Civics is an academic subject that involves the study of the duties and rights of diverse members of society. It is one of the most well-known disciplines of the Social Sciences. The political, theoretical, and practical elements of citizenship are studied under the umbrella of Civics. According to the research, citizens should be concerned about obligations, civil law, civil rules, and rights.
NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 2- Federalism teaches about the philosophy and practice of Federalism in India in this chapter. The local government, a new and third layer of Indian Federalism, will be discussed at the end of the chapter.
Studying the NCERT solution of any chapter is the most convenient way to grasp the concepts of that chapter. Hence, Extramarks presents Class 10 Federalism NCERT Solutions. Written unambiguously and concisely, these Federalism NCERT Class 10 Solutions help students a lot as they get all the solutions at one place and do not have to waste time searching for them from different sources
Apart from these crisp NCERT Solutions, students can access several other study materials on the website of Extramarks. Material such as NCERT books, CBSE revision notes, CBSE sample papers, CBSE previous year question papers, and more can be easily found on the Extramarks’ website for all classes.
Key Topics Covered in Federalism Class 10 NCERT Solutions
Mentioned below are the key topics that are covered in The Federalism Class 10 NCERT Solutions:
|What is Federalism?|
|Difference between the Unitary system and the Federal system|
|Key features of Federalism|
|Different routes through which Federalism can be formed|
|What makes India a Federal Country?|
|How is Federalism practised?|
|Decentralisation in India|
Let us look at Extramarks in-depth information on each subtopic in Federalism Class 10 NCERT Solutions.
What is Federalism?
Extramarks Federalism Class 10 NCERT Solutions explains Federalism as a form of governance in which power is shared among a central authority and the country's component entities.
There are two tiers of governance in a federation. Both levels of government exercise authority independently of one another.
- The national government is generally in charge of a few topics of shared national concern.
- Province or state governments oversee most of the day-to-day administration of their state.
Difference between the Unitary system and the Federal system
Extramarks Federalism Class 10 NCERT Solutions differentiates between the Unitary and the Federal system as follows:
- The sub-units are subordinate to the Central Government if there is just one level of government.
- The central government can issue instructions to provincial and municipal governments.
- The central government is paramount, and administrative divisions can only execute powers that the central government has granted them. The central government can increase and reduce its authority.
- There are two or more levels of governance (or tiers).
- The federal government cannot compel state governments to act.
- The state government has its authority and is not accountable to the federal government.
Key features of Federalism
Some of the significant characteristics of the federalist system as explained by Extramarks Federalism Class 10 NCERT Solutions as follows:
- First, there are two or more levels of governance (or tiers).
- Although several levels of government supervise the same people, each has its JURISDICTION in terms of legislation, taxation, and administration.
- The Constitution guarantees each degree of government's existence and authority.
- One level of government cannot simply amend the Constitution's essential provisions. Instead, both the federal and state governments must agree to such modifications.
- Courts have the authority to interpret the Constitution and the authorities of various government levels.
- To maintain financial autonomy, each level of government has clearly defined income sources.
- The federal system has two goals: preserving and promoting national unity and accommodating regional diversity.
Different routes through which Federalism can be formed
Mutual trust between multiple levels of government and agreement to live together is essential for Federalism's institutions and practice. Federations have been found through two different paths:
- The first procedure includes independent states joining together to form a larger body. The United States, Switzerland, and Australia are examples of "coming together" federations.
- The second scenario is for a large country to split its authority between its component states and the central government. In India, Spain, and Belgium, this type of federation keeps the country together.
What makes India a Federal Country?
The provisions of the Indian Constitution are subject to all the aspects of the federal system. The Indian Constitution divides legislative powers between the Union Government and the State Governments in three ways. The following are the three lists as per Extramarks Federalism Class 10 NCERT Solutions:
- Union List: It covers critical national issues such as national defence, international affairs, finance, communications, and currency. The Union Government has sole authority for the matters listed in this list.
- State List: It covers topics like police, trade, business, agriculture, and irrigation, which are all critical to the state and municipal governments. State governments can only regulate the subjects described in this list.
- Concurrent List: It covers topics of similar interest to both the federal and state governments. Education, the forest, trade unions, marriage, adoption, and succession are all on the list. On the topics included in this list, federal and state governments can pass legislation. If their laws clash, the law enacted by the Union Government takes precedence.
How is Federalism practised?
The true success of Indian Federalism may be traced to the country's democratic politics. Look at some primary ways India practices Federalism as suggested by Extramarks Federalism Class 10 NCERT Solutions.
The formation of linguistic states was India's first and most important democratic test. Numerous ancient states have gone, and many new ones emerged between 1947 and 2017. The states' boundaries, areas, and titles have all been altered. People who speak the same language have founded some states. The linguistic States are the name for these states.
The language policy is a second test for Indian Federalism. The official language has been determined to be Hindi. Apart from Hindi, the Constitution recognises 21 additional languages as Scheduled Languages. States have their official languages, and government activity is conducted in that state's official language.
Another way that Federalism has been enhanced in practice is by restructuring the relationship between the federal government and the states. Suppose no one party wins a clear majority in the Lok Sabha. In that case, the major national parties can form a coalition with various other parties, including regional parties, to establish a government at the national level. This resulted in a new culture of power-sharing and respect for state governments' autonomy.
Decentralisation in India
Decentralisation occurs when power is transferred from the federal and state governments to local governments. Decentralisation is based on the concept that many problems and difficulties are better resolved locally. Residents can also engage directly in decision-making.
In 1992, a significant step toward decentralisation was accomplished. The Constitution was changed to strengthen and improve the third layer of democracy. Three-tier democracy has the following characteristics:
- Regular elections for local government entities are required under the Constitution.
- Scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, and other backward classes have seats in these institutions' elected bodies and executive heads.
- Women hold at least one-third of all job roles.
- Each state has established a State Election Commission to oversee Panchayat and municipal elections.
- Local governments and state governments are compelled to share some authority and money. Sharing takes on different forms in different states.
Panchayati Raj System
Panchayati Raj is the name given to the rural local government. Each village or collection of villages has its gram panchayat in certain states. This is a council made up of many ward members (known as panchs) and a president (known as sarpanch). They are elected directly by the whole adult population of a village or ward. The Gram Panchayat is the village's decision-making body.
The Gram Sabha oversees the Panchayat's operations. Its members are all the voters in the village. It must meet at least twice or three times a year to approve the gram panchayat's yearly budget and assess its performance.
A Panchayat Samiti, Block, or Mandal is formed when Gram Panchayats are grouped. All Panchayat members in the region choose members of the Panchayat Samiti.
The Zilla (district) Parishad comprises all the Panchayat Samitis or Mandals in a district. Members of the Lok Sabha, district MLAs, and other officials from district-level authorities make up the Zilla Parishad.
Municipalities for urban areas are like Gram Panchayats for rural regions. Municipal Corporations are formed in large cities. Municipalities and Municipal Corporations are governed by elected authorities representing the people. The Municipal Chairperson is the municipality's political leader. The Mayor of a Municipal Corporation is the leader.
This new local government structure is the most significant democratic experiment globally. The local government's constitutional standing has helped consolidate democracy in our country. In our democracy, it has also improved women's representation and voice.
Federalism Class 10 NCERT Exercise and Solutions
Students can access NCERT solutions of all chapters on the Extramarks’ website and other study material such as past year's question papers, revision notes, additional questions, and much more. Click on the below links to view NCERT Solutions for Federalism Class 10 NCERT Solutions:
Class 10 Civics Chapter 2: Very Short Answer Type Questions
Class 10 Civics Chapter 2: Short Answer Type Questions
Class 10 Civics Chapter 2: Long Answer Type Questions
Students may access Federalism Class 10 NCERT Solutions and other chapters by clicking here. In addition, students can also explore NCERT Solutions for other classes below.
- NCERT Solutions Class 1
- NCERT Solutions Class 2
- NCERT Solutions Class 3
- NCERT Solutions Class 4
- NCERT Solutions Class 5
- NCERT Solutions Class 6
- NCERT Solutions Class 7
- NCERT Solutions Class 8
- NCERT Solutions Class 9
- NCERT Solutions Class 10
- NCERT Solutions Class 11
- NCERT Solutions Class 12
By getting access to Federalism Class 10 NCERT Solutions, students can easily understand all the concepts relating to Federalism.
Key Features of Federalism Class 10 NCERT Solutions
Class 10 students are highly recommended to go through NCERT Solution by the end of each chapter to get good results in their forthcoming examinations. Extramarks bring forth Federalism Class 10 NCERT Solutions to make the concepts easier for students. Mentioned below are some primary reasons why you should choose Extramarks:
- Extramarks have put together the most crucial information on this topic based on the CBSE guidelines in an easy to comprehend and accurate to recall if read a few times.
- These solutions cover all the chapter's topics concisely and yet systematically.
- The solutions result from thorough research by the subject experts at Extramarks.
Q.1 Locate the following States on a blank outline political map of India:
- Manipur, Sikkim, Chhattisgarh and Goa.
Q.2 Identify and shade three federal countries (other than India) on a blank outline political map of the world.
Q.3 Point out one feature in the practice of federalism in India that is similar to and one feature that is different from that of Belgium.
Both India and Belgium are federal republics. Both the countries have Central and State governments. The states enjoy autonomy in both the countries.
In Belgium, the state government is not subordinate to the Centre. But in India the Centre has more powers. The Centre can even dismiss the state government. However, the Supreme Court of India has now made it difficult for the Centre to dismiss a state government in an arbitrary manner.
Q.4 What is the main difference between a federal form of government and a unitary one? Explain with an example.
- In a unitary government, the national government has all the powers whereas federalism is a system of government in which the power is divided between a central authority and various constituent units of the country.
- India has a central government to rule the country as well as state governments at the regional level. Therefore, India is a federal republic.
- In Sri Lanka, the national government has all the powers. Therefore, Sri Lanka is an example of unitary form of government.
Q.5 State any two differences between the local government before and after the Constitutional amendment in 1992.
- Prior to the Constitutional amendment of 1992 –
- Elections to the local bodies were not held regularly.
- The local governments did not have any powers or resources of their own.
- After the amendment of 1992 –
- It became constitutionally mandatory to hold regular elections to local government bodies.
- State governments are required to share revenue and some powers with the local government bodies.
Q.6 Fill in the blanks:
Since the United States is a ___________________ type of federation, all the constituent States have equal powers and States are ______________vis-à-vis the federal government. But India is a _____________________ type of federation and some States have more power than others. In India, the ____________ government has more powers.
Since the United States is a coming together type of federation, all the constituent States have equal powers and States are strong vis-a-vis the federal government. But India is a holding together type of federation and some States have more power than others. In India, the Central government has more powers.
Q.7 Here are three reactions to the language policy followed in India. Give an argument and an example to support any of these positions.
Sangeeta: The policy of accommodation has strengthened national unity.
Arman: Language-based States have divided us by making everyone conscious of their language.
Harish: This policy has only helped to consolidate the dominance of English over all other languages.
I agree with Sangeeta’s statement. The policy of accommodation has actually strengthened national unity.
- Initially, the demand for formation of states on the basis of language was resisted by our leaders. It was feared that it would lead to disintegration. On the contrary, it made the country more united and also helped in administration.
- The Indian Constitution did not give the status of national language to any one language. However, Hindi was made the official language.
- Apart from Hindi, 21 other languages were declared as Scheduled Languages. There were safeguards to protect these languages. A person may take up an examination for central government positions in any of these languages.
- The states too have their own official languages.
- Thus, India’s language policy allowed it to avoid a Sri Lanka kind of a situation.
Q.8 The distinguishing feature of a federal government is:
- National government gives some powers to the provincial governments.
- Power is distributed among the legislature, executive and judiciary.
- Elected officials exercise supreme power in the government.
- Governmental power is divided between different levels of government.
- Governmental power is divided between different levels of government.
Q.9 A few subjects in various lists of the Indian Constitution are given here. Group them under the Union, State and Concurrent Lists as provided in the table below:
Q. 10 Examine the following pairs that give the level of government in India and the powers of the government at that level to make laws on the subjects mentioned against each. Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched?
|(d) Local Government||Residuary powers|
Q.11 Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:
|List I||List II|
Q.12 Consider the following statements.
1. In a federation the powers of the federal and provincial governments are clearly demarcated.
2. India is a federation because the powers of the Union and State Governments are specified in the Constitution and they have exclusive jurisdiction on their respective subjects.
3. Sri Lanka is a federation because the country is divided into provinces.
4. India is no longer a federation because some powers of the States have been devolved to the local government bodies.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(c) A and B only
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
These Solutions will help you grasp the proper writing pattern for various questions in the exam. Following the Federalism NCERT Solutions Class 10 can help you better prepare for the examination and achieve high results.
Federalism is a form of governance in which authority is divided between a central government and state governments. India is federal since it has two levels of government: a central government and a state government. The federal government is responsible for matters of national importance, while state and provincial governments are responsible for day-to-day operations. India’s Federalism is of the “keeping together” variety instead of the “coming together” variety seen in the United States and Switzerland.