NCERT solutions class 8 social science our pasts 3 chapter 5
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 5
History teaches us what it is to be human by showcasing the human race’s great triumphs and devastating failures. History also teaches us through example, pointing us toward better ways to organise and run our communities for the common good. History comprises hundreds of different people telling thousands of other tales about the past.
NCERT Class 8 History Chapter 5 is When People Rebel. Students will discover more about various policies and the individuals behind them with the help of the NCERT Solution Class 8 History Chapter 5. There’s also a description of the sepoys and peasants and the battle between the nawabs and the corporation.
Extramarks Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 5 NCERT Solutions have proven to be a boon for the students. These not only allow them to comprehend the chapter but also helps to retain it for an extended period. NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 5 were prepared by Extramarks subject specialists after a lot of research.
You name it, and you got it, as Extramarks possesses excellent study material for all classes and competitive exams. Apart from NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 5, material such as NCERT books, CBSE revision notes, CBSE sample papers, CBSE previous year question papers, and more can be easily found on the Extramarks’ website for all classes.
Key Topics Covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 5
To make it more convenient, mentioned below are the key topics covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 5- When People Rebel:
- Policies and the People
- A Mutiny becomes a popular Rebellion
- The Company fights back
Let us look at Extramarks in-depth information on each subtopic in NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 5- When People Rebel.
Policies and the People
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 5 in this section explains how different British policies affected the people of India.
Nawabs lose their power.
Since the mid-eighteenth century, nawabs and rajas have lost their authority and influence. As a result, many governing families attempted to bargain with the Company to defend their interests. For example, after her husband died, Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi wanted the Company to recognise her adopted son as the successor to the kingdom. The Company, however, rejected these requests.
One of the last regions to be acquired was Awadh. A subsidiary alliance was forced on Awadh in 1801 and was taken over in 1856. The Company intended to put an end to the Mughal monarchy. Governor-General Dalhousie declared in 1849 that after Bahadur Shah Zafar’s death, his family would be moved out of the Red Fort and given a new home in Delhi. None of Bahadur Shah Zafar’s progeny would be recognised as kings after him; instead, they would be referred to as princes.
The Peasants and the Sepoys
The high taxes and stringent revenue collection tactics angered peasants and zamindars in the countryside. Many people lost their lands due to their failure to repay moneylenders.
Employees of the Company who were Indian sepoys were dissatisfied with their salary, allowances, and working conditions. When sepoys were told they would have to journey to Burma to fight for the Company by water, they rejected but consented to go via land. In 1856, the Company approved a statute requiring every new employee hired into the Company’s army to pledge to serve overseas if necessary.
Responses to reforms
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 5 explains the British transformed Indian culture by establishing laws prohibiting the practice of Sati and encouraging widows to remarry. The promotion of English education was widespread. Christian missionaries were allowed to operate freely in the country after 1830, and they were allowed to hold land and property. In 1850, new laws were created to make it simpler to convert to Christianity. The law gave Indian Christians the right to inherit their forefathers’ property.
A Mutiny becomes a popular Rebellion.
Many individuals felt they had the same enemy and just kept fighting it. People must organise, communicate, take the initiative, and exhibit confidence for a situation like this to flourish.
In May 1857, the English East India Company was confronted with a major uprising. Beginning in Meerut, sepoys mutinied in other locations, and many civilians from various social classes rose in revolt. It is considered the nineteenth century’s most significant armed opposition against colonialism.
From Meerut to Delhi
Mangal Pandey was executed on 8 April, 1857, for fighting officials at Barrackpore. Some sepoys in the Meerut regiment refused to undertake army practise with the new cartridges, which were suspected of being covered in cow and pig fat. For defying their commanders, eighty-five sepoys were removed from duty and sentenced to ten years in prison on May 9, 1857.
On May 10, the army freed the sepoys who had been imprisoned in the Meerut Prison. The troops were adamant about ending their reign over the country. The sepoys rode all night on May 10 and arrived in Delhi early the following day. Soldiers arrived at the Red Fort, triumphant, wanting to meet Badshah.
Bahadur Shah Zafar agreed to the proposal and sent letters to the country’s leaders and rulers, urging them to unite and form a confederacy of Indian nations to resist the British. The Mughal dynasty ruled over a significant portion of India. The rise of British power but small kings and chieftains in charge of various provinces under pressure.
The British expected the uproar sparked by the cartridges’ distribution to subside. The situation, however, was drastically altered by Bahadur Shah Zafar’s choice.
The Rebellion Spreads
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 5 explains how the rebellion spread.
The British were driven out of Delhi, and there was no rebellion for over a week. Then, regiments revolted, and forces gathered in Delhi, Kanpur, and Lucknow centres. Nana Saheb, the late Peshwa Baji Rao’s adopted son, declared himself Peshwa, collected military men and ousted the British army from the city. Birjis Qadr was declared the new Nawab in Lucknow. Rani Lakshmibai joined the rebel sepoys at Jhansi and fought the British with Tantia Tope, Nana Saheb’s commander. Finally, Rani Avantibai Lodhi of Ramgarh formed and commanded an army against the British, who had taken over the governance of her realm in the Mandla district of Madhya Pradesh.
In several battles, the Indian people were able to beat the British. In the Awadh area, a condition of widespread public rebellion developed. Many new leaders have emerged. Ahmadullah Shah from Faizabad, Bakht Khan from Delhi, and Kunwar Singh from Bihar are just a few examples.
The Company fights back.
The Company sent soldiers from England and enacted proposed laws that made prosecuting the rebels very simple. In September 1857, Delhi was recaptured, and Bahadur Shah Zafar, the last Mughal emperor, was sentenced to life in jail.
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 5 explains that Lucknow was conquered in March 1858, and Rani Lakshmibai was defeated and died in June 1858. When she was surrounded by the British on all sides, Rani Avantibai opted to accept death. In April 1859, Tantia Tope was apprehended, tried, and executed.
Desertion was encouraged by the loss of rebel troops. The British promised awards for loyal landholders who would continue to enjoy customary rights over their lands to earn people’s allegiance. If anybody rebelled against the British, surrendered, and did not kill any white people, they would be secure, and their claims to land and rights would not be ignored.
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 5 explains how the British had recovered control of India by the end of 1859. The following are some of the significant changes brought about by the British:
- In 1858, a new Act transferred the East India Company’s powers to the British Crown, allowing for better control of Indian affairs. A member of the British Cabinet was named Secretary of State for India, with responsibility for all aspects of India’s government. He was granted the India Council as a council to advise him. Viceroy was bestowed upon the Governor-General of India. The British government took direct responsibility for the rule of India as a result of these policies.
- All the governing chiefs guaranteed their land would never be annexed again. Their kingdoms might be passed down to their heirs, even adopted sons. The Indian monarchs were to treat their countries as British Crown subjects.
- The proportion of Indian troops in the army was lowered while the number of British soldiers grew.
- Land and property of Muslims were taken in enormous quantities, and they were viewed with mistrust and contempt.
- The British opted to respect the people of India’s traditional religious and social customs.
- Landlords and zamindars were protected by policies that guaranteed their rights to their lands.
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 5 Exercise and Solutions
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Key Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 5
Going through NCERT Solutions is the best way to understand a chapter’s concepts. NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 5 has been made so students can easily retain all the chapter concepts. We present to you some reasons why you should choose Extramarks:
- These solutions help students clarify their doubts and practise the exam writing pattern appropriately.
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- The experts at Extramarks follow all guidelines laid by CBSE to draft solutions beneficial to students.
Q.1 What was the demand of Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi that was refused by the British?
Ans. Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi wanted the Company to recognize her adopted son as the heir to the kingdom after the death of her husband.
Q.2 What did the British do to protect the interests of those who converted to Christianity?
(i) In 1850, the British passed a new law to make conversion to Christianity easier.
(ii) This law allowed an Indian who converted to Christianity to inherit the property of his ancestors.
Q.3 What objections did the sepoys have to the new cartridges that they were asked to use?
Ans. The sepoys suspected that the new cartridges were coated with the fat of cows and pigs. They feared that using the new cartridges would offend their religious beliefs.
Q.4 How did the last Mughal emperor live the last years of his life?
(i) After suppressing the Revolt of 1857, the last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar was tried in court for his involvement and leadership and sentenced to life imprisonment.
(ii) His sons were shot dead before his eyes.
(iii) He and his wife, Begum Zinat Mahal were sent to prison in Rangoon in October 1858.
(iv) Bahadur Shah Zafar died in the Rangoon jail in November 1862.
Q.5 What could be the reasons for the confidence of the British rulers about their position in India before May 1857?
(i) In the mid-eighteenth century, the nawabs and rajas had gradually lost their authority and honour.
(ii) British Residents had been stationed in many courts, the freedom of the rulers reduced, their armed forces disbanded, and their revenues and territories were taken away in stages.
(iii) Many ruling families tried to negotiate with the Company to protect their interests.
(iv) For example, Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi wanted the Company to recognize her adopted son as the heir to the kingdom after the death of her husband.
(v) Nana Saheb, the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II, pleaded the Company for his father’s pension when the latter died.
(vi)However, the Company, confident of its superiority and military powers, turned down these pleas. All these factors were reasons for the confidence of the British rulers about their position in India before May 1857.
Q.6 What impact did Bahadur Shah Zafar’s support to the rebellion have on the people and the ruling families?
(i) The sepoys of Meerut reached Delhi on 10 May and gathered around the walls of the Red Fort where Bahadur Shah Zafar lived, demanding to meet him.
(ii) They convinced Bahadur Shah and proclaimed him as their leader.
(iii) He wrote letters to all the chiefs and rulers of the country to organise a confederacy of Indian states to fight the British.
(iv) The Mughal dynasty had ruled over a very large part of the country. Most smaller rulers and chieftains controlled different territories on behalf of the Mughal ruler.
(v) Threatened by the expansion of British rule, many of them felt that if the Mughal emperor could rule again, they too would be able to rule their own territories once more, under Mughal authority.
Q.7 How did the British succeed in securing the submission of the rebel landowners of Awadh?
(i) The British tried their best to win back the loyalty of the people.
(ii) They announced rewards for loyal landholders and decided to allow them to continue to enjoy traditional rights over their lands.
(iii) Those who had rebelled were told to submit to the British, and if they had not killed any British citizen in India, they would remain safe and their rights and claims to land would not be denied.
Q.8 In what ways did the British change their policies as a result of the rebellion of 1857?
(i) The British Parliament passed a new Act in 1858 and transferred the powers of the East India Company to the British Crown.
(ii) A member of the British Cabinet was appointed Secretary of State for India and made responsible for all matters related to the governance of India. He was advised by a council, called the India Council.
(iii) The Governor-General of India was given the title of Viceroy (a personal representative of the Crown).
(iv) All ruling chiefs of the country were assured that their territory would never be annexed in future; their kingdoms could be inherited by their heirs, including adopted sons.
(v) However, the ruling chiefs had to acknowledge the British Queen as their Sovereign Paramount. Thus the Indian rulers became the subordinates of the British Crown.
(vi) The proportion of Indian soldiers in the army was to be reduced and the number of European soldiers would be increased.
(vii) It was also decided that instead of recruiting soldiers from Awadh, Bihar, central India and south India, more soldiers would be recruited from among the Gurkhas, Sikhs and Pathans.
(viii) The British suspected that Indian Muslims were responsible for the rebellion. Their land and property was confiscated on a large scale; they were treated with suspicion and hostility.
(ix) The British decided to respect the religious beliefs and social practices of the people in India.
(x) Policies were made to protect landlords and zamindars and their rights over their lands.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. How can we study NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 5?
There are several ways to prepare and study Chapter 5 of your NCERT Class 8 Social Science textbook:
- Take notes on the important topics discussed in the chapter by following the syllabus.
- Concentrate on each concept and try to comprehend it as you read.
- Understanding the topics can help you memorise them more effectively.
- Continue to revise and practise the textbook exercises.
2. How can I excel in Social Science in Class 8?
To guarantee that you are one of the toppers of your class, the first thing you must do is clarify your concepts. Besides that, thoroughly study each topic. Go through all of the chapter-by-chapter questions and answers on a daily baisi. And then go through NCERT Solutions of each chapter. You’ll be able to ace your Social Science exam in Class 8 in this manner.
3. How did the British persuade the rebellious landowners of Awadh to submit?
The defeat of British soldiers in several battles sparked revolutions against the British in several Indian states. Within the state of Awadh, a massive public uprising erupted. After defeating the rioting forces, the British used a multi-pronged effort to quell the rebels and the insurrection. First, it was promised that they would be able to keep and enjoy their customary land rights. The British told the rebels that they would be safe if they surrendered to the British and did not kill any white people. Furthermore, their land rights and claims will not be rejected.