Ammonium Hydroxide Formula

Ammonium Hydroxide Formula

The Ammonium Hydroxide Formula is NH4OH. The Ammonium Hydroxide Formula is also called aqueous ammonia. It is basically the ammonia gas dissolved in water. In its liquid state, the liquid has no colour, but it has an extremely strong smell which is very discernable. When the substance is in its concentrated form, then it can be very caustic in nature, and it can cause really severe third-degree burns if it has contact with the skin, and it is unattended. On a household level, the Ammonium Hydroxide Formula is used as a room cleanser. In its solution form, it has a large amount of water and ammonia and a very less amount of ammonium ions.

Ammonium Hydroxide Chemical Formula

The chemical formula of ammonium hydroxide is NH4OH. The molar mass of the Ammonium Hydroxide Formula is 35.04 g/mol-1. The structure of the compound is made of 1 hydroxide anion (OH–) and 1 ammonium cation, NH4+. The ions here share an ionic bond because in the bond formation there is an exchange of electrons, if the ions shared the electrons then it would have been a covalent bond. 

Ammonium Hydroxide Structural Formula

The Ammonium Hydroxide Formula is also known as ammonia water.


The Ammonium Hydroxide Formula can be very easily prepared when there is a dissolution between ammonia and water. The process is done naturally, but the compound can also be prepared in an artificial manner.


The Ammonium Hydroxide Formula is mainly prepared with the help of a direct reaction between hydrogen and nitrogen, and in this reaction, the metal iron acts as a catalyst. The resulting ammonia that is formed then is made to pass through water, and then the Ammonium Hydroxide Formula is prepared.

Physical Properties

Ammonium hydroxide is a liquid which has no colour, the Ammonium Hydroxide Formula has a very distinct pungent odour. The Ammonium Hydroxide Formula has a density of 0.91 g/mL-1. The melting point is -57.5oC, and it has a boiling point of 37oC. It is highly miscible with water, and therefore the solubility it has with water is very high.

Chemical Properties

Ammonium hydroxide is a basic compound which dissociates partially in water which keeps the next equilibrium with the ammonium ion and the hydroxide ion intact and that is the reason why the compound is unstable. 

NH4OH + H2O ⇌ NH4+ + OH−

The equilibrium is formed when it is in use for regulating the pH of the solutions due to the ion OH– which assists in maximizing the pOH of the basic level of any solution.

Basicity of Ammonia in Water

In a solution with water, the ammonia deprotonates a minimal fraction of the water to give the products of ammonium and hydroxide:

NH3 + H2O ⇌ NH4+ + OH−.

In a 1M ammonia solution, only 0.42% of the ammonia transforms into ammonium which is equivalent to a pH of 11.63 since [NH4+] = 0.0042 M, [OH–] = 0.0042 M, [NH3] = 0.9958 M, and pH = 14+log10[OH–] = 11.62. The base ionization constant is – 

Kb = [NH4+][OH−]/[NH3] = 1.8×10−5


There are various uses of the Ammonium Hydroxide Formula. One of the most common ones is how the Ammonium Hydroxide Formula can be used in making a household cleaner. The compound can also be used in a way where it might act as a precursor to the formation of any alkylamine. The compound is also used in a way where it acts as an acidity regulator, and it is primarily used in a reference to food. The compound is greatly used to control the acidity of certain foods.

Solved Example on Ammonium Hydroxide Formula

Students can learn about the Ammonium Hydroxide Formula on the Extramarks website. The information in the article is provided by experienced professionals who have experience in teaching these ideas in a thorough way, and therefore one can learn all about Ammonium Hydroxide Formula on their website.

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