NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 10
Civics is the study of a person’s rights and responsibilities as a citizen. It is a synthesis of a number of disciplines, including history, political science, and the social sciences. Civics studies the theoretical and practical aspects of citizenship, including its rights and responsibilities; citizens’ responsibilities to one another as members of a political body and to the government.
NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 10 is Law and Social Justice. This chapter discusses that according to the law on minimum wages, an employer must pay a worker at least the minimum wage. Various other regulations defend the market interests of both producers and consumers. The legislation assures that the relationships between the three parties – the worker, the customer, and the producer – are not exploitative. The government can restrict the behaviour of individuals or private enterprises by enacting, implementing, and maintaining laws to achieve social fairness.
Students need to be aware of the laws and judicial system with more hands on information on criminal law of the nation. Class 8 Civics Chapter 10 teaches them just that. Extramarks presents Class 8 Civics Chapter 10 Solutions generates awareness among the students in a more straightforward manner. Law and Social Justice class 8 are made to the point, meeting all the requirements of the students.
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Key Topics Covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 10
Following are the key topics covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 10- Law and Social Justice:
- Case Study 1: Market situation
- Case Study 2: Bhopal Gas Tragedy
- What is a worker’s worth?
- Enforcement of safety laws
- New laws to protect the environment
- Let us look at Extramarks in-depth information on each subtopic in NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 10- Law and Social Justice.
Case Study 1: Market situation
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 10 discusses the problem of workers’ wages through this case study.
Consider a market scenario. The problem of employees’ pay is a serious concern.
- To make a profit, private corporations, contractors, and business people may restrict workers’ rights and refuse to pay them money, which is prohibited under the law.
- Furthermore, a minimum wage regulation is in place to ensure that such workers are not underpaid.
- Some laws safeguard producers’ and customers’ interests in the market, similar to how minimum wage rules protect labour.
- Workers, customers, and producers are all protected by legislation.
- Wages should not be less than the stated minimum wage, which the government changes yearly. This law is intended to safeguard all types of employees.
- Workplaces must have proper safety precautions, according to the legislation. For example- alarm systems, emergency exits, and well-operating machinery..
- The law stipulates that items must fulfil specific quality criteria. Safety standards must be met, just as they must be met for electrical appliances. Consumers may be harmed by poor product quality.
- Essential products must not be overpriced, according to the legislation. To ensure that the underprivileged can purchase these items.
- The law forbids industries from polluting the air or water.
- Workplace laws prohibiting child labour. No child under 14 should be employed in factories, mines, or other potentially dangerous jobs.
- The legislation allows employees to create unions or groups. Workers are helped to establish a group through associations or groups, which gives them the authority to demand better salaries and working conditions.
- The government must inspect workplaces regularly and take appropriate action when laws are broken.
- Controlling malpractices on a big scale may ensure social fairness.
Case Study 2: Bhopal Gas Tragedy
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 10 explains a major tragedy due to negligence.
Union Carbide (UC), an American business, had a facility in the city that made insecticides whose methyl-isocyanate (MIC) – The night of December 2, 1984, saw the start of a fatal gas leak. More than 8,000 people died in three days, and many more were harmed by the gas. Those who survived experienced severe respiratory issues, vision problems, and other illnesses. Children, too, exhibited unusual anomalies.
Problem 1: The dangers of the UC plant were overlooked by authorities.
Reason: Despite many local authorities’ complaints to the UC facility, citing the hazardous working environment, higher officials ignored them because the UC plant was a significant investment that may result in additional job prospects.
Problem 2: Despite recurrent unsafe gas leaks, government officials continued to approve the facility.
Reason: The administrators’ request that the UC facility move to a safer working environment was nonsensical. In this case, the government and private enterprises overlooked citizens’ interests.
What is a worker’s worth?
What is a worker’s worth? NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 10 attempts to answer this question in the following section.
One worker can easily replace another in India. Because of the high level of unemployment, many people are prepared to labour in hazardous circumstances in exchange for a salary. As a result, even many years after the Bhopal gas catastrophe, there are still stories of accidents on building sites, mines, and industries caused by employers’ uncaring attitude. The worth of a worker is determined by the industry in which they work.
A Comparative study of Safety protocols in Virginia, USA and Bhopal, India
- Computerised warning and monitoring systems were installed to enhance plant safety and monitor mishaps such as gas leaks.
- The arrangements for an emergency evacuation were well-organised.
- It was necessary to treat polluted resources properly.
- There were no automatic monitoring mechanisms in place. Instead, manual gauges and human senses were completely dependable for detecting gas leaks or accidents.
- There are no emergency evacuation mechanisms..
- The UC facility did not contribute to the contamination of the environment due to its operations.
Enforcement of Safety laws
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 10 explains that the government is responsible for ensuring that safety regulations are followed. It is also the government’s responsibility to ensure that Article 21 of the Constitution guarantees the right to life.
As the Bhopal Gas Tragedy demonstrates, the government’s incompetence is to blame for such a dangerous tragedy.
- Officials in the government failed to recognise the plant as harmful, allowing it to sprout in a populated area.
- The government did not ask union Carbide to switch to more environmentally friendly technology or methods.
- Even after numerous incidents of leakage from the factory made it clear to everyone that something was wrong, government inspectors continued to approve the operations in the plant.
In this scenario, both the government and commercial corporations ignored safety measures.
New Laws to Protect the Environment
In this section, NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 10 illustrates how the new laws that were formed to protect the environment.
The environment was viewed as a ‘free’ entity, with any industry having complete freedom to damage the air and water. However, the Bhopal accident brought environmental concerns to the frontline. As a result, the Indian government enacted new environmental laws.
Article 21 of the Constitution recognises the right to life as a fundamental right, including the right to clean water and air for full enjoyment of life. Several court decisions have upheld the right to a healthy environment as an integral part of the Fundamental Right to Life. The government oversees enacting rules and procedures to prevent pollution, clean waterways, and impose stiff penalties on polluters.
The government’s primary responsibility is to regulate the actions of private businesses by enacting, implementing, and maintaining laws that prevent unfair business practices and promote social fairness. As the Bhopal gas catastrophe demonstrated, weak and inadequately implemented laws can do considerable harm. People should apply pressure on both private enterprises and the government, in addition to the government, to ensure that both act in the best interests of society.
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 10 Exercise and Solutions
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- Class 8 Civics Chapter 10: Very Short Answer Type Questions
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Q.1 What are the advantages to foreign companies in setting up production in India?
Ans. The main reason why foreign companies come to India is cheap labour. Wages that the companies pay to workers in developed countries are far higher than what they have to pay to workers in poorer countries like India. For lower pay, companies can get longer hours of work. Additional expenses such as for housing facilities are also lesser. Thus, companies can save costs and earn higher profits.
Another reason is that any risk of pollution and harmful radiations is also exported to other countries. Union Carbide gas tragedy in Bhopal is an example of how Indian people became victims of the poisonous gases that leaked from the plant owned by a US company.
Q.2 Do you think the victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy got justice? Discuss.
Ans. The victims of Bhopal gas tragedy have not yet got justice. Initially, the Union Carbide had refused to accept any responsibility altogether, despite so many clear proofs. The UC got away after paying a bare minimum compensation to the survivors of this tragedy. Even after 24 years, the survivors are still fighting for justice, for safe drinking water, for health-care facilities and jobs for those affected by the tragedy. Their cases are still pending in numerous courts.
Q.3 How can laws ensure that markets work in a manner that is fair? Give two examples to support your answer.
Ans. Laws can ensure that markets work in a fair manner in the following ways –
- Frequently upgraded Minimum Wages Law ensures that workers are not exploited and over-worked by companies that hire them.
- Law keeps checks on the quality of production. This makes sure that sub-standard goods do not enter the market.
Q.4 Write a paragraph on the various roles of the government that you have read about in this unit.
Ans. The legislature is supposed to frame laws to protect people from any type of exploitation. Government appoints different types of employees and officials to enforce its laws and regulations. Those found guilty of violating these laws are arrested by the police or other departments. They are taken to courts (court of laws or consumers courts etc.). Punishment is awarded to law-breakers by the judiciary. It is the duty of the government to ensure that workers get payment in accordance with Minimum Wages Law. The government also has to see that children below 14 years are not exploited. The government also has to ensure that women workers are paid equally as men. Finally, the government has to keep revising the Minimum Wages Law from time to time.
Q.5 What are the sources of environmental pollution in your area? Discuss with respect to (a) air; (b) water and (c) soil. What are the steps being taken to reduce the pollution? Can you suggest some other measures?
Ans. Sources of environmental pollution with respect to:
(a) Air –
ii. Factory chimneys
(b) Water –
i. Disposal of dead bodies
ii. Factory waste
(c) Soil –
ii. Chemical fertilizers
Awareness regarding environmental issues has been increased in recent times. Courts in our country have also come up with several orders over the environmental issue. The Delhi government had recently introduced the odd-even numbers car policy to reduce vehicular movement on the road. Many river cleaning projects are also going on.
Here are some suggestions that may improve the environment further:
- Every company or factory that seeks registration/license to open its unit should be required to plant a certain number of trees as a condition of getting the registration/license.
- To reduce vehicular movement, the odd-even policy should be introduced in the entire country.
- Safety norms should be followed by factories to reduce pollution.
Q.6 How was environment treated earlier? What has been the change in perception? Discuss.
Ans. Earlier, there was very little or no awareness about environmental issues. There was indiscriminate cutting of forests, killing of wildlife, disposal of wastes into rivers and so on. Factory owners bothered the least about the environment.
Today the perception regarding environmental issues has totally changed. People have understood the importance of a clean environment. They have understood that this planet has to be conducive for our future generation to survive. Industrial development cannot be at the cost of human lives. The Bhopal gas tragedy has been an eye opener. The courts also gave a number of judgments upholding the right to a healthy environment as intrinsic to the Fundamental Right to life.
Q.7 What do you think the famous cartoonist R.K. Laxman is trying to convey in this cartoon? How does it relate to the 2006 law that you read about on page 125?
Ans. In this cartoon, we can see a woman condemning the ‘cruel burdening of kids’, but at the same time she herself is burdening another child. This cartoon conveys the message that mere making of laws is not enough until and unless each one of us understands our responsibility and acts accordingly.
In October 2006, the government amended the Child Labour Prevention Act, banning children under the age of 14 years from working as domestic helps, or as workers in dhabas, restaurants, tea shops, etc. It made employing these children as a punishable offence. This cartoon clearly depicts the violation of this Act.
Q.8 What do we mean when we speak of law enforcement? Who is responsible for enforcement? Why is enforcement so important?
Ans. The government passes the laws, and it has to ensure that these laws are implemented or enforced.
As lawmaker and enforcer, the government has to ensure that laws implemented.
Law enforcement becomes important when the law seeks to protect the weak from the strong.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
The victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy were never fully compensated. The industrial management failed to take safety precautions, which resulted in the Bhopal disaster. The Indian government acted on behalf of the people to get legal compensation for those who were harmed and requested $3 billion in compensation. The corporation, on the other hand, paid 470 million dollars. People are still looking for justice after 36 years. Even though the families received substantial financial compensation, many still need safe drinking water, jobs, and healthcare facilities.
Whether as employees, customers, or producers, people are exploited in marketplaces worldwide. To protect citizens from such exploitation, the government enacts legislation. These guidelines are intended to reduce the number of unethical commercial activities in the marketplace to a bare minimum. It is the responsibility of the government to ensure that these laws are followed. Furthermore, to promote social justice, the government can restrict the behaviour of individuals or private organisations by enacting, implementing, and upholding these laws.
Developed nations are shifting toxic and dangerous businesses to developing countries to take advantage of their weaker regulations and keep their own country safe. South Asian nations, India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan, manufacture pesticides, asbestos, zinc, and lead. Shipbreaking is another hazardous industry ,is a process where old ships which are no longer in use are sent to shipyards for scrapping, is rapidly growing in South Asia. Scrap yards in Bangladesh and India no longer use ships. These ships are transporting items that might be harmful.