Amino Acid Formula

Amino Acid Formula

Amino acids are organic molecules with the Amino Acid Formula R-CH(NH2)-COOH that contain the functional groups amino, or NH2, and carboxyl, or COOH, as well as a side chain (R or alkyl group) unique to each amino acid group.Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen are the main components of an amino acid formula (N). In addition, additional elements are linked to the side chains of amino acids.

They join to form proteins, which are the building blocks of life. This chemical molecule has side chains that are unique to each amino acid as well as functional groups like amine and carboxyl. 

Amino Acid Formula Structure

Amino acids are chemical molecules composed of amine (-NH2), carboxyl (-COOH), and a side chain—R group. Amino acids are composed mostly of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Each molecule consists of a core carbon atom (α-carbon) with linked amino and carboxyl groups. The α-carbon atom’s remaining two bonds are formed by the R group and a hydrogen (H) atom. The alpha carbon of all amino acids is connected to a hydrogen atom, a carboxyl group, and an amino group. The R group (side chain) varies by amino acid. The structure of amino acids is shown below.

Amino acid groups

Organic substances known as amino acids with the Amino Acid Formula R-CH(NH2)-COOH have an amino group, a hydroxyl group, and a carbon side chain. Although the basic structure of all amino acids is the same, they all contain unique carbon side chains. Amino acids have different polarities, charges, molecular weights, and activities. Protein secondary and tertiary structures are formed by joining polypeptide chains together using peptide bonds. Different proteins have different features, functions, and chain lengths. The countless combinations of different amino acids provide different proteins with a significant amount of variety.

The subject has included the Amino Acid Formula and formulas for many classes of amino acids, including conditional amino acids, essential amino acids, and nonessential amino acids.

Non-Essential amino acids formula

Nonessential amino acids are those generated or synthesised by human bodies but not consumed as dietary supplements. There are a total of 20 amino acids that are shared by all life forms; arginine, alanine, aspartic acid, asparagine, cysteine, glutamine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, serine, and tyrosine are among the non-essential ones. Without these amino acids, the human body would struggle to assemble the necessary proteins for cell development, repair, and maintenance.

Amino Acids Abbrev.  Formula
Arginine Arg C6H14N4O2
Alanine Ala C3H7NO2
Asparagine Asn C4H8N2O3
Aspartate Asp C4H7NO4
Cysteine Cys C3H7NO2S
Glutamic acid or Glutamate Glu C5H9NO4
Glycine Gly C2H5NO2
Glutamine Gln C5H10N2O3
Proline Pro C5H9NO2
Serine Ser C3H7NO3
Tyrosine Tyr C9H11NO3

Essential amino acids formula

Essential amino acids are those that the body cannot generate or synthesise and that must be obtained through food supplements. Leucine, isoleucine, histidine, lysine, methionine, threonine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and valine are the nine essential amino acids.

Amino Acids Abbrev.   Formula
Valine Val C5H11NO2
Leucine Leu C6H13NO2
Histidine His C6H9O2N3
Isoleucine Ile C6H13NO2
Lysine Lys C6H14N2O2
Methionine Met C5H11NO2S
Phenylalanine Phe C9H11NO2
Threonine Thr C4H9NO3
Tryptophan Trp C11H12N2O2

Conditional amino acids formula

 Conditional amino acids are some amino acids that, while normally not necessary, may become so in times of stress or sickness. These might be necessary in situations like infant prematurity. Cysteine, arginine, tyrosine, glutamine, ornithine, glycine, serine, and proline are the six conditional amino acids.

Amino Acids Physical Properties

  • They’re colourless.
  • Amino acids are crystalline in nature.
  • They are both bland and sweet in nature.
  • Amino acids have a melting point above 200 °C.
  • They are soluble in polar solvents such as water, acetone, and methanol.
  • They are insoluble in non-polar solvents such alkanes, acetic acids, chloroforms, etc.
  • Amino acids have an absorbance of 280 nm.
  • The molecular weight of amino acids ranges from 100 to 50,000 Dt.
  • They are colloidal in nature and have denaturing capabilities.

Amino Acids Chemical Properties


Amino acids will undergo decarboxylation to form amines. Thus, amines are produced.


  1. Histidine → Histamine + CO2
  2. Tyrosine →Tyramine + CO2
  3. Lysine →Cadaverine + CO2


Chemistry Related Formulas
Urea Formula Pyrophosphoric Acid Formula
Ammonia Formula Silicon Dioxide Formula
Bleaching Powder Formula Sodium Cyanide Formula
Molarity Formula Sodium Fluoride Formula
Oxalic Acid Formula Barium Phosphate Formula
Methane Formula Barium Oxide Formula
Sulphuric Acid Formula Calcium Bromide Formula
Aluminium Chloride Formula Dilution Formula
Chloroform Formula Folic Acid Formula
Empirical Formula Fumaric Acid Formula

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is the importance of amino acids?

The primary importance of amino acids is:

They are the structural component of the protein.
They operate as pH buffers in solutions, resisting alterations.
They store nitrogen.
Cysteine forms disulfide bonds, which connect chains together.

2. What are non-protein amino acids?

The α-amino acids are present in cells that are not incorporated into proteins. Examples are ornithine and citrulline.

3. What are the diseases caused due to deficiency of amino acids?

The diseases caused due to deficiency of amino acids-

  • Anemia.
  • Insomnia or sleeplessness.
  • looseness.
  • Depression.
  • Hypoglycemia.
  • Loss of Appetite.
  • Deposition of fat in the liver.
  • Skin and hair problems.
  • Fatigue, exhaustion.