Ammonium Hydroxide Formula

Ammonium Hydroxide Formula

The Ammonium Hydroxide Formula is NH4OH. The Ammonium Hydroxide Formula is also called aqueous ammonia. It is basically the ammonia gas dissolved in water. In its liquid state, the liquid has no colour, but it has an extremely strong smell which is very discernable. When the substance is in its concentrated form, then it can be very caustic in nature, and it can cause really severe third-degree burns if it has contact with the skin, and it is unattended. On a household level, the Ammonium Hydroxide Formula is used as a room cleanser. In its solution form, it has a large amount of water and ammonia and a very less amount of ammonium ions.

Ammonium Hydroxide Chemical Formula

The chemical formula of ammonium hydroxide is NH4OH. The molar mass of the Ammonium Hydroxide Formula is 35.04 g/mol-1. The structure of the compound is made of 1 hydroxide anion (OH) and 1 ammonium cation, NH4+. The ions here share an ionic bond because in the bond formation there is an exchange of electrons, if the ions shared the electrons then it would have been a covalent bond. 

Ammonium Hydroxide Structural Formula

The Ammonium Hydroxide Formula is also known as ammonia water.


The Ammonium Hydroxide Formula can be very easily prepared when there is a dissolution between ammonia and water. The process is done naturally, but the compound can also be prepared in an artificial manner.


The Ammonium Hydroxide Formula is mainly prepared with the help of a direct reaction between hydrogen and nitrogen, and in this reaction, the metal iron acts as a catalyst. The resulting ammonia that is formed then is made to pass through water, and then the Ammonium Hydroxide Formula is prepared.

Physical Properties

Ammonium hydroxide is a liquid which has no colour, the Ammonium Hydroxide Formula has a very distinct pungent odour. The Ammonium Hydroxide Formula has a density of 0.91 g/mL-1. The melting point is -57.5oC, and it has a boiling point of 37oC. It is highly miscible with water, and therefore the solubility it has with water is very high.

Chemical Properties

Ammonium hydroxide is a basic compound which dissociates partially in water which keeps the next equilibrium with the ammonium ion and the hydroxide ion intact and that is the reason why the compound is unstable. 

  • Sulphuric acid combines with ammonium hydroxide to generate ammonium sulfate and water.

2NH4OH + H2SO4 → (NH4)2SO4 + 2H2O

  • When ammonium hydroxide combines with hydrochloric acid, ammonium chloride is produced.

NH4OH + HCl → NH4Cl + H2O

  • Copper hydroxide and ammonium sulfate are formed when ammonium hydroxide interacts with copper sulfate.

CuSO4 + 2NH4OH → Cu(OH)2 + (NH4)2SO4

  • Ammonium hydroxide interacts with ferric chloride to produce a brown ferric hydroxide precipitate.

FeCl3 + 3NH4OH → Fe(OH)3 + 3NH4Cl

  • Ferrous sulfate combines with ammonium hydroxide to form ferrous hydroxide and ammonium sulfate.

FeSO4 + 2NH4OH → Fe(OH)2 + (NH4)2SO4

  • Carbonic acid combines with ammonium hydroxide to produce ammonium bicarbonate and water.

NH4OH + H2CO3 → NH4HCO3 + H2O

Basicity of Ammonia in Water

In a solution with water, the ammonia deprotonates a minimal fraction of the water to give the products of ammonium and hydroxide:

NH3 + H2O ⇌ NH4 + + OH−.

In a 1M ammonia solution, only 0.42% of the ammonia transforms into ammonium which is equivalent to a pH of 11.63 since [NH4+] = 0.0042 M, [OH–] = 0.0042 M, [NH3] = 0.9958 M, and pH = 14+log10[OH–] = 11.62. The base ionization constant is – 

Kb = [NH4+][OH−]/[NH3] = 1.8×10−5


There are various uses of the Ammonium Hydroxide Formula. One of the most common ones is how the Ammonium Hydroxide Formula can be used in making a household cleaner. The compound can also be used in a way where it might act as a precursor to the formation of any alkylamine. The compound is also used in a way where it acts as an acidity regulator, and it is primarily used in a reference to food. The compound is greatly used to control the acidity of certain foods.

Chemistry Related Formulas
Urea Formula Pyrophosphoric Acid Formula
Ammonia Formula Silicon Dioxide Formula
Bleaching Powder Formula Sodium Cyanide Formula
Molarity Formula Sodium Fluoride Formula
Oxalic Acid Formula Barium Phosphate Formula
Methane Formula Barium Oxide Formula
Sulphuric Acid Formula Calcium Bromide Formula
Aluminium Chloride Formula Dilution Formula
Chloroform Formula Folic Acid Formula
Empirical Formula Fumaric Acid Formula

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is ammonium hydroxide made of?

The solution of ammonia gas in water is known as ammonium hydroxide. Ammonia solution is another term for it. The chemical formula is: NH4OH.


2. What pH is ammonia solution?

One ammonia molecule consists of one negatively charged nitrogen ion and three positively charged hydrogen ions, giving it the chemical formula NH3. The pH of normal ammonia is around 11.


3. What will happen when ammonium hydroxide is added to the aqueous solution of lead nitrate?

The result is a white ppt. of lead hydroxide that is insoluble in NH4OH,

Pb(NO3)2 + 2NH4OH → 2NH4NO3 + Pb(OH)2