The molecular formula of Chlorate is ClO3–. A Chlorate can be called as a salt of Chloric Acid. In Chlorate Formula, the Roman numeral in parentheses indicates the Chlorine oxyanion, e.g. Chlorate(VII). By adding Chlorine to metal hydroxides, such as KOH, metal Chlorates can be prepared. This article discusses the Chlorate formula, its properties, chemical structure, and uses. Chlorine can be added to hot metal hydroxides like KOH to produce metal Chlorates. Chlorine undergoes reduction, as well as oxidation, in this reaction. Chloride and Hypochlorite (oxidation number +1) are produced instead of cold aqueous metal hydroxides and Chlorine. Instead of using Chlorine gas, an aqueous Sodium Chloride solution (brine) is used for industrial-scale synthesis of Sodium Chlorate. The disproportionation reaction described above occurs when Chlorine and Sodium Hydroxide are mixed in the electrolysis equipment. Electrolysis uses electrical power to heat the reactants to 50–70 °C.
Arid and hyper-arid regions have high concentrations of natural Chlorate Formula deposits. Rainfall samples also measured Chlorate, and the amount of Chlorate formula was similar to that of perChlorate. In the Chlorine biogeochemistry cycle, Chlorate and Perchlorate may share a common natural formation mechanism. A variety of microorganisms could also reduce Chlorate to chloride due to the presence of natural Chlorate. Additionally, all Perchlorate reducing bacteria described to date also use Chlorate as a terminal electron acceptor, suggesting that Chlorate reduction is an ancient phenomenon. There are currently no minerals that are Chlorate-dominant. The Chlorate anion is therefore only present in mineral species as a substitution, or in pore-filling solutions.
Chlorate Structural Formula
The Chlorine atom is in the +5 oxidation state in the Chlorate Formula. The term “Chlorate” can also refer to chemical compounds containing Chlorate Formula; Chlorates are salts of chloric acid. The word “Chlorate” may refer to an oxyanion of chlorine when followed by a Roman numeral in parentheses, like Chlorate (VII). The valence shell electron pair repulsion theory predicts that Chlorate anions have trigonal pyramidal structures. Inorganic and easily oxidized materials should be kept away from Chlorates because they are powerful oxidizers. Chlorate salts will readily ignite combustible materials (sugar, sawdust, charcoal, organic solvents, metals, etc.). Because of their instability, Chlorates were once widely used in pyrotechnics. Perchlorates are now used in most pyrotechnic applications that previously used Chlorates.
Chlorate Ion Lewis Structure
As all Cl-O bonds are the same length and chlorine atoms are hypervalent, one Lewis structure cannot adequately describe the Chlorate Formula ion. Multi-resonance structures are often considered hybrids of one another.
Examples of Chlorates
Chlorate Formula can be found in the following forms:
- Sodium Chlorate (NaClO3)
- Magnesium Chlorate (Mg(ClO3)2)
- Potassium Chlorate (KClO3)