NCERT Class 12 Biology Book PDF

CBSE Class 12 NCERT Books for Biology 

The National Council of Educational Research (NCERT) was set up in 1961 in order to steer the development of a centralised educational system in India and to publish textbooks that are in line with the educational requirements of the country’s schools. Students who are studying in schools that are affiliated with the CBSE and who are about to take their class 12th board examination in Biology should consult the NCERT books that are written for Class 12 Biology to improve their level of preparation.

Students receive a comprehensive understanding of each chapter as well as an overview of the most important ideas and concepts from the NCERT Biology Class 12 PDF guide. When you are working on sample question papers for class 12, you can also consult the NCERT solutions for class 12 Biology if you want to get a better idea of the types of questions that might be asked.

NCERT Biology Class 12 PDF

Class 12th 
Board CBSE
Subject Biology
Medium  English / Hindi
Study Materials Free resources are available.
PDF Solutions  Available in PDF.
Book Link NCERT Biology Book Class 12 PDF Download

NCERT Books for CBSE Class 12 Biology in PDF

CBSE Class 12 Biology: Benefits of Choosing Biology.

When it comes to medical school, biology is without a doubt the most important subject that students study in their classes 11 and 12. Biology is a subfield of science that sheds light on both the human condition and the natural world around us. As a consequence of this, it is a broad field of study that has applications in a variety of fields, such as medicine, genetics, biotechnology and other applications in the industrial sector. It enables you to acquire a more profound understanding of a wide variety of living things, including but not limited to humans, animals and plants. Additionally, it demonstrates the ways in which they are connected to one another. Students learn in biology not only how living things interact with their environments but also how these interactions can be to the living beings’ benefit. It finds solutions to issues relating to the environment without making any concessions in the process. As in this example, biology can also be used to help solve problems involving natural resources like plants and animals.

CBSE Class 12 Biology: Exam pattern, Unit Wise Weightage:

The examination will consist of 33 questions, each of which must be answered in order to proceed further, and the questions will be broken up into several different sections. The question paper will be divided into four sections: Section A, Section B, Section C and Section D.

The questions in Section A will each be worth one mark, and there will be a total of 14 of them. In Section B, there will be nine questions, and each one will be worth two marks. In Section C, there will be five questions, and each one will be worth three marks. In Section—D, you are going to be asked three questions, and each one is worth five marks.

There will not be an overall option; however, there will be internal options available for a number of the questions.

The following skills will be tested on the exam: The ability to demonstrate both, knowledge and understanding is worth fifty percent of the total points. Your ability to put your knowledge and ideas into practice is worth thirty percent of the total marks you receive. Analyse, evaluate and create, each receives a total of twenty percent of the possible marks.

VSA including MCQs, Assertion – Reasoning type questions; SA; LA- I; LA-II; Source-based/ Case-based/ Passage-based/ Integrated assessment questions; SA; LA- I; LA-II; Source-based/ Case-based/ Passage-based/ Integrated assessment questions. Types of inquiries: SA; LA- I; LA-II; Source-based/ Case-based/ Passage-based/ Integrated assessment questions.

Unit No. Unit S.No Chapter Marks
I Reproduction 1 Reproduction in Organisms 12
2 Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
3 Human Reproduction
4 Reproductive Health
II Genetics and Evolution 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation 18
6 Molecular Basis of Inheritance
7 Evolution
III Biology and Human Welfare 8 Human Health and Disease 14
9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
10 Microbes in Human Welfare
IV Biotechnology 11 Biotechnology – Principles and Processes 12
12 Biotechnology and its Applications
V Ecology and Environment 13 Organisms and Populations 12
14 Ecosystems
15 Biodiversity and Conservation
16 Environmental Issues
Total 70

All of the details regarding the CBSE Class 12 Biology weightage are provided in the table above.

NCERT Biology Class 12 

Students will have the opportunity to learn about a variety of life processes as well as how each organism survives and adapts to its environment in the new NCERT Biology class 12 curriculum.

Reproduction in flowering plants, genetics and the molecular underpinnings of inheritance in living organisms are some of the major biological concepts covered in the NCERT Biology Class 12 PDF.

Students will benefit from the preparation tips of the course material. This Class 12 NCERT Biology PDF will be very helpful for students who want to pursue careers in medicine or pharmacology.

Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms

The NCERT Biology Class 12 PDF begins with a discussion of the first chapter, Reproduction in Living Organisms.  The term “reproduction” refers to the straightforward biological process through which living things procreate and give birth to new organisms. This process involves both the internal and external reproductive organs of the organism.

The very act of reproduction is a very important factor in ensuring the survival of any species, and it plays a role that cannot be overstated. Reproduction is regarded by researchers as one of the most important life systems in the human body because of the crucial part it plays in ensuring the continued existence of a wide variety of organisms in the animal kingdom.

Multiple types of reproduction; how unicellular and multicellular organisms reproduce, what is meant by the term “binary fission,” and other topics will be covered in Class 12 NCERT Biology course.

Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

In the NCERT Biology class 12 PDF, the chapter on sexual reproduction in flowering plants is considered one of the most important chapters. Flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, carry out sexual reproduction by utilising the male and female gametes that are produced within the flower. Because the reproduction of a flower depends on the participation of all of its parts, it is necessary for students to read and become familiar with the material contained in the NCERT biology textbook for Class 12 in order for them to comprehend the process of reproduction in flowering plants.

There are several components that make up a flower, which is the reproductive organ of the plant. These include the sepals, the calyx, the pedicel, the stamen (which is the male reproductive organ) and the petals. The filament and the anther are both parts of the stamen. The pistil, which is the part of the plant that is responsible for female reproduction is made up of the stigma, the style and the ovary.

Chapter 3: Human Reproduction

The process by which humans procreate and give birth to their offspring sexually involves a number of stages, the most important of which are pre-fertilisation, internal fertilisation, and post-fertilisation. The human reproductive system is made up of both the male and female reproductive systems, indicating that human reproduction is a highly complex and differentiated process.

When you are reading the NCERT Biology book for class 12 in a PDF format, you will discover that all stages of reproduction are discussed in this section. These stages include embryogenesis, the formation of gametes, and the mitotic division of the zygote after fertilisation.

This NCERT Biology Class 12 PDF goes into great detail about all of the processes that take place before reproduction, including the beginning of puberty, and the differentiation of sexual characteristics and secondary sexual characteristics.

Chapter 4: Reproductive Health

In reference to any and all reproductive processes, the term “reproductive health” refers to the condition of complete mental, social and physical well-being as well as the absence of disease. It is also an important chapter that is included in the NCERT Biology class 12 PDF syllabus, and it needs to be studied in depth in order to recognise and construct a society that is healthy.

As a part of a larger social goal to achieve complete reproductive health and also to control population growth, India was one of the first countries in the world to start and govern family planning policies. This was done as part of an effort to prevent population growth. If you want to do well on your board exams the following year, you should read the NCERT Biology book for class 12, which is available as a PDF download. This book is indispensable if you want to do well on your exams.

Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

The method by which genetic information is passed down from one generation to the next is discussed in depth in this chapter of the NCERT Biology book for class 12 which can be downloaded in a PDF format. It explains why members of the same family often have strikingly similar appearances; how we acquire our genes from our parents; and how genetic material is passed down through generations of a species through sexual reproduction.

Mendel, Gregor Johann, was the first person to explain how characteristics are passed down from one generation to the next. He accomplished this by carrying out a number of experiments on the pea plants and by meticulously observing how characteristics manifested themselves in filial plant generation. He was successful in doing so. In the NCERT Biology class 12 PDF, you’ll also find information on how characteristics can be passed down to offspring in a variety of distinct patterns and ratios, which ultimately manifest as the offspring’s phenotypes and genotypes.

Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

As was just mentioned, genes are the fundamental building blocks of the genetic inheritance process in living organisms. We frequently hear people say that we resemble our younger siblings or that we look a lot like our parents. But how does something like this come about? If you download the NCERT book for Biology class 12 and read it in a PDF format, you will learn how genes are situated in chromosomes and how chromosomes themselves are made up of DNA and proteins.

The molecule known as DNA is the building block upon which genetics, inheritance and variation in living organisms are based. It is composed of nucleotides, which are the fundamental units of DNA and can be thought of as its building blocks. The structure of this molecule is a double helix.

Chapter 7: Evolution

When you observe an elephant drinking water or a tiger dashing to catch its prey, you are essentially witnessing a highly-evolved mammoth or sabre-toothed tiger carrying out those actions. The seventh chapter of the new edition of the NCERT textbook for Biology Class 12 discusses how, as an immediate result of natural selection, certain species undergo dramatic changes in their characteristics over the course of several years in order to better adapt to their environment or survive.

The observed differences in phenotypes and the genetic variations that underlie them are essential to the process of evolution. Natural selection, as described by Charles Darwin, is the mechanism that drives evolution. This means that those individuals with superior strategies have a greater chance of surviving in comparison to their peers, which is why evolution is a required chapter for students in class 12.

Chapter 8: Human Health and Disease

The concept of health has undergone some shifts and adjustments over the course of history. As per the World Health Organisation’s definition of health, being healthy is not simply defined as the absence of a serious illness or a disease with a limited lifespan. It is the state of an individual having complete mental, social, and physical integrity, to the extent that the individual is able to carry out all of the day-to-day activities of life without experiencing any kind of difficulty.

The biology textbook for class 12 taught by NCERT places a strong emphasis on the numerous factors that govern great health in individual people, such as following a strict exercise routine, eating a balanced diet, and maintaining proper sanitation.

The level of immunity possessed by a healthy individual determines how that individual responds when exposed to a disease-causing agent. Immunity can be defined as the body’s capacity to defend itself against a variety of pathogens that can cause disease. You will quickly discover that diseases can be divided into two broad categories: those that are infectious and those that are not infectious.

Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Food production is an essential cornerstone of both, the manner in which we consume food and the type of food that we consume, as is illustrated in the NCERT Biology class 12 PDF download. Food contains all of these components, which are essential to the body in order for it to carry out its functions correctly. Food is the source of all of the primary nutrients that are necessary for the proper functioning of our bodies, and it is imperative that it contains sufficient quantities of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, fats and minerals.

To fulfil the requirements of our bodies requires a series of steps that begin with growing, cultivating, harvesting, packaging, and transporting. the food before it is finally consumed by us. The PDF for Biology Class 12 from NCERT covers not only the fundamentals of food production but also contemporary techniques that are being used to improve the overall quality of the food that is produced, such as breeding animals and plants.

Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare

There are innumerable microorganisms floating around in the air and surrounding atmosphere, some of which are beneficial, and some are harmful. All types of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, viruses, prions and viroids are collectively referred to as microorganisms. These can be either unicellular or multicellular; for example, bacteria, protozoa, and some types of algae are unicellular, whereas algae and fungi in general are examples of multicellular organisms.

The NCERT PDF for the 12th-grade Biology course illustrates that many of these can be used for the betterment of human beings. For instance, there are E. coli bacteria that live in the small intestine, and there are the Lactobacillus bacteria that are used in the process of curdling milk, which is necessary for the production of cheese and yoghurt. These microbes are undetectable without the use of a microscope because they are too small to be seen with the naked eye.

Chapter 11: Biotechnology – Principles and Processes

The field of study known as biotechnology is the study of how to combine the benefits of biology with those of other developing technologies. According to the NCERT 12th Biology book PDF, biotechnology incorporates all of the biomolecular and cellular processes into a synergistic whole that, when applied appropriately, has the potential to significantly enhance the quality of life on Earth.

Even though biotechnology is a relatively new field, many of its fundamental concepts have already been implemented in the production of food items such as bread, butter and cheese. These innovations have been made possible by biotechnology. Utilising genetic tools and processes, biotechnology has significantly contributed to the resolution of a significant number of the most pressing problems facing the world today.

Chapter 12: Biotechnology and its Applications

The field of biotechnology is one that is constantly undergoing development, and its focus is on innovative research and development in essential subfields such as molecular biology, chemistry and biochemistry amongst others. Problems like, “How do diseases spread?”  Or “Why are some people more likely to get cancer than others, and what can be done to prevent it?” can be solved with the help of biotechnology.

The NCERT Biology Class 12 PDF will soon teach you that the primary focus of biotechnologists is on the ways in which genetics can be used to treat deadly diseases, and how to plant variants can be enhanced by using vectors and other similar topics. To solve some of the world’s most perplexing problems, researchers in the field of biotechnology have turned to techniques drawn from biochemistry, biology and genetics.

Chapter 13: Organisms and Populations

If you examine how a chameleon can blend in with its surroundings by studying its camouflage, or if you investigate how climate change has a significant impact on our world, then you are, in essence, performing the tasks of an ecologist. Then, what exactly is ecology?

Ecology is defined as the study of the various relationships between various living organisms such as animals and their surroundings as well as the study of how humans leave an impact on the environment and the study of the many essential interrelations between abiotic and biotic components of the environment. This definition comes from the NCERT books that are used in Class 12 Biology.

In this chapter, you will gain an understanding of the intricate relationships that exist between animals and plants, as well as the growth of populations and the microscopic bacteria that are present all around us. It is essential for us to have an understanding of ecology in order to have a proper understanding of nature and to be able to successfully handle our resources.

Chapter 14: Ecosystems

There are still many plant and animal species on the planet that have been given the status of being keystone species in their respective ecosystems. These could be extremely fragile, and in some cases, they are even on the verge of becoming extinct.

Ecosystems are areas of land or water in which many different kinds of plants, animals and microorganisms live in harmony with one another. The biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem include things like living things, inanimate objects, plants, rocks, water, air and sunlight.

The NCERT PDF download for class 12 biology covers all of these factors, in addition to describing how various physical factors, such as temperature, affect our ecosystems.

Chapter 15: Biodiversity and Conservation

The concluding section of the NCERT Biology class 12 PDF, Biodiversity is a term which refers to all of the different species of living organisms that coexist on Earth. This includes all of the plants, animals, human beings and bacteria that are found on the planet. As determined by scientists, our planet is home to more than 8.7 million distinct species of living organisms.

Only 1.2 million of these species have been investigated, named, and catalogued; the rest are still shrouded in mystery. There are an estimated 10 million species that have yet to be discovered.

The sanctity of life on Earth has been put in jeopardy as a result of human activities such as pollution, deforestation and industrialisation. In this chapter, you will gain an understanding of how conservation can assist in the prevention of such problems.

Chapter 16: Environmental Issues

In Class 12 of the NCERT Biology curriculum, students pay attention to how various issues not only pose a significant risk to the health of our environment but also endanger the existence of keystone species. The study of environmental concerns has become increasingly important for our continued existence as a result of the ever-increasing population, which leaves more and more land vulnerable to human exploitation.

This provides a synopsis of all of the chapters that were discussed in the NCERT book for class 12 biology. A speedy read-through this will assist you in identifying the most important aspects of it and where your attention should be directed.

Result to Consult the NCERT Biology Class 12 

Before you begin your studies using the NCERT Class 12 Biology PDF, it is important that you first gain an understanding of the significance of using the NCERT. Learning from the books provided by the NCERT provides students with a number of benefits, including the following:

  • Clear and precise handling of facts is something that many books lack, but the NCERT books, unsurprisingly, excel at this. Eminent science writers conduct extensive research before writing any of the NCERT science textbooks. Because of this, the books are very trustworthy, and students can be confident that studying from them will result in excellent grades.
  • All fundamental ideas are explained: The NCERT biology books are the best option for students because they explain all the fundamental notions included in the biology curriculum. In fact, if you look through the papers from previous years, you’ll see that almost all of the questions come from the NCERT books.
  • More opportunities for problem-solving: At the conclusion of every NCERT book, regardless of the subject, there is a section with a few key questions. These questions are frequently asked in the board exams the following year. Additionally, they have a degree of difficulty that necessitates practice. They assist students in reviewing all the concepts beforehand and maintaining their readiness to handle any queries, no matter how challenging.
  • Communication skills are improved because the NCERT books are typically written in clear, simple language that helps students communicate and better understand important ideas.
  • Interactive Charts and Figures: The CBSE-recommended NCERT books include a variety of vibrant illustrations, eye-catching tables and charts that make learning simple and easy. The straightforward design of the NCERT books makes learning engaging and enjoyable.

These are just a few of the many advantages of studying from NCERT books. They not only aid in your preparation but also give you the self-assurance you need to ace your exams.

Tips to excel CBSE Class 12 Biology:

  • Note-taking while teaching a concept-heavy subject like biology would be very helpful. It helps students with last-minute preparation strategies and the process of remembering terms when writing. Making diagrams and structuring the preparatory framework around them can help maintain students’ interest in this subject, which is heavy on theory.
  • By creating the proper diagrams, such as those for DNA structure and cell biology, a complex theoretical answer to an issue can be reduced to a straightforward explanatory response.
  • It is necessary to fully comprehend chapters like Genetics and Biotechnology in order to make them simple. They are interrelated. As a result, they ought to start preparing simultaneously. The 14-mark chapters (reproduction, environment and human wellbeing) should be written first because they are the most comprehensive and contain the most intricate subtopics.
  • Participate in the discussion because the professors may be able to clarify some of the topics. It’s also a smart option to compare notes and ask questions with your friends, as concepts that are shared generate more ideas.
  • You should go over the NCERT material at least three times before taking an exam. Make the names easier to remember by breaking them up.
  • One can easily get 30 marks on the practical exam by paying attention in lab classes. The final test will be administered in this way, so it is essential to have practical experience even though you will be partnered with a lab partner.

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You no longer have to worry about searching all over for study materials because Extramarks offers all study materials and reference materials, including the NCERT Biology Class 12 PDF, for free for your use.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are some of the benefits of studying the NCERT Books PDF for Class 12 Biology?

The handling of facts in the NCERT books is precise and clear. Eminent science writers conduct extensive research before writing any of the NCERT science textbooks. Students can be confident that studying from these textbooks will earn them high marks because they are completely reliable. In addition to ensuring that you comprehend the topic at hand, NCERT also emphasises the contributions of eminent researchers in that field. For its integrated curriculum, fundamental clarity, succinct summary, key points, inquisitive questions about the subject and numerical problems, NCERT glows like a light in the world of books.

2. Which chapters are crucial for the CBSE Biology exam?

Reproduction in organisms, human reproduction, reproductive health, sexual reproduction in flowering plants, the molecular basis of inheritance, evolution, human health and disease, etc. are some of the key chapters in the NCERT textbook for class 12 biology. For students who rearrange their priorities at the last minute before the exam, Applied Biology, Human Physiology, Modern Genetics and Environmental Science are the simplest but most important chapters. A lot of reading is required for the densely packed course of biology. Making flowcharts is a smart idea to aid in remembering the steps. Summarise each major topic in your own words, point by point.

3. What is the total number of units that are included in the NCERT Biology Class 12 PDF Book?

The NCERT biology textbook for class 12 consists of a total of sixteen chapters. These are all conveniently divided into five main units so that students can quickly identify the most crucial sections and allocate their time accordingly. There are five units, as was previously stated. Unit 1 deals with reproduction, Unit 2 with genetics and evolution, Unit 3 with biology and human welfare, Unit 4 with biotechnology and its uses, and Unit 5 deals with ecology and the environment.