NCERT Books Class 12 Geography Fundamentals of Human Geography

CBSE Class 12 NCERT Books for Geography – Fundamentals of Human Geography 

The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) was formed by the government of India with the purpose of formulating policies and programmes designed to enhance the quality of education received in schools. Through its research and training initiatives, NCERT is dedicated to ensuring that students have access to high-quality educational support. The NCERT books offer the most comprehensive, concept-based education for all of the classes, beginning with the elementary classes themselves.

The foundational concepts of human geography focus on the relationship between the dispersion of human societies and their surrounding environments. Their language, culture, customs, food, politics and economy are all influenced by the physical aspects of the environment in which they live. This chapter is necessary for one to read in order to gain an understanding of the fundamental aspects of human interaction, and is hence extremely relevant to the modern world.

NCERT Books for Class 12

NCERT Solutions for Class 12

CBSE Class 12 NCERT Books for Geography – Fundamentals of Human Geography 

NCERT is an institution that has been around for many years and has been responsible for the publication of a variety of educational resources (such as textbooks, study guides, journals, and more) as well as the instruction for students on how to improve their knowledge. The textbooks are in accordance with the curriculum that was outlined by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). In order to meet the requirements of the modern day, NCERT has made it possible for students to access all of their textbooks online. It is possible to read any book, including a PDF version of Fundamentals of Human Geography Class 12, on the internet. Students have access to a dependable portal, Extramarks, where they may quickly get PDFs at no cost. 

Chapters of NCERT Fundamental of Human Geography Textbook

The CBSE syllabus for geography in Class 12 can be divided, in a general sense, into two parts, which are the following:

  • Fundamentals of Human Geography
  • Indian People and Economy

The NCERT book, The Human Geography, focuses on the topic of the social elements of humankind. They are as follows:

  • Population trends
  • Settlements
  • Human development
  • Transport and communication facilities
  • International trade
  • Different livelihood activities

In addition to that, this book features a chart that breaks down the demographics of each nation. In addition to that, a dictionary of essential concepts associated with human geography is provided.

Chapter-wise Analysis of the NCERT Class 12 Human Geography Book

Chapter 1: Human Geography (Nature and Scope)

In the first chapter of the NCERT textbook for Class 12 Human Geography, numerous definitions of Human Geography and the essence of the subject are presented. After that, there will be a subject-focused study on the topic of “Naturalisation of Humans and Humanisation of Nature.”

The remainder of the first chapter is devoted to a rundown of the numerous aspects of human geography as well as the shifts that have occurred from the time of the early colonial settlers to the present day. In this chapter, a variety of subfields and fields within the discipline of Human Geography have been discussed. These are the following:

  • Social Geography
  • Urban Geography
  • Political Geography
  • Population Geography
  • Settlement Geography
  • Economic Geography

Before moving on to the subsequent chapters of the Fundamentals of Human Geography Class 12 PDF book, the first chapter needs to be well studied and comprehended before moving on.

Chapter 2: The World Population (Distribution, Density, and Growth)

The patterns of population dispersion around the world are discussed in Chapter 2 of this book. Alongside this, it covers the myriad of geographical, economic, social and cultural elements that have an influence on it. Additionally, the volumes include information regarding population density.

The ups and downs of population growth are covered in this chapter. Topics covered include population growth rate, natural growth rate, as well as both positive and negative population growth.

After these notions, a debate on a variety of other issues will follow. Some of these are listed below::

  • Migration
  • Population change
  • Trends in population growth
  • Impact of population change
  • Demographic transition
  • Population control measures.

Chapter 3: Population Composition

The fundamentals of population composition are covered in detail in Chapter 3 of the Fundamentals of Human Geography textbook provided by the NCERT. In addition to this, it describes how the people who fall within its jurisdiction can be differentiated according to factors such as their occupation, age, gender, literacy level, place of residence, etc. This chapter will describe the methodology behind determining the male-to-female ratio of a certain country or region.

The nature of a population can also be determined, in a large sense, by looking at the age structure of the population. The age-sex pyramid of a population is a useful tool for figuring out the proportion of females to males across the various age categories. On the other hand, having an educated population is useful for doing research into the political and economic growth of a specific region. This chapter also explores the various methods that can be used to categorise a population based on occupation and lifestyle.

Chapter 4: Human Development

In the beginning of Chapter 4 of the Fundamentals of Human Geography Class 12 PDF book, there is a discussion regarding the distinction between growth and development. The term “human development” refers to a qualitative part of human life, whereas “human growth” refers to a quantitative aspect. In this chapter, we will examine each of the four pillars that support human development. These are:

  • Income
  • Welfare
  • Basic Needs
  • Capability

The topic of international comparisons of human development is covered in depth in the fourth chapter of the NCERT textbook for Human Geography Class 12. It provides a synopsis of how the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has been producing the Human Development Report, which ranks countries according to the extent to which they have advanced in human development.

Chapter 5: Primary Activities

The many economic endeavours that a population partakes in to ensure their well-being are the subject of discussion in chapters 5, 6, and 7. These pursuits can be divided up into the following three categories:

  • Primary
  • Secondary
  • Tertiary and Quaternary

Students are given information regarding primary occupations and red-collar workers in Chapter 5 of the Fundamentals of Human Geography Class 12 NCERT PDF textbook (people engaged in primary activities). The primary activities are as follows:

  • Agriculture and cultivation
  • Hunting and gathering
  • Pastoralism
  • Farming
  • Mining

This chapter provides definitions for a variety of terms associated with pastoralism, including nomadic herding and livestock rearing, amongst others. Several classifications of farming and agricultural practices have been discussed. They are:

  • Subsistence agriculture
  • Plantation agriculture
  • Mixed farming
  • Dairy farming
  • Co-operative farming
  • Collective farming

At the very conclusion of this chapter, you will find a short summary that discusses mining, the many ways of mining and the various elements that influence mining activity.

Chapter 6: Secondary Activities

In the sixth chapter of the NCERT textbook “Geography Fundamentals of Human Geography”, designed for students in class 12, the subject of secondary economic activities is covered. These are the kinds of activities that confer an additional benefit on the raw materials (made from natural resources). The production of goods is one of the most important tertiary activities. The characteristics of contemporary large-scale manufacturing techniques around the world are broken down and explained in Chapter 6 of this book. They consist of things like advances in technology, the mechanisation of factories and so on.

This chapter covers a variety of topics, including but not limited to labour supply, government regulations, energy sources, transportation and communication, and the classification of industries according to their level of manufacture. In the Fundamentals of Human Geography Class 12 PDF, the idea of high-tech industries was also broken down and discussed.

Chapter 7: Tertiary and Quaternary Activities

Activities that fall under the tertiary and quaternary categories make up an economy’s service sector. There is a chart located at the beginning of this chapter for your reference. It divides the various activities that are performed in the service industry into the tertiary and quaternary categories. The numerous aspects of trade and commerce are dissected in excruciating detail in chapter 7. The following are some other characteristics of trading that have been explained:

  • Retail trading
  • Wholesale trading
  • Services
  • Telecommunications

An examination of tourism and its importance in the service sector was presented near the end of this section of the Human Geography Class 12 NCERT PDF book.

Chapter 8: Transport and Communication

Transport, being an essential service that establishes ties between producing and consuming centres, has a major role in creating the human geography of a location because it allows for the movement of people and goods. The various means of conveyance are the subject of an in-depth examination in Chapter 8 of the geography textbook provided by the NCERT.

In addition, information pertaining to the following can be found in the 8th chapter of the Fundamentals of Human Geography Class 12 PDF:

  • Trans-continental Railways
  • Trans-Siberian Railway
  • Trans-Canadian Railways
  • The Union and Pacific Railway
  • The Australian Trans-Continental Railway

Important sea routes such as those of the Northern Atlantic, Cape of Good Hope, Mediterranean-India, Southern Atlantic, Northern Pacific, and South Pacific, as well as shipping canals such as the Suez Canal, Panama Canal and others have been covered in great detail throughout this chapter. Chapter 8 includes a discussion of not only the internet but also satellite communication.

Chapter 9: International Trade

In the ninth chapter of the PDF version of the NCERT book Fundamentals of Human Geography for Class 12, the topic of international trade and its current situation is covered. The chapter starts out by discussing the development of international trade. Moving on, it then addresses the fundamentals of international commerce in terms of the following factors:

  • Population
  • The difference in natural resources
  • Economic development
  • Foreign investment and
  • Transport

The amount of trade and the content of trade are two more important characteristics of international commerce that have been covered in this article. The following are some of the other significant issues covered in this chapter:

  • Different types of international trade
  • Balance of trade
  • A case for free trade
  • Direction of trade
  • Ports and their different types
  • Concerns related to international trade
  • Regional trade blocs

The World Trade Organisation, generally known as the WTO, is an essential issue that is covered in Chapter 9 of the Fundamentals of Human Geography Class 12 PDF.

Chapter 10: Human Settlements

The students are given information regarding rural as well as urban patterns of human settlement in the tenth chapter of the book. The following are the various kinds of settlements:

  • A nucleated or compact settlement
  • Dispersed Settlement
  • Planned Settlement

There are many different rural settlement patterns, and each one is covered in detail below. These patterns are based on functions, settings, shapes, and difficulties. In a similar vein, urban settlements and the classification of those settlements have also been developed. In addition, the classification of towns is covered in this chapter of the Fundamentals of Human Geography textbook for Class 12.

You can read the PDF version of this book, which covers the most recent curriculum offered by Extramarks, whenever you like and wherever you are. You can save it as a reference on your mobile device or laptop for later use, and you can use it to get answers to questions while you’re on the move.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What topics are covered in the NCERT Geography syllabus for class 12?

The Geography curriculum for Class 12 of the NCERT is divided into two parts. Fundamentals of Human Geography are covered in the first section, and India’s people and economy are covered in the second section. The first volume covers a variety of topics, including human geography, human development, colonisation and more, throughout a total of ten chapters. The second volume consists of twelve chapters that are all about the culture and economy of India.

The curriculum is structured in such a way that it gives students an all-encompassing perspective on the various human relations that are relevant to their particular contexts. Students will be able to comprehend and play an active role in the analysis and growth of their nation as a result of the curriculum’s design, which has been developed in such a way. They learn about the richness of their ancestry thanks to the curriculum, which also instils morals and values in them.

2. Where can I find the solutions to the NCERT class 12 geography chapter 6 exam?

NCERT has kept itself up to date on a regular basis. Students might also benefit from their assistance in online studying. The NCERT makes the book PDFs available to students. On the other hand, the students can count on Extramarks for the answers and solutions. Experts at Extramarks regularly broaden their knowledge by familiarising themselves with the most recent findings of relevant research in order to deliver the most useful instructional materials to their students.

Those who are considered experts in Extramarks have attained a high level of education and are recognised as leaders in their fields. On their website, they have offered the most effective answers to the problems that come with each and every chapter, as well as solutions to the activities themselves. Because of this, students are able to quickly and easily get PDFs of the solutions from the Extramarks website at no cost.

3. What are some good books for the geography subject in class 12?

The students always have the option of using NCERT books, which are always the best choice because they make the ideas easier to understand. After the students have a solid grasp of the fundamental principles, they can boost their self-assurance by consulting a variety of reference books and practice books. A few examples of such books include the chapter-wise solved papers in geography that are published by Arihant.

In addition to the CBSE Geography by Rachna Sagar, a helpful guide for Class 12 students is also provided by Rachna Sagar. Reading for reference is another possible use for the Geography textbook written by Dr. Khullar. Students’ confidence in their ability to tackle questions within a set amount of time is boosted when they work through sample papers and solve them.

4. In what ways can the NCERT solutions for Class 12 Geography help students prepare for exams?

The NCERT answers for Class 12 Geography cover every single aspect of the CBSE-mandated curriculum and offer an in-depth analysis of each individual chapter. The NCERT solutions provide students with all the explanations that are topic-oriented as well as the answers to the relevant problems. Students can get closer to achieving high results on standardised tests through in-depth study and repeated practice of these solutions.