. It increases the satisfaction and morale of employees.


Explain the procedure for selection of employees.


The steps that Abhinav needs to follow for Employees’ selection are:

i. Preliminary screening

ii. Selection Tests: The different types of selection tests that can be conducted by Pawan Ltd are:

  1. Intelligence test – This test is conducted to check the efficiency level of the employees in performing the job. This means assignment of the job related to vacant job position and testing the ability of the employees.
  2. Aptitude Test – This test is conducted to test the potential of learning new job of the candidate. This test helps to know the candidate will be performing in future.
  3. Personality Test – This test is conducted to find out the human behaviour of the candidate. This test relates to intelligence, aptitude, attitude and interest of the candidate.
  4. Trade Test – This test is conducted to check the basic knowledge and skill of the candidate related to vacant job position.

iii. Employment Interview

iv. Reference & Background checks

v. Selection decision

vi. Medical Examination

vii. Job Offer

viii. Contract of Employment

Benefits of NCERT Solutions

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1. It is written in such a manner to help the student enjoy the learning journey.

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Tips & Strategies for Class 12 Exam Preparation

1. Start with making a time table. Prioritize the important topics and study them well.

2. Class 12 is important for your career, therefore follow your time table religiously.

3. Always make brief notes while studying a chapter as they will come in handy for revision before the exam.

4. Understand your concepts, diagrams etc. with NCERT Solutions given on the Extramarks website and the Extramarks – The Learning App.

5. Most importantly, be confident.

Why Opt for Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 12 ?

Class 12 board exams are the pillars of a successful career in your life. Thus, with the right study materials, students will be able to achieve their desired marks in exams. NCERT Solutions for class 12 by Extramarks will greatly help students in understanding chapters and will be like a companion in their learning journey.

Frequently Asked Questions

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Math is a subject that analyses the critical and analytical thinking of a student and tests numerical questions. So, the best way to prepare for Math is by studying the NCERT solutions. Make a timetable, jot down the important formulas, and theorems, make time for revision and give as much time as you can give to practicing questions. Solve a maximum number of questions and time your efforts. Extramarks - The Learning App has several sample papers along with NCERT 12 solutions that can be used for practicing for class 12 Math exam.

How to Prepare for Class 12 Board Exams?

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What are some expert tips to score good marks in Class 12 CBSE?

To score good marks in class 12 CBSE board exams, you must follow these tips:

1. Make a timetable to study well. Organize and prioritize the topics you want to study and haven`t yet had the time to open. Start studying with the most crucial topics.

2. Follow your timetable religiously. Save time for relaxing activities like meditation, swimming or sleeping.

3. Make brief notes containing important answers, character sketches, theorems, formulae, etc. Make clear notes so you can study them before the exam.

4. Learn from class 12 NCERT solutions given on Extramarks website.

5. Be confident that you can crack these exams and take time off to relax.

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