Through photosynthesis, plants and other organisms convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can be released to fuel their activities. This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrates, such as sugar and starch. These carbohydrates are synthesised from carbon dioxide and water—a process known as Photosynthesis Formula. Photoautotrophs, such as plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, perform photosynthesis. The process of photosynthesis is largely responsible for producing and maintaining the oxygen content of the Earth’s atmosphere, as well as supplying the majority of the energy necessary for life.
What is photosynthesis?
Regardless of how different species perform Photosynthesis Formula, the process always begins when light energy is absorbed by proteins called reaction centres, which contain green chlorophyll pigments/chromophores. A plant’s chloroplasts, which are most abundant in leaf cells, hold these proteins, while bacteria’s are embedded in the plasma membrane. Light-dependent reactions produce oxygen gas by stripping electrons from suitable substances, such as water. In the process of splitting water, hydrogen is used to create two compounds that serve as short-term stores of energy that can be transferred to other reactions. These compounds are the “energy currency” of cells, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and adenosine triphosphate or ATP.
Formula of photosynthesis
Plants, algae, and cyanobacteria synthesise sugars through a series of light-independent reactions called the Calvin cycle. Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is incorporated into organic carbon compounds, such as ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP). As a result of the light-dependent reactions, ATP and NADPH are produced, which are then reduced and removed to form further carbohydrates, such as glucose. Other bacteria use different mechanisms, such as the reverse Krebs cycle.
The Process of Photosynthesis
Probably the first photosynthetic organisms evolved early in the evolution of life, using reducing agents such as hydrogen or hydrogen sulphide rather than water as electron sources. Eventually, cyanobacteria appeared; their excess oxygen allowed complex life to evolve by oxygenating the Earth. As of today, Photosynthesis Formula captures approximately 130 terawatts of energy globally, more than eight times the amount of power consumed by human civilisation. Photosynthetic organisms also convert about 100–115 billion tons (91–104 petagrams) of carbon per year into biomass. Ingenhousz discovered in 1779 that plants receive some energy from light in addition to air, soil, and water.
Solved examples of photosynthesis
Problem 1: Formulate both the symbol and word equation for photosynthesis.
Solution: In word form, photosynthesis is a balanced reaction
Carbon dioxide + Water → Glucose + oxygen.
In symbol form, Photosynthesis Formula is balanced as follows:
6CO2+ 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. What is the process of the Photosynthesis Formula in plants?
Photosynthesis converts carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. Chloroplasts are microscopic cellular organelles found in leaves.
2. For Photosynthesis Formula, how much carbon dioxide is needed?
For photosynthesis, carbon dioxide in the range of 300 – 400 PPM is usually adequate. A temperature range of 25° to 35° C is essential for efficient Photosynthesis Formula. To learn more, students can procure the reference materials available on the Extramarks website.