NCERT Books Class 12 Geography India People and Economy

CBSE Class 12 NCERT Books for Geography – India People and Economy 

Students in Class 12 should devote some of their time to learning about the economy and people of India because it is an important topic from a current affairs standpoint. Because they are the generation that will bring about reform and more development in the country’s current economic and social conditions in the future, students in Class 12 should be aware of the current state of the country’s economy and the condition of the people in it. Students will be encouraged to go beyond preparing for exams using the CBSE syllabus and the NCERT books developed for that syllabus. They will study the issue itself in order to become responsible citizens.

Learning about the temperature, vegetation, weather, land formations and water cycle of the country can be accomplished through the study of Geography through the India People and Economy NCERT curriculum. The interplay of all of these factors ultimately leads to the formation of climatic patterns, as well as the availability of food and our way of life.

NCERT Books for Class 12

NCERT Solutions for Class 12

NCERT Books for CBSE Class 12 Geography – India People and Economy

Teachers often refer to the NCERT book for Class 12 Geography, which covers a variety of themes related to India’s population and economy. This is because the book explains these topics in a way that is not only straightforward but also very specific. The NCERT syllabus is very helpful because it covers the entire curriculum in a logical and organised manner. For instance, if you refer to the NCERT book Class 12 Geography India People and Economy PDF, the subject matter is able to produce a considerable amount of interest on its own. It is important to achieve high marks in the Geography subject that is part of the CBSE examination because it will ultimately reflect on the overall percentage. The NCERT book “Class 12 Geography India’s People and Economy” should be your first stop in the preparation process. Downloading the PDF version of the NCERT book “Class 12 Geography India People and Economy” is an option if you do not have a physical copy available.

Chapter 1 – Population: Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition

It has been established that the population is composed of all of the people who reside in a particular location during a particular time period. In spite of the fact that our country has a very uneven population distribution, India is a country with a very high population density. Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Rajasthan and Gujarat are the states with the highest population concentrations. This accounts for around 76 percent of the overall population. This chapter of the NCERT book for Class 12 Geography, India People and Economy touches on a variety of additional topics that are relevant to the topic at hand. There is a discussion on the demographic makeup of the population, as well as the pace of population growth in the country and the topic of population explosion. 

Chapter 2 – Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences

A person is considered to be a migrant if, during the time period covered by a specific census, they have maintained a residence in a location other than their place of birth for an extended period of time. According to the results of the census in 2011, the total number of migrants living in India was 314,541,350. Our nation’s internal migration may be broken down into four primary categories: rural-urban migration, rural-rural migration, urban-rural migration, and urban-urban migration. It has been discovered that men are the most common migrants from rural areas to urban areas within states. The Indian People and the Economy, Chapter 2 NCERT provides more insight into the spatial differences in migration as well as the factors that contribute to migration. The reasons that people move can be further broken down into two categories: push factors and pull factors. Individuals are compelled to voluntarily relocate due to an ongoing threat when they are confronted by push forces such as starvation, drought, conflict and so on. The majority of pull reasons entail improved chances, such as higher earnings, educational prospects, housing options, etc.

Chapter 3 – Human Development

In the NCERT textbook for Class 12 Geography, Chapter 3 covers India. People and the Economy discuss the foundations of human growth as well as the various approaches to it. Equity, sustainability, productivity and empowerment are the four cornerstones of human development. Human development is built on these four pillars. Equity refers to a situation in which everyone has equal access to opportunity. Productivity refers to how efficiently people use their time, whereas sustainability refers to the availability of all opportunities over an extended period of time. In conclusion, empowerment refers to the capacity to make decisions independently. In addition, there are four distinct approaches to human development: (1) the income approach, (2) the welfare approach, (3) the minimum needs approach, and (4) the capabilities approach. Each of these approaches focuses on a different aspect of human development. The Human Growth Index is a tool that is used in the process of measuring human development (HDI).

Chapter 4 – Human Settlements

In the field of geography, the study of human settlements primarily focuses on the contrast between rural and urban settings. Individuals in urban areas tend to work in professions related to the secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy, whereas people in rural areas tend to work mostly in primary occupations. This is the key point of divergence between the urban and rural populations. Rural settlements are immediately and tightly tied to the land, as explained in India People and Economy NCERT. There are a number of factors that govern such settlements, including water availability, land, upland and so on. A variety of criteria, including population size, occupational composition, geographic location, and administrative makeup can be used to classify urban communities.

Chapter 5 – Land Resources and Agriculture

The many types of land use are broken down into groups in Chapter 5 of the NCERT textbook Geography India People and Economy. It consists of land that is not used for agricultural purposes, such as woods, permanent pasture areas, waste and barren land, culturable wasteland, fallow land and regions with a variety of tree crops, among other types of land. After some time, as a result of shifts in both the makeup of the economy and its overall size, the number of categories eventually grow.

Chapter 6 – Water Resources

Surface water resources, groundwater resources, lagoons and backwaters are the four different types of water resources that can be found in India. Lakes, rivers, ponds and tanks make up the majority of the world’s surface water sources. The entire amount of groundwater that is capable of being replenished is roughly 430 cu km. In India’s northwestern and southern regions, groundwater is used at a higher rate than in the rest of the country. This chapter of India: People and Economy NCERT also mention that there is a higher demand for irrigation as a result of the sporadic and cyclical nature of the rain that falls across the country. A rise in temperature causes an increase in evaporation, and the widespread expansion of water-hungry crops also contributes to an increase in the demand for irrigation.

Chapter 7 – Mineral and Energy Resources

In the NCERT book for Class 12’s Geography of India, Chapter 7, the various kinds of natural resources that can be found in India are discussed in detail in the section titled “People and Economy.” Minerals can be found in a wide variety of locations in India. The Peninsular Plateau is where you’ll find the majority of the earth’s metal minerals, whereas the Arabian Sea offshore and the sedimentary basins of Assam are where you’ll find a vast majority of the world’s petroleum reserves. The Chota Nagpur Plateau region, together with the plateau regions of Chhattisgarh, West Bengal and Odisha is home to some of the world’s most valuable minerals, including coal, iron ore, mica, manganese and bauxite, among others.

Chapter 8 – Manufacturing Industries

This chapter of the NCERT book categorises industries according to the following criteria: (1) capital, job market, size; (2) ownership; (3) product; (4) raw materials; and (5) nature of the product. In the first case, we’re talking about major, medium, small, and even “cottage” industries. It is possible to have (a) private ownership, (b) public ownership, (c) cooperative ownership, or (d) joint ownership. The classification of a product might be done according to the following industries: capital, (ii) basic, (iii) intermediate, and (iv) consumer. In addition, raw materials might come from a variety of sources, including the forest, agriculture, minerals or industrial processing. Last but not least, the final output could be something mechanical, metallurgical, textile, chemical, food processing, electrical, electricity generating, communication, or any combination of these and other things.

Chapter 9 – Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context

There are two primary methods of planning that are broken down and discussed in Chapter 9 of the NCERT book for Class 12 Geography India People and Economy. These are the sectoral planning approach and the regional planning technique. In the sectoral planning approach, several economic subsectors, such as agriculture, manufacturing and irrigation, amongst others, are taken into consideration in order to design specific planning schemes. On the other hand, approaches to regional planning involve actions that aim to reduce regional inequalities and foster economic development.

Chapter 10 – Transport and Communication

The Indian People and Their Economy, Chapter 10 According to the findings of NCERT, the primary modes of travel both within and across regions are lands, air, and water respectively. The formation of a transport network involves multiple nodes being linked together with the assistance of a number of routes. A majority of transportation of commodities takes place on the ground, specifically over land-based trains and roadways. When it comes to transporting freight, roadways offer the greatest cost savings. There are conventional roads, freeways and roads that border other countries in addition to border roads. When it comes to intra-regional travel, railroads are by far the most advantageous mode, especially in urbanised regions and industrialised areas. The navigability of the inland rivers is important to a significant degree.

Chapter 11 – International Trade

The primary determinants of international trade are many, the most important of which are given below: (1) the disparity in national resources; (2) the climate; (3) the geological structure; (4) the population; (5) the level of economic development; (6) the amount of foreign investment; and (6) the mode of transport. Trade volume, the composition of trade and the direction of trade are described in detail in the NCERT book titled Class 12 Geography India People and Economy. These three characteristics of commerce are considered to be the most important aspects of the trade. To put it another way, trade volume refers to the entire volume of services and goods that are exchanged. In recent years, a shift toward a greater emphasis on the provision of services has caused a transformation in the makeup of trade.

Chapter 12 – Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems

India People and Economy, Chapter 12 NCERT, lists a few issues, looking at them from a geographical standpoint. The contamination of the natural environment has been getting worse with each passing day. It can also be broken down into the following categories: (1) noise pollution, (2) air pollution, (3) land pollution and (4) water pollution. In spite of the fact that these matters have been the subject of discussion for some time now, the disposal of urban waste continues to cause havoc in modern times. Poor management of solid waste has a negative impact on people’s lives and their ability to make a living. Migration from rural areas to urban areas has had a significant impact on distorting population demography.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is the total number of chapters included in the syllabus for the NCERT Book for Class 12 Geography, India People and Economy?

The curriculum for India People and Economy NCERT is broken up into five different units, and each of those units contains a certain number of chapters. The book is broken up into a total of twelve different chapters. The course material for India People and Economy NCERT is broken up into five different units, and each of those units contains a certain number of chapters. There are a total of twelve chapters in this book: (1) Population, (2) Migration, (3) Human Development, (4) Human Settlements, (5) Land Resources and Agriculture, (6) Water Resources, (7) Mineral and Energy Resources, (8) Manufacturing Industries, (9) Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context, (10) Transport and Communication, (11) International Trade and (12) Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems. The syllabus is structured in such a way that the students obtain a distinct understanding of the vastness and variety that our nation possesses. They might fall in love with the nation once they have a better understanding of it. After conducting research, the board has developed the curriculum in such a way that the students will be able to gain an in-depth understanding of their nation and be able to take action in accordance with this knowledge to improve the areas of their nation that are lacking and develop those in which it excels.

2. What is meant by the term "target area planning" in India?

Target Area Planning is the process of formulating particular plans with the intention of fostering economic growth in a variety of underdeveloped areas around the nation. The reduction of regional imbalances and the acceleration of economic growth are the overarching goals of this type of planning. The Drought Prone Area Development Programme, the Hill Area Development Programme, the Desert Development Programme and the Command Area Development Programme, to name a few examples, are just a few of the programmes that fall into this category. India is an extremely large country. The level of development in each region varies greatly. As long as there are still underdeveloped regions around the country, India will continue to be classified as a developing nation. Therefore, in order to make up for this deficiency and hasten the process of making India a developed country by focusing on particular areas for planning and development, additional focus and attention are required.

3. What do you mean by "rainwater harvesting" according to the NCERT Geography India and People for Class 12?

The method or procedure that is used for the purpose of conserving rainwater by collecting, storing, transporting, and purifying rainwater that flows off of open grounds, rooftops and other surfaces is referred to as rainwater harvesting. Rainwater harvesting is also known as greywater harvesting. It is used for applications at a later time. The components of the catchment, conveyance system, flush, filter and tanks are all included in this type of harvesting. However, rooftop rainwater harvesting is by far the most common and significant method. This method can either involve storing the collected rainwater in storage tanks directly linked with pipes that are equipped with the appropriate mesh filters, or it can involve either recharging the groundwater aquifers or allowing the rainwater to percolate in the ground. Rainwater is collected and used to refill wells, pits, trenches, and percolation tanks as part of the process of recharging groundwater.

4. What different kinds of farming are there in India?

India is a nation that relies heavily on agriculture. The majority of Indians who live in rural areas make their living through farming. In India, agriculture can be broken down into two primary categories: subsistence farming and commercial farming. Subsistence agriculture entails cultivating crops for the purpose of one’s own consumption, with the goal of mitigating the effects of inflation on food prices and providing a level of food security for one’s household. Growing crops for the purpose of a business with the idea of selling the crops or livestock in order to make a healthy profit from them is what is meant by the term “commercial farming.” Farming is done on a commercial scale typically makes use of the most up-to-date techniques in order to maximise output in the shortest amount of time possible, and hence maximise profits. The massive scale of production contributes to a drop in the overall cost of agricultural goods and ensures that everyone will have access to food.

5. Why is Extramarks becoming so well known among students?

One of India’s best online education platforms, Extramarks Online Classes, has established a reputation for effectiveness. Extramarks apps have become very popular recently due to their honest efforts to make studying fun and exciting while requiring less time and energy from the students.

Their in-person interactions are very helpful for students to get their questions answered and gain a thorough understanding of the material. It is the ideal platform for supporting school children because it has study materials, e-books, notes, one-on-one classes and various other resources and features.