CBSE Class 10 Science Revision Notes Chapter 6
CBSE Class 10 Science Notes Chapter 6 Life Processes
Class 10 Chapter 6 Science Notes curated by Extramarks is equipped with a simple and fun learning approach for students. Extramarks is a platform wherein students can get end-to-end study material for their respective classes. Students in Class 10 can access Class 10 Science Notes Chapter 6 Life Processes on this portal and revise it easily. These notes have been prepared to keep NCERT and CBSE guidelines in consideration. Apart from revision notes, students can also access important questions, CBSE Revision Notes, CBSE Previous Year Question Paper, CBSE Sample Papers, CBSE Syllabus, CBSE extra questions, CBSE Revision notes, etc. on the Extramarks website.
CBSE Class 10 Science Revision Notes for the Year 2022-23
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CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 6 – Life Processes Notes – Free PDF Download
Access Class 10 Science Chapter 6 – Life Processes – Summary Note
Even when living organisms are not doing any specific tasks, they must continue to perform their maintenance functions. This maintenance work must be done even while we are merely seated in class or asleep. These maintenance-related processes are known as life processes.
Both plants and animals are capable of movement. Plants have roots and advance gradually. While their branches seek the sun, their roots dive deeper into the ground. Animals, on the other hand, have the ability to quickly move their complete bodies. They might move about in search of food, shelter, or protection.
- A wide definition of respiration is the exchange of gases.
- Different mechanisms are used by plants and animals for gas exchange.
- Respiration, at the cellular level, is the process of burning food to produce the energy required for other living processes.
- It is possible for cells to breathe either with or without oxygen.
The first step in the process of human respiration is the breakdown of glucose in the cytoplasm. Further, the pyruvate molecule after breakdown may be converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide which takes place in yeast during fermentation. Since this process takes place in the absence of air (oxygen), it is called anaerobic respiration.
The breakdown of pyruvate using oxygen takes place in the mitochondria. This process breaks up the three-carbon pyruvate molecule to give three molecules of carbon dioxide. The other product is water. Since this process takes place in the presence of air (oxygen), it is called aerobic respiration.
- Aquatic species use oxygen dissolved in water for respiration, whereas terrestrial organisms use air oxygen.
- Air enters the body via the nostrils in humans. Fine hairs line the channel, filtering the air that passes through the nose. Mucus lines the channel, assisting in the process. The air then enters the lungs via the throat. The neck is lined with cartilage rings. They keep the airway from collapsing.
- The blood transports carbon dioxide from the rest of the body to the alveoli, while blood in the alveolar blood vessels absorbs oxygen from the alveolar air and transports it to all of the body’s cells. During the breathing cycle, when air is inhaled and exhaled, the lungs always have a residual volume of air so that oxygen may be absorbed and carbon dioxide can be exhaled in an adequate time.
- The respiratory pigment haemoglobin transports oxygen from the lungs to the various tissues in the human body. The red blood cells contain this pigment.
All living things are sensitive, which means they are aware of changes in their surroundings. Heat, light, sound, touch, and chemicals with taste and smell are all stimuli that animals respond to swiftly. Plants, on the other hand, appear to be less sensitive and respond more slowly.
Growing is a process that all living things go through. Plants continue to grow for the rest of their lives. Animals stop growing when they reach adulthood. Even when development stops, an animal’s body is replenished with materials obtained from its food.
Excretion is the process of removal of metabolic waste material and other non-useful substances. Plants retain waste substances in their leaves, and as the leaves fall off, the garbage is eliminated. Other waste substances exit the body in urine and sweat, and animals breathe out waste carbon dioxide.
- Organisms like animals have an advanced and specialised system for excretion.
- But plants lack a well-developed excretory system like that in animals.
- They do not have special organs for excretion and thus excretion in plants is not so complex.
- The excretory system in humans includes a pair of kidneys, a pair of ureters, a urinary bladder, and a urethra.
- It produces urine as a waste product.
All living organisms must produce offspring who are genetically identical to themselves for their species to survive. This is referred to as reproduction. Plants produce seeds, which germinate and give rise to new plants of the same species. Animals either lay eggs or give birth to children. Sexual and asexual reproduction are the two types of reproduction. Asexual reproduction involves one parent reproducing itself, whereas sexual reproduction involves two parents and the union of two gametes.
- Food is required for energy and growth in both plants and animals.
- The process of acquiring food that is needed for nourishment and sustenance of the organism is called nutrition.
- Organisms are classed as autotrophs or heterotrophs based on their mode of nourishment.
If an organism can nourish itself by making its own food using sunlight or chemicals, such a mode of nutrition is called autotrophic nutrition. During this process, the following things happen:
- Light energy absorption by chlorophyll.
- Light energy is converted to chemical energy, and water molecules are divided into hydrogen and oxygen.
- Carbon dioxide is converted to carbohydrates.
Heterotrophic Nutrition: Heterotrophs are entirely reliant on autotrophs for their food.
Heterotrophic nutrition is divided into three categories:
- Holozoic Nutrition: Complex foods are ingested through a specialised digestive system and broken down into little pieces so that they can be absorbed. For example, in amoeba and humans.
- Saprophytic Nutrition: It refers to the feeding of organisms on the dead organic remnants of other creatures. Fungi, for example, enjoy bread moulds. Other examples are yeast and mushrooms.
- Parasitic Nutrition: Parasites feed on other living beings (the host), with no benefit to the host. Cuscuta, ticks, lice, leeches, and tapeworms are examples.
How do organisms obtain their nutrition?
Since the food and the way it is obtained differ, the digestive system is different in various organisms.
- In single-celled organisms, the food may be taken in by the entire surface.
- Paramoecium, which is also a unicellular organism, the cell has a definite shape and food is taken in at a specific spot.
Nutrition in human beings:
- Food digestion takes place in the alimentary canal, which is made up of several organs and glands.
- Food is chewed into minute particles in the mouth and combined with saliva, which contains amylase for starch digestion.
- Food goes through the pharynx and oesophagus on its way to the stomach when swallowed. Pepsin (a protein-digesting enzyme), HCl
- HCl and mucus are found in gastric juice.
- The hydrochloric acid generates an acidic environment for the enzyme pepsin to work in.
- The meal now enters the small intestine from the stomach. The small intestine is where carbs, proteins, and lipids are completely digested.
- Bile is secreted by the liver, which emulsifies fat.
- Pancreatic juice, which contains the enzymes amylase, trypsin, and lipase for digesting starch, proteins, and fats, is secreted by the pancreas.
- Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are entirely digested in the small intestine, resulting in glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, and glycerol.
- The small intestine villi absorb the digested food and deliver it to all of the body’s cells.
- The undigested food is transferred to the large intestine, where it is absorbed by additional villi. The anus is used to eliminate the rest of the material from the body.
- All living organisms need a few necessary components like air, water, and food for their survival.
- On a regular basis, animals ensure these elements by breathing, drinking, and eating.
- The required elements are transported to their body cells and tissues by a transportation system.
- In plants, the vascular tissue is responsible for transporting the substances.
Transportation in human beings:
- Transportation in humans is done by the circulatory system.
- The circulatory system in humans mainly consists of blood, blood vessels, and the heart.
- It is responsible for the supply of oxygen, and nutrients, and the removal of carbon dioxide and other excretory products.
- It also helps to fight infections.
Our pump — the heart:
- The muscular organ is located near the chest slightly towards the left in the thoracic region.
- The heart is the main pumping organ of the body.
- The human heart is divided into four chambers which are involved in the transportation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood.
- The upper two chambers are called atria whereas the lower two chambers are called ventricles.
The blood vessels:
- Blood vessels carry blood throughout the body.
- There are three types of blood vessels: arteries, veins, and blood capillaries.
- Arteries carry oxygenated blood and veins carry deoxygenated blood.
- The gaseous exchange takes place between blood and cells at capillaries.
Transportation in Plants:
- Plant transport systems will carry raw materials from roots and energy stores from leaves. These two paths are made up of conducting tubes that are set up separately. The xylem, for example, transports water and minerals from the soil. The phloem, on the other hand, carries photosynthetic products from the leaves to other sections of the plant.
- The xylem tissue of roots, stems, and leaves (tracheids and vessels) are interwoven to form a continuous system of water transmitting channels that reaches all parts of the plant. Water is driven into the xylem cells of the roots as a result of suction pressure created by transpiration. Then, through the interconnecting water-carrying channels, water moves steadily from the root xylem to all sections of the plant.
- Transpiration is the loss of water from the plant’s aerial portions in the form of vapour. As a result, it aids in the absorption and upward transfer of dissolved minerals in water from the roots to the leaves. It also controls the temperature.
- Translocation happens in phloem and is the movement of soluble photosynthetic products. Amino acids and other chemicals are transported via it. Food and other substances are transported in the sieve tubes in both upward and downward directions with the help of nearby partner cells.
- Energy is used to facilitate translocation in the phloem. Sucrose is transported into phloem tissue with the help of ATP energy. This causes the tissue’s osmotic pressure to rise, allowing water to enter. This is the pressure. This allows the phloem to transfer material in accordance with the needs of the plant. For example, in the spring, sugar stored in the root or stem tissue would be transported to the buds which need the energy to grow.
What are life processes?
- The maintenance of living organisms is essential even if they are moving, resting, or even sleeping.
- The processes which together perform the function of maintenance of ‘life’ are called life processes.
- Nutrition, respiration, circulation, and excretion are examples of essential life processes.
- In unicellular organisms, all these processes are carried out by a single cell.
- In multicellular organisms, well-developed systems are present to carry out the processes.
Other Chapters in the Science NCERT Book of Class 10:
- Chemical Reactions and Equations
- Acids, Bases, and Salts
- Metals and Non-Metals
- Carbon and its Compounds
- Periodic Classification of Elements
- Life Processes
- Control and Coordination
- How do Organisms Reproduce
- Heredity and Evolution
- Light (Reflection and Refraction)
- The Human Eye and Colourful World
- Magnetic Effects of Electric Current
- Sources of Energy
- Our Environment
- Management of Natural Resources
Types of Questions You Can Expect from the Class 10 Science Chapter 6 – Life Processes:
Students can be examined regarding the topics discussed in Class 10 Science Chapter 6 in various forms. The type of question may range as:
- Very Short Answer Type Questions
- Short Answer Type Questions
- Long Answer Type Questions
- Practical-Based Questions
How to Use Our Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes for Your Learning?
Extramarks focus on making learning easier and simpler. These notes have been curated after a thorough reading of the chapter and a detailed analysis of the type of questions asked by CBSE. Students must firstly start by reading the notes in an attempt to get the basic idea behind the chapter. A second read would then help students to dive deeper into the understanding of the different topics and finally solving questions based on the notes provided will ensure complete preparation for the exam.
Why is the Class 10th Board Examination Important For You?
Class 10th Board Examination is the first time that students appear for a national level exam. This assessment is important for students in multiple ways:
- Helps students to overcome fear and thus prepare for further national tests ahead in life.
- The marks obtained in Class 10th are attached to a student’s educational record for a lifelong and hence it is one of the most important exams in a student’s life.
- Helps in admission to various colleges and institutes for higher education in the future.
- Builds a good image of the student in the resume and educational performance report while applying for any job, post, or opening in the future.
What is the Expected Weightage of Questions from the Class 10 Science Chapter 6 – Life Processes?
The Class 10 Science Chapter 6 life process notes are important for you because you can expect to get questions carrying anywhere from 12-15 marks in your board examinations. If you consider the previous years’ question papers for Class 10 board exams, almost 5-7 questions were asked in this chapter, including practical-based questions from a particular chapter. So, it is not wrong to say that you can expect a minimum of 2 questions from the chapter that carry 1, 2, 3, or 5 marks.
Even the diagrams from the chapter are important as they have been asked in the previous examinations. Thus, there is no reason for you to skip any section of this chapter as even the smallest of details from the NCERT book are important. Make sure that you cover all of it using our life processes Class 10 NCERT book PDF so that you stand to score full marks in your Science Class 10 board exams.
Importance of Before an Examination: – unclear
Top Benefits of Using Our Class 10 Biology Life Processes Notes:
Notes provided by Extramarks are beneficial for the students in the following ways:
- High-quality notes provided: These notes have been formed by experts and subject matter specialists which guarantees error-free and efficient note-making.
- Free of cost: Students can have access to the notes provided by Extramarks free of cost. Notes can also be downloaded for offline use in the future.
- A clear understanding of the topic: Extramarks emphasise learning first and then scoring. This ensures that students have a better understanding of the subject they learn and are not just concerned about marks.
How to Memorise Our Life Processes Class 10 NCERT Notes for Class Assignments and Exams?
Clearing exams is not only about regular study and note reading, there are other factors as well that influence a student’s performance in an examination:
- Proper health: Health should be given priority in life before anything else. A healthy state of mind and body definitely helps in retaining information and knowledge for a longer time.
- Regular exercise: Try to exercise regularly or take a walk before the exam rather than watching television. It will help improve your brainpower, and you will not have to desperately go over the notes every time you have an exam. Make sure that you take regular breaks in between your studies so that you are refreshed each time.
- Revise Notes Aloud: The best way to remember things is to revise our life processes Class 10 NCERT Book PDF loudly. It is known as the generation effect and will make it easier for you to recall the chapter instead of quietly reading them. Try to act like you are teaching the concepts to someone else, and you are surely going to remember them for much longer.
- Get Proper Sleep: Make sure that you are getting enough sleep; otherwise, it will only make you feel more agitated. Try to sleep early and get up early in the morning. It will allow you to revise more during the day and cover more syllabus on a particular day.
Tips to help get rid of exam fear:
Students may experience anxiety in the months and weeks leading up to the Science exam (and parents alike). Exam fear occurs when you feel the pressure of the exam and are concerned about not being able to meet the expectations of others. It is, however, not uncommon. Before an exam, every student experiences some level of exam anxiety. It also causes unneeded stress. When exam anxiety exceeds a healthy level, students frequently experience panic attacks, which can have an impact on their grades. Because you will only be able to take your board exam once in your life, it is critical that you are well prepared. It is all about overcoming it so that you can succeed.
Before An Exam:
There are certain things that you need to do for days, weeks, and even months before an exam that define your success rate.
- Study smart: Hard work is important but the time before an exam is the time to study smart. Analysing the previous year’s questions, solving expected sample papers, and prioritising expected topics will ensure saving time and increasing efficiency.
- Proper rest: Exam time can really be stressful and hence proper sleep and rest ensure increased productivity. Students tend to focus better while writing the exam and therefore the importance of sleep and rest shouldn’t be undermined.
- Always Stay Positive: You need to stay positive throughout your preparation phase. You need to believe that you can do well in the exam with the right resources, such as our life processes Class 10 Notes. You should not let others’ success demotivate you in any way. You just need to give it your best, and there will be no way that you do not score well.
During the Exam:
- Start Early on the Day of the Exam: On the day of your Science exam, it is important that you start your day early. It will help you not feel ‘rushed’. By getting a little early on the day of the exam, you will be able to take your breakfast, get ready, and also leave for the exam in a relaxed way. You should reach the exam hall early so that you can find your seat easily.
- Do Last-Minute Preparation Wisely: It is not always possible to go through the NCERT Science book before the exam. You need to be well prepared before the exam. If you do need last-minute preparation, you should use our notes as they are to the point and allow you to just get a glimpse of the topics before sitting for the exam.
- Tackle the Questions on the Paper Properly: Once you get the question paper, read the question paper thoroughly even before you start writing. Analyse the different questions and start with the questions that you are fully confident about. If you are uncomfortable with a particular question, it is best to create a small mark on the paper so that you can come back to it later. Do not panic and stay focused.
Advantages of E-Learning on Extramarks Platform:
- Extramarks learning platform optimises a student’s time for individual subjects as per their need. Notes are prepared in such a manner that saves time as compared to learning from other sources.
- Students can learn at their own pace. This also means that there is no pressure on the students to complete a given chapter or sets of notes within a specific period of time.
- Extramarks focus on promoting independent learning. The notes are formed in a way that is self-explanatory which means the student can now learn without even having to communicate with a tutor.
Points to Remember When Preparing for Your Science Class 10 Exams:
- Even before you start preparing, try to understand the syllabus and take a look at the total number of chapters, their distribution of the marks, and also the value of the question.
- The biology chapter includes not just texts, but diagrams as well. Thus, you need to give as much attention to each diagram along with its explanations.
- Make sure that you add diagrams to the definitions irrespective of the marks of the question. Also, you should add the diagram even if it is not directly asked in the definition.
- You need to remember all the important terms in the chapter along with the functions of each of them.
- You will need to spend a lot of time memorising the terminology and its definitions.
- Just put focus on the definitions of the terminology, and you will be able to remember the rest of the theory on your own.
- Take it slow and do not try to do a lot of things in one go. Be comfortable with your speed, and know what things you can complete in a day.