NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 7
Civics is the study of government and citizenship and it focuses on the duties and rights of people in democracies. The analysis of how governments work and their structure also falls under Civics. The goal of Civics is to understand how the government functions and how individuals may engage in their government.
Marginalization is defined in Class 8 Civics Chapter 7, along with how it is addressed in India following the Constitution. The democratic government of India has the responsibility of identifying the marginalized castes and religious groups and providing them with chances at par with those available to the country’s wider population. These marginalized groups’ constitutional rights will also be dictated to and modified. It is a lengthy procedure that involves multiple phases. To comprehend the entire chapter, one can also refer to Understanding Marginalisation Class 8 Solutions.
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Key Topics Covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 7
Mentioned below are the key topics that are covered in Key Topics Covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 7- Understanding Marginalisation:
- What does it mean to be Socially Marginalised?
- Who are Adivasis?
- Adivasis and Stereotyping
- Adivasis and Development
- Minorities and Marginalisation
Let us look at Extramarks in-depth information on each subtopic in NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 7- Understanding Marginalisation.
What does it mean to be Socially Marginalised?
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 7 explains what it means to be socially marginalized.
Forced to acept the sides and boundaries than being in the middle of things is what it means to be marginalised. For instance, you would be marginalized if you don’t play the same sport or dress differently or have a distinctive accent, etc.
Some reasons for marginalization are:
- People have diverse dialects, cultures, religious groups, and majority communities. Poor people are referred to as low-status individuals and less human by others, highlighting their inability to access their rights and leaving them feeling helpless.
- The marginalised groups are not able to/ allowed to use the opportunities and resources available to them, and they even destroy their rights due to a sense of isolation and difference. They experience helplessness and exclusion from elite society. Some societal segments make them feel economical, socially, and culturally alienated.
Who are Adivasis?
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 7 explains who Adivasis are. Adivasis is another term for tribes. Adivasis, a term for people who still live near woods, literally means “original dwellers.” Adivasi people make up around 8% of India’s population, and most of the nation’s industrial and mining hubs are situated in Adivasi communities in places like Jamshedpur, Rourkela, Bokaro, and Bhilai, among others. In India, there are around 500 different Adivasi communities, making up a diverse population.
They are numerous in the northeastern states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, and Tripura, as well as in the states of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, and Andhra Pradesh. They stand out because there is frequently very little hierarchy among them, which sets them apart from societies governed by monarchs or based on the concepts of jati-varna (caste).
Adivasis practice various tribal religions distinct from Islam, Hinduism, and Christianity. These religions emphasise the worship of ancestral figures, community spirits, and nature spirits that are linked to and based in specific locations throughout the landscape, such as “mountain spirits,” “river spirits,” “animal spirits,” etc. The ancestral spirits were worshipped at home, whereas the local spirits were worshipped in designated holy woods inside the village limits.
Adivasis are affected by various nearby faiths, including Buddhism, Vaishnavism, Bhaktism, and Christianity. The main faiths of the empires around them were affected by Adivasi religions. Christianity had become a highly significant religion in modern Adivasi history due to the many Adivasis who converted to it throughout the 19th century. Adivasis speak their languages (most of them radically different from and possibly as old as Sanskrit), . These languages have frequently impacted the development of “mainstream” Indian languages like Bengali.
Adivasis and Stereotyping
The concept of Adivasis and Stereotyping is explained below by NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 7.
Adivasis are represented in conventional ways, for example through their dancing and colourful headgear. Other than this, it seems like we don’t understand the facts of their existence. People mistakenly believe they are unusual, primitive, and backward.
Adivasis and Development
Adivasis and its developments are being talked about in this section of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 7.
- Until the 19th century, a large portion of our nation was covered in forests.
- At least until the middle of the nineteenth century, Adivasis possessed extensive knowledge of, access to, and control over the majority of these enormous areas. There were no powerful nations or empires in charge of them. Instead, Adivasis frequently provided vital access to forest resources on which empires relied heavily.
- They were initially nomadic ranging hunters and gatherers who subsisted on shifting agriculture and stationary farming in the pre-colonial era. Adivasis have been compelled to migrate during the past 200 years due to economic developments, forestry laws, and political pressure from the government and business. They now live as domestic workers, construction workers, plantation workers, and factory employees.
- Adivasis from Jharkhand and the surrounding regions travelled to numerous plantations in India and throughout the world, including Mauritius, the Caribbean, and even Australia, starting in the 1830s. Their labour in Assam made it feasible for India’s tea industry to flourish. There are around 70 lakh Adivasis living alone in Assam.
Forests were removed to make room for agriculture and industry and to harvest wood. Adivasis had resided in regions with a wealth of minerals and other natural resources, but these areas were later taken up for mining and other significant industrial operations. Procedures are not followed as strong forces conspire to seize tribal land violently.
Their regions in the Northeast are still heavily militarised. India has 543 wildlife sanctuaries spread across 1,18,918 sq km and 104 national parks totalling 40,501 sq km. These are the places where tribal members formerly resided before being driven out. When they linger in these woods longer than necessary, they are called encroachers. Tribal people lose their primary sources of food and income when they lose their lands and access to the forest. Many Adivasis have moved to cities in search of work after increasingly losing access to their native homelands. They are employed for meagre salaries in small local businesses or on building or construction projects.
Adivasis are trapped in conditions of poverty and suffering. Adivasis who are uprooted from their homes lose more than a means of subsistence; they also lose a way of life and being.
Minorities and Marginalisation
How different minorities face marginalization each day has been discussed in the following section of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 7.
The Constitution protects linguistic and religious minorities as part of our Fundamental Rights. Communities that are numerically tiny compared to the rest of the population are called minorities. This idea encompasses questions of power, access to resources, social and cultural aspects, and statistics.
Smaller groups may feel insecure about their lives, possessions, and well-being than the rest of society, which may be heightened if relations between the minority and majority populations are tense. The judiciary plays an extremely important role in upholding the law as well as enforcing fundamental rights; as a result, the Constitution commits to protecting India’s cultural diversity and promoting equality and justice. Every Indian citizen has the right to file a complaint with the courts if they feel that their Fundamental Rights have been violated.
Muslims and Marginalisation
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 7 discusses another essential aspect of the chapter: Muslims being marginalized.
Muslims make up 14.2 percent of the Indian population (2011 Census) and are seen as a marginalized group since they have historically been excluded from the advantages of socio-economic growth.
Muslims endure economic and social marginalization on other levels as well. Like other minorities, Muslims have unique traditions and practices that differ from what is considered the norm. Muslims are often identified differently, and some think they are not like the “rest of us,” leading to unfair treatment and discrimination. As a result of this social marginalization of Muslims, many have migrated from the areas where they have lived, often resulting in the ghettoization of the community. Some may wear a burqa, have long beards, or wear a fez. Muslims have been forced to migrate from their homes due to being socially marginalized, frequently resulting in the neighborhood’s ghettoization. Occasionally, this discrimination breeds hatred and bloodshed.
It takes various techniques, precautions, and actions to address marginalization, a complicated phenomenon. Protecting the rights outlined in the Constitution and the laws and policies created to realize those rights is essential to all of us. Without them, we won’t be able to safeguard the variety that gives our nation its unique character or fulfill the State’s commitment to advancing equality for everyone.
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 7 Exercise and Solutions
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Key Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 7
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- They cover all the chapter-related questions along with their comprehensive answers explained with proper instances and illustrations.
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Q.1 Write in your own words two or more sentences of what you understand by the word ‘marginalisation’?
Ans. When a group of people is forced to stay away from the mainstream because of their language, religion, race or following of different customs etc, then it is called marginalisation.
Marginalisation is linked to prejudice, powerlessness and poverty. It leads to low social status and not having equal access to education and other resources.
Q.2 List two reasons why Adivasis are becoming increasingly marginalised.
Ans. Adivasis have been stereotyped as –
- Exotic, primitive and backward.
- Resistant to change or new ideas.
Because of these stereotypes, Adivasis are becoming increasingly marginalized.
Q.3 Write one reason why you think the Constitution’s safeguards to protect minority communities are very important?
Ans. The Constitution provides safeguards to religious and linguistic groups as part of Fundamental Rights. Our constitution has recognized that the culture of the majority influences the way society and government might express themselves. This can prove to be disadvantageous to communities smaller in number.
Thus, safeguards are provided to protect minorities from being culturally dominated by the majority. These safeguards also protect them from discrimination and disadvantage they may face.
Q.4 Re-read the section on Minorities and Marginalisation. What do you understand by the term minority?
Ans. The term minority is used to refer to communities that are smaller in number in comparison to the rest of population. The Indian Constitution provides safeguards to the minorities as part of its Fundamental Rights.
Q.5 You are participating in a debate where you have to provide reasons to support the following statement: ‘Muslims are a marginalised community’. Using the data provided in this chapter, list two reasons that you would give.
Ans. The two reasons why Muslims are considered as a marginalized community in India are –
- The literacy rate of Muslims in India is the lowest at 59%.
- 63.6% Muslims live in kutcha houses and only 30% Muslims have access to electricity. Only 19.4% Muslims have access to piped water.
Q.6 Imagine that you are watching the Republic Day parade on TV with a friend and she remarks, “Look at these tribals. They look so exotic. And they seem to be dancing all the time”. List three things that you would tell her about the lives of Adivasis in India.
Ans. I would tell the following three facts about the lives of Adivasis –
- The Adivasi societies are most distinctive as there is often very little hierarchy in them. It makes them quite different from organised communities that follow the Varna system.
- Adivasis live in jungles and they get everything of their need from the jungles. In turn, they respect their lands, forest and the rivers.
- Adivasis have their own languages, most of them are radically different from and possibly as old as Sanskrit.
Q.7 Would you agree with the statement that economic marginalisation and social marginalisation are interlinked? Why?
Ans. Yes, economic and social marginalisation is interlinked. Take the case of Muslims in India – their cultural practices and customs are different from the others. Their women wear burqas and men sport beards. The men also wear skull caps. This makes most people believe that they are different from us. It gives them an excuse to discriminate against them and treat them unfairly.
The social marginalisation of Muslims has often led to hatred and violence. In some instances, it has forced them to migrate from places where they had lived, leading to ghettoisation.
Q.8 In the storyboard you read about how Helen hopes to make a movie on the Adivasi story. Can you help her by developing a short story on Adivasis?
Ans. Do it yourself.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
Stereotype: Adivasis are typically portrayed as ancient, backward, and strange. They are viewed through the prism of their attire, dancing, headgear, and other conventions.
Limited access to land and forests: Forest tribes have lost control of their lands after being seized by large corporations for mining and other industrial ventures. The Advisasi people were forced to flee because people drove them from their homes.
The Adivasi group is the one whose marginalization is discussed in NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 7. They are often referred to as the original inhabitants of the land. In Chapter 7 of Civics Class 8, the Adivasi people’s way of life is described in detail. The chapter tells us who the Adivasis are; the stereotypes society has created about them, how they relate to development, how they have experienced displacement and militarisation, and how they frequently go hungry and become malnourished. The chapter also discusses how the Muslim community has been marginalized.