NCERT Solutions Class 8 Social Science Social and Political Life Chapter 2

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 2: Understanding Secularism 

In Chapter 2, Class 8 Civics, Understanding Secularism, we will study the concept of Secularism, i.e., the fundamental right of religious freedom and its different aspects. It is vital to separate the power of the state from the power of religion to allow citizens to live by their religious beliefs and practices. 

The Extramarks team of experienced teachers has structured the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 2 to help students with an effective learning process. These solutions provide detailed and authentic answers to the NCERT textbook questions. Students can secure outstanding marks in their Social Science exams by referring to our NCERT Solutions. 

The NCERT Class 8 Civics Solutions are available on the Extramarks website, and students can access these resources easily once they register on our website. Our NCERT Solutions are based on the exam-oriented approach to help students score well in their board examinations. Students are encouraged to study and revise from our NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics regularly to have a better understanding of Social Science chapters.

Key Topics Covered In NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 2: Understanding Secularism 

Extramarks provides a complete overview of Class 8 Civics Chapter 2 through its well-structured notes covered in NCERT Solutions. The Chapter consists of the different aspects of Secularism. 

Our NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 2 covers the topic related to the rights and duties of citizens in society. The term is obtained from the Latin word Civics, meaning "relating to a citizen". The time relates to behaviour affecting other citizens, particularly in urban development.

In our NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 2, we will first study and understand the process of Secularism in India. History has seen all the gruesome persecution, discrimination, torture and exclusion done to an individual based on the religions they follow. 

The Chapter then explains what Secularism is for India. Secularism means the separation of religion from economic, political, cultural, and social aspects of life; religion is said to be purely a personal matter. The term "Secular" means being "separate" from religion or having no religious basis.

It is now encrypted in the preamble of the Indian Constitution. Many countries have people who belong to more than one religion within the state. We have to safeguard individuals' right to preach and practice the religion of their choice. According to the Constitution of India, as covered in our NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 2, a secular state should ensure the following.

  1. One religious community should not dominate the other religion.
  2. Religious community members should not dominate each other.
  3. The state should not impose any particular religion or take away the support and freedom of the individuals. 
  4. Government spaces in India like law courts, police stations, & government institutions are not allowed to promote any specific religion. The state can follow certain exceptions to respect the feelings of a particular religion. For example, Sikhs are not forced to wear a helmet along with their turban while riding a two-wheeler.
  5. Secularism also prevents the majority's dominance over the minority through various strategic interference. For example, the Constitution of India bans untouchability in any form or kind. More such examples of Secularism in India are covered in our study materials of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 2. 

For democracy to function, it's essential to separate the state from religion:

  • Many countries have various mixed religious groups living together. If a majority group gets state powers, they can easily dominate the minority religious groups by misusing their power.
  • We have to protect individuals' freedom to support any other religion, exit from their religion & comprehend religious teachings differently.

Unlike other countries, Secularism in India is different:

  1. Secularism in other democratic countries is different from in India. i.e., let's look at the case of the United States of America - there is a stringent separation between the state and religion in America. In contradiction, strategic interventions are practiced occasionally in the state during religious affairs in India. 
  2. Although Secularism is followed in India, the state does not entirely separate itself from religion; it maintains a moral distance. It means any intervention or action by the state depends on constitutional principles.
  3. The Constitution permits Fundamental Rights that are based on secular principles.

As per our NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 2 notes, religion should be kept separate from the state because of the following reasons:

  • It allows the country to work democratically.
  • The domination of the majority can otherwise harm the people belonging to the minority community, and there can be a violation of Fundamental Rights.
  • Individuals can leave their religion and can take up another religion through Secularism. As per the law, people can interpret religious teachings in different ways.

As per the Indian Constitution, the states in India should be secular, and the Nation can guarantee Secularism only through its secular states.  

The following steps are taken by the Indian States to protect Secularism in India:

  1. Various plans are made to have a distance from religion. No particular religion is promoted or preached in government offices such as law courts, police stations, government schools, etc.
  2. The Government adopts the strategy of non-interference. According to the fact mentioned above, all religious communities are equally respected. There are a few deviations in this case.
  3. A plan of mediation is also acquired. The laws related to legacy rights are respected, and the state can intervene in the religion-based 'personal laws' of communities to ensure the same.
  4. The mediation of the state can be in the form of help. One such example is the establishment of schools and colleges by religious communities and the fact that the Government of India primarily grants them. Financial help is also provided to these communities on a non-preferential basis.
  5. Government schools can not advertise any kind of religion.
  6. Untouchability is banned by the Government of India to prevent religion-based exclusion and lower caste discrimination.
  7. India has been a country of secularism since the beginning of the implementation of the Constitution of India.
  8. The word 'Secularism' is officially included in the Constitution of India by the 42nd Amendment Act.
  9. The most crucial aspect of Secularism is its separation of the state from religious power.

We understand that we cannot achieve peace without a healthy and positive environment for discussion and agreement on differences in everyday matters. One section of people can say that a specific action is wrong or a particular belief is irrational. In contrast, some sections hold that a particular belief is true and the actions are rational. It could disrupt peace without a harmonious environment for discussion in society. So in this Chapter, students will learn to live cordially in a Secular manner and respect the rights and duties of all citizens in society.

Students will get access to our full chapter notes from NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 2 once they register on the Extramarks website. 

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 2 - Exercise and Answer Solutions

Extramarks NCERT solutions provide detailed and authentic answers to the NCERT textbook questions. The NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 2 on Extramarks are entirely based on the exam-oriented approach to help students score good grades in their final examinations. Students are suggested to regularly practice the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics to score excellent marks in the exams.

Click on the below links to get access to questions and answer solutions that are covered in our NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 2.

  • Understanding Secularism Class 8 - Question and Answer Solutions
  • Social and Political Life Class 8 Chapter 2 - Question and Answer Solutions

Extramarks is a holistic online learning platform for primary, secondary, and higher secondary classes. Students can also explore NCERT Solutions for other Classes from the links given below: 

  • NCERT Solutions Class 1
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Key Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 2

Extramarks NCERT Solutions are known to be the most reliable and comprehensive study resource. These study materials are a combination of chapter notes, revision notes, question and answer solutions, past year question banks, and many other resources that are helpful for students in their exam preparation. 

Our subject matter experts have designed these solutions as per the latest syllabus. Studying from our NCERT Solutions will give them more clarity about the subject topics and help them write answers more effectively. 

Below are key features of our NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 2:

  • These solutions are designed and updated according to the latest CBSE guidelines.
  • The highly experienced teachers at Extramarks design and build solutions for every topic covered in the Chapter.
  • NCERT Solutions are designed in a very comprehensive way such that a student can efficiently study and prepare for exams.
  • All the solutions provided are accurate and detailed so that students don't face any problems in learning the text-based answers 

Q.1 Will the government intervene if some religious group says that their religion allows them to practice infanticide? Give reasons for your answer.

Ans. The government in any democratic nation would intervene if some religious group says that their religion allows them to practice infanticide because this tradition goes against the Fundamental Right to Life. It involves the killing of an innocent and is, hence, unacceptable. The government, in this case, interferes by coercion. However, sometimes, the government may also intervene via support. For example, Sikhs in Delhi are excused from wearing helmets on two-wheelers because their religion demands them to wear a turban-a sacred tradition for them.

Q.2 Complete the following table:

Objective

Why is this important?

Example of a violation of this objective

One religious community does not dominate another.
The State does not enforce any particular religion nor take away the religious freedom of individuals.
That some members do not dominate other members of the same religious community.

Ans.

(a) This is important to protect the Fundamental Right to Freedom of Religion.

Example of violation: the demolition of the Babri Masjid in Ayodhya on 6th December, 1992 by Hindu radicals.

(b) This is important to uphold the ideals of a democratic nation which allows its citizens the freedom to choose whichever religion they wish to follow.

Example: France, in February 2004, banned headscarves and turbans in public places, thereby hurting the sentiments of Muslim and Sikh minorities.

(c) This is necessary to uphold individual freedom in the light of pressure from a group or religious community that one belongs to.

Example,the Christian community is divided into Protestants and Catholics; Irish Catholics are looked down upon and troubled by the officials of the Church of England who are pre-dominantly Protestants.

Q.3 Look up the annual calendar of holidays of your school. How many of them pertain to different religions? What does this indicate?

Ans. Many holidays on a school’s annual calendar pertain to different religions. This indicates that India is a secular country where religious freedom is granted to its citizens and all religions are equally respected.

Q.4 Find out some examples of different views within the same religion.

Ans. Examples of different views within the same religion:

(i) Hindus are divided in Vaishnav (followers of Lord Vishnu) and Shaiv (worshipers of Lord Shiva).

(ii) Muslims are divided into Shias and Sunnis.

(iii) Buddhists are divided into Mahayan and Hinyan.

(iv) Followers of Lord Mahavir are called Jain. They are also divided into Shwetamber and Digamber.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. What main concepts are discussed in Class 8 Civics Chapter 2?

Chapter 2 of Class 8 Civics discusses the fundamental right of religious freedom. A secular country allows all its people the freedom to practice any religion of their choice, and no majority can deny them this freedom. The Chapter also discusses the importance of separating religion from the state and how power could be misused to stop people from practicing their religion.

 

2. Explain the difference between CBSE and NCERT

CBSE is a Board and governing body, while NCERT is the counsel. NCERT is also known as the publisher or publishing body. CBSE schools in India recommend the NCERT textbooks to the students. In short, CBSE is a Board, whereas NCERT is a Council.

3. What are students going to study in Chapter 2 of Civics Class 8?

In Chapter 2 of Civics Class 8, the students will study the right to religious freedom. A secular country provides the right to its citizens to practise any religion of their choice, and no person can prevent them from exercising their right. 

In this Chapter, we will also study why India is considered to be a secular country. India is a secular country because the people of any particular religion or the government can not dominate people from other religions or stop them from practising, preaching or selecting their desired religion.  . Also, the government can not impose any specific religion onto the public.

The Chapter ‘Understanding Secularism’ makes it clear for students to learn and understand the concept of Secularism and why it is essential to allow the Nation’s citizens to practise any religious belief fundamentally. Students can refer to Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 2 to gain a good understanding of this Chapter. 

4. How and where can students access solutions for different chapters in one place?

Students can access all the solutions from the Extramarks online learning portal. Extramarks has a vast repository of study materials for all students from Class 1 to Class 12. The study materials are a collection of chapter notes, solutions for textbook questions, past years’ paper question banks, revision notes, etc. These study resources are available online, and students can access them from anywhere once they register on the Extramarks website.