CBSE Class 9 Social Science Geography Revision Notes Chapter 5

CBSE Class 9 Geography Chapter 5 Notes – Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

The Indian subcontinent has the fourth largest vegetation in Asia and the tenth largest worldwide. In addition, India is among the 12 biodiversity hotspots in the world and accounts for 6 percent of the total flowering plants. CBSE Class 9 Geography Chapter 5 Notes comprises information about India’s natural vegetation and wildlife.

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CBSE Class 9 Geography Revision Notes

  • Chapter 5 – Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Class 9 Notes Geography Chapter 5

Access Class 9 Social Science (Geography) Chapter 5 – Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Notes

Flora and Fauna

Natural vegetation that grows on uninhabited land without human assistance is also termed virgin vegetation. The term flora defines plant species occurring naturally in a particular region. The term fauna is used to define animal species found in a region.

Factors Affecting Flora and Fauna

Flora and fauna in a specific region are determined by several factors, including relief and climatic conditions. These factors together determine the natural vegetation of a region.

1. Relief

Land: Varieties of land like plains, terrains, and mountains determine different natural and wildlife vegetation. For example, plains are for agriculture, terrains are for grasslands, mountains give shelter to wildlife, and varieties of woods.

Soil: Different types of soil provide different vegetation. Sandy soil grows cactuses; mountainous slopes support conical trees, and marshy grounds support mangroves.

2. Climate

Temperature: The temperature of any region also contributes to the variety of vegetation. In the entire Indian peninsula, the temperature falls when we reach an altitude above 915 metres. The changes in vegetation are tropical, subtropical, and alpine.

Photoperiod: Trees grow faster in summer due to the extended availability of sunlight. Depending upon latitude, altitude, duration, and season amount and duration of sunlight also differ.

Precipitation: Southwest and Northeast monsoons support varieties and vegetation density in India. Areas with heavy rainfall have dense vegetation.

Natural Vegetation and Its Types

Following are the varieties of vegetation found in India.

1. Tropical Evergreen Forest

These forests are found in the regions of heavy rainfall in western ghats, upper Assam, Tamil Nadu coastline, and the islands of Lakshadweep, Andaman, and Nicobar. The forest remains evergreen throughout the year since there is no specific time for the shedding of the leaves. These forests are dense and support a variety of vegetation; the trees reach up to a height of 60 metres. Commercially important trees like ebony, mahogany, cinchona, rosewood, and rubber are found in these forests. Besides flora, plenty of fauna species are also found.

2. Tropical Deciduous Forest

Also known as rainforests, they are widespread across the Indian peninsula. They are found in areas with average rainfall between 200 to 70 cm. They are further segregated into moist and dry deciduous. These forests are found in the foothills of the Himalayas, in the states of northeast India, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, and Odisha. Commercially important species of this forest are bamboo, sal, shisham, sandalwood, khair, kusum, arjun, mulberry, and others. In addition, lions, tigers, pigs, deer, lizards, snakes, and tortoises are some species found in these forests.

3. Thorn Forests and Scrubs

These forests are located in the states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Haryana, where rainfall is less than 70 cm. Trees are scattered, and their roots have deeply penetrated the grounds; Acacias, Palms, Euphorbias, and Cacti are some of the plant species found here. Some animal species found are fox, wolf, tiger, lion, camel, horses, and Tibetan wild ass.

4. Montane Forests

They are high-altitude forests found in the Himalayas, Northeastern states, and South India. Wet temperate forests lie between 1000-2000 metres having broadleaf trees like oak and chestnut. Conifers lie between 1500-3000 metres, like pine, cedar, spruce, silver fir, and deodar. Kashmir stag, Tibetan antelope, wild sheep, snow leopard, jackrabbits, yaks, squirrels, sheep, goats, red panda, bear, shaggy horned wild ibex are some of the animal species found in this type of forest.

5. Mangrove Forests

Mangroves are found in the marshy land of coastal regions formed by the Ganga, Mahanadi, Krishna, Kaveri, and Godavari river delta. Sundari trees are located in the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta; they provide durable hard timber; other trees grown in this region are keora, agar, coconut, palm, and others. Monkeys, turtles, crocodiles, gharial, snakes, and the famous Royal Bengal Tiger are some of the animals found in this forest.

 6. Wildlife

India is home to 13% of the total world’s bird species. Big mammals like elephants are found in the tropical forests of Kerala, Karnataka, and Assam. One-horned rhinoceros are found in marshy areas of Assam and West Bengal. Camels and wild asses are found in the Thar desert and Rann of Kutch.

The Gir forest of Gujarat is known for its majestic lions. Tigers reside in the forests of Madhya Pradesh, the Sundarbans of West Bengal, and the Himalayas. High-altitude places like Ladakh are known for animals like yak, shaggy horned wild ox, Tibetan antelope, wild sheep, snow leopard, bear, red panda, etc., while crocodiles and turtles are found in coastal areas.

Varieties of deer species like the Indian bison, nilgai, and chousingha and many bird species like parrots, cranes, pigeons, and ducks are also found.

Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Conservation

The Government of India has set up 18 biosphere reserves to protect natural vegetation and wildlife, out of which ten are included in the world biosphere network – Sundarban, Nanda Devi, Nilgiri, Great Nicobar, Gulf of Mannar, Manas, Norkek, Simlipal, Panchmari, and Achanakmar Amarkantak.

Botanical and Zoological gardens, along with 103 national parks and 535 wildlife sanctuaries, have been set up for conservation. Technical support and financial aid have also been provided since 1992.

Important Questions and Answers

  1. Discuss the factors responsible for the distribution of natural and wildlife vegetation in India.

The following factors determine the distribution of natural and wildlife vegetation in India.

  • Land: A variety of land is responsible for different types of vegetation. Fertile land is for agriculture; rough terrains and mountains shelter grasslands and woods. According to the patterns of land, the variety of wildlife also varies.
  • Soil: Sandy soil supports the growth of cactuses, mountain soil supports the growth of conifers, and marshy is for mangroves. The soil varies from region to region, and the variety of vegetation also differs.
  • Temperature: Temperature increases or decreases with the change in altitude. In the entire subcontinent, the temperature falls when we reach high altitude; with temperature change, the vegetation changes from tropical to subtropical and alpine.
  • Photoperiodism: The amount of photo (light) sunlight received in a day determines the vegetation in an area. Trees in summer grow faster because of the amount of sunlight received.
  • Precipitation: Areas with heavy rainfall have vast diversity. India’s southwest and northeast monsoons determine the level and density of natural vegetation.
  1. Explain the natural vegetation and wildlife conservation activities by the Indian government.
  • The Government of India has set up 18 Biosphere Reserves, of which ten are included in the world network of biosphere reserves.
  • Zoological and Botanical gardens, along with 103 national parks and 535 wildlife sanctuaries, have been set up for environmental conservation.
  • Financial aid and technical assistance have been provided to botanical gardens since 1992, and projects like Project Tiger, Project Rhino, and Indian Bustard have also been set up for conservation.
  1. What are the reasons for India’s rich flora and fauna?

India’s striking land, soil, and climate diversity vary from South to North and East to West. The northeastern and southwestern monsoons are responsible for varieties of vegetation in India. The position of the subcontinent between tropical and temperate zones is also responsible for the rich plethora of flora and fauna.

  1. Explain biosphere reserves in India.

The biosphere is an ecosystem of the natural vegetation of plant and animal species that grows naturally without human assistance or scientific interest. UNESCO gives the title of biosphere reserve as an essential entity of sustainability. The ten biosphere reserves of India are Sundarban, Shimlipal, Gulf of Mannar, Nilgiri, Dibru Saikhowa, Nanda Devi, Agasthyamalai, Great Nicobar, Panchmari, and Achanakmar Amarkantak.

Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Class 9 Notes

  • India has rich vegetation of 47,000 plant species and 90,000 animal species.
  • Flora refers to various plant species, while Fauna refers to various animal species.
  • Land, soil, temperature, photoperiod, and precipitation are the factors responsible for varieties of vegetation.
  • Tropical Evergreen, Tropical Deciduous, Thorn and Scrubs, Montane, and Mangrove are the varieties of natural vegetation in India.
  • India is home to 13% of the total world’s bird species.
  • The Indian government has set up 18 biosphere reserves, of which ten are included in the world biosphere network.
  • Project Great Indian Bustard, Project Tiger, and Project Rhino have been introduced, and 103 national parks and 535 wildlife sanctuaries have also been set up for conservation.

Some Factors Contribute to the Vast Natural Vegetation in India

Several factors determine the variety of natural vegetation, including climatic and relief factors.


Land indirectly or directly affects the variety of vegetation. For example, rough terrains support the growth of grassland and woodland, while fertile land is suitable for agriculture.


The quality and variety of soil change from place to place and affect the local natural vegetation. For example, mountainous slopes support conical trees, sandy soil supports cactuses, and marshy delta supports mangroves.


The temperature decreases with increasing altitude—the vegetation changes from tropical to subtropical to alpine with the specific temperature.


Photoperiodism also affects the variation of vegetation. For example, plants grow faster during the summer season because of the large number of photoperiods.


Areas that receive heavy rainfall have more diversity of vegetation. Southwest and Northeast monsoons contribute to rainfall in India.

Natural Vegetation and Wildlife of India

Various natural vegetation types are found across India, like tropical evergreen forests, tropical deciduous forests, thorn forests and scrubs, montane forests, and mangrove forests.

Natural Vegetation of India Notes

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Class 9 Geography Chapter 5 Notes

Class 9 Geography Notes Chapter 5 will help students learn with a better understanding of natural vegetation and wildlife, and CBSE extra questions will strengthen their concepts while precisely following the  CBSE guidelines and exam pattern.

Different Kinds of Vegetation found in India 

Tropical Evergreen Forests

Tropical evergreen forests are located in the Western ghats, Assam, Tamil Nadu, Lakshadweep, Andaman, and Nicobars islands.

Elephants, monkeys, lemurs, deer, birds, and snails are some of the animals in these forests.

Tropical Deciduous Forests or Monsoon Forests

These forests are spread across India, with areas receiving 200 to 70 cm of annual rainfall. Monsoon forests are further classified into dry and moist deciduous forests. Most deciduous forests are located in the Himalayan foothills, western ghats, and the states of Jharkhand, Odisha, and Chhattisgarh. Dry deciduous forests are found in the Deccan plateau, Uttar Pradesh, and Bihar.

Teak, bamboos, sal, shisham, sandalwood, khair, kusum, arjun, mulberry, peepal, and neem are notable plant species. Typical animals found in monsoon forests are lions, tigers, pigs, deer, elephants, lizards, snakes, tortoises, and birds.

Montane Forests

They are located between tropical to tundra regions. The wet temperate forests are found between a height of 1000 to 2000 metres, and the evergreen broadleaf trees such as oak are found between a height of 1500 to 3000 metres, and altitudes more than 3600 metres give rise to alpine vegetation. Silver fir, junipers, pines, and birches are some of the essential trees in the forests. At the same time, the major animal species are Kashmir stag, spotted deer, , wild sheep, jackrabbit, Tibetan antelope, yak, snow leopard, squirrels, shaggy horned wild ibex, bear, red panda, sheep, and goat. In addition, communities like Gujjars and Bakarwals use temperate grasslands for cattle rearing.

Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Notes

Chapter 5 Geography Class 9 notes are helpful for revision and developing a better understanding of the subject and strengthening important concepts of each chapter. Hence, students can save time during exams.

Fauna of India

India is home to approximately 90,000 fauna species, just like flora, including 2000 bird species and 2546 fish, which account for 13% and 12% of the world’s total. Big mammals like elephants are found in tropical evergreen forests of Assam, Karnataka, and Kerala. Majestic one-horned rhinos are found in Assam and marshy areas of West Bengal. Camels and wild asses are found in arid climatic conditions of the Rann of Kachchh and the Thar desert of Rajasthan. Lions are found in the Gir Forests of Gujarat, and tigers are found in Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal forests. Yak, shaggy horned wild ox, the Tibetan antelope, Tibetan wild ass, the blue sheep, wild sheep, ibex, bear, snow leopard, and red panda are some animals found in the cold areas of Ladakh.

Crocodiles, turtles, and gharials are found in river ponds and lakes. Bird species like peacocks, ducks, and cranes are found in forests and wetlands.

About 1300 plant species are endangered, and 20 species are extinct. Eighteen biospheres have been set up in India for conservation, out of which ten are UN-designated.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Which are the most widespread forests in India?

The most widespread forests of India are the Tropical Deciduous forests, which cover 64% of India’s total forest area (Dry 30% and Moist 34%), as per a survey carried out in 2009.

2. What is an ecosystem?

The area where both plant and animal species are interdependent and interrelated to each other in the physical environment forms an ecosystem.

3. Name the regions of tropical rainforests.

The regions of tropical rainforests are Western ghats, Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar islands, Tamil Nadu coastline, and the upper regions of Assam.

4. Where is the Royal Bengal Tiger found?

The Royal Bengal Tiger is found in the Sunderbans of West Bengal.