NCERT Solutions Class 8 Social Science Social And Political Life Chapter 8

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 8

The study of a citizen’s rights and responsibilities is known as Civics. It examines the theoretical and practical elements of citizenship, such as its rights and responsibilities, as well as the duties of the citizens pertaining to the government and one another as fellow members of a political body.

Class 8 Civics Chapter 8 is Confronting Marginalisation. Confronting Marginalisation Class 8 talks about the inequality and discrimination that two separate groups have faced. Such groups have battled, protested, and fought despite their lack of strength against exclusion or dominance by others. In their vast history, they have tried a variety of strategies to get out of their situation. There is no single approach to solving problems—religious solace, violent conflict, education and self-improvement, economic development. Students can study about methods that individuals and organizations used to fight inequalities in NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 8 Solutions.

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Key Topics Covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 8

Mentioning below all the key topics that are covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 8- Confronting marginalization:

  • Invoking Fundamental Rights
  • Laws for the Marginalised
  • Protecting the rights of Dalits and Adivasis
  • Adivasis Demands and the 1989 Act
  • Conclusion

Let us look at Extramarks in-depth information on each subtopic in NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 8- Confronting Marginalisation.

Invoking Fundamental Rights

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 8, in this section, discusses invoking fundamental rights. The list of Fundamental Rights, a significant component of the Constitution that provides equal access to rights for all Indians, defines the ideas that characterize our society and politics as democratic. The marginalized have used these rights in two different ways:

  1. They persuaded the government to acknowledge their treatment as unfair by arguing for their fundamental rights.
  2. They have urged that the government uphold these laws. The government created new legislation following the spirit of the Fundamental Rights due to the struggles of the marginalized.

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 8 explains that untouchability has been abolished and that no one can stop Dalits from getting an education, visiting temples, using public facilities, and other rights. While it is wrong to practice untouchability, a democratic government will not tolerate this practice anymore. Also, untouchability is now a punishable crime. Other provisions of the Constitution support the case against untouchability. For instance, Article 15 of the Constitution states that no citizen of India shall be subjected to discrimination based on religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth. Dalits have used this provision to demand equality in situations where it has been denied.

  • If Dalit believes a person has mistreated them, a group, or even the government, they can “invoke” or “draw on” a fundamental right (or rights).
  • If required, dalits may bring the Indian government’s attention to the Constitution and urge that it be upheld so that the people of India can be treated fairly.
  • Other minority groups have referred to our Constitution’s Fundamental Rights clause, citing the right to religious freedom as well as rights to culture and education.
  • Regarding cultural and educational rights, specific cultural and religious groups, such as Muslims and Parsis, have the right to be the guardians of their culture’s content and decide how best to maintain it.
  • The Constitution attempts to provide cultural fairness for these communities by giving various cultural rights. The Constitution takes this action to prevent these groups’ cultures from being overtaken or obliterated by those of the dominant population.

Laws for the Marginalised

What laws have been made for the marginalized? NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 8 answers this question in this section.

In our nation, there exist laws and regulations for the marginalized.

Promoting Social Justice

To uphold the Constitution, state and federal governments offer free or heavily discounted housing to Dalit and Adivasi students to use educational resources that might not be accessible in their areas. Laws are another way the government ensures that adequate measures are made to eliminate injustice in the system.

The reservation policy is a significant and controversial example of such a law or policy. The laws that reserve government employment and education positions for Dalits and Adivasis are founded on a critical premise. Some sections of our society have been denied opportunities to learn, and work to develop new skills or vocations for centuries, and hence a democratic government must step in and help these sections.

What is the policy for making reservations? NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 8 states that the Scheduled Castes (or Dalits), Scheduled Tribes, and backward and most backward castes are all listed by the Central Government of India as well as the various state and local governments. Caste and tribe certificates are required as proof when applicants for government jobs and students at educational institutions submit their applications. A candidate may benefit from the reservation if they belong to a Dalit caste or tribe that is included on the government’s list. Governments establish ” cut-off-off” marks for admission to universities, especially to professional education institutions. Only Dalit and tribal applicants who received scores higher than the cut-off can be admitted. Additionally, the government offers specific scholarships to these students.

Protecting the rights of Dalits and Adivasis

Our nation also has laws that protect against the exploitation and discrimination of marginalized people in addition to policies. The Dalits and other tribal groups demanded that the government take their mistreatment and humiliation seriously. In response, the Scheduled Castes, and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 was passed. The treatment of these groups took on a violent nature in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Several strong Dalit communities emerged in southern India at this time. When they fought for their rights by refusing to carry out their supposed caste responsibilities and insisting on equality, the more dominant castes turned violent toward them. Dalit advocacy organizations called for new laws to define the many forms of violence against Dalits and impose severe penalties on perpetrators.

The ACT, on the other hand, classifies crimes into various degrees. NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 8 classifies them as:

  1. Punishes those who force a member of a Scheduled Caste or a Scheduled Tribe to drink or eat any distasteful or disgusting substance; forcibly remove clothing from the person of a Scheduled Caste or a Scheduled Tribe, parade them naked or with a painted face or body or commit any similar act that is derogatory to human dignity.
  2. Who deprives Dalits and Adivasis of their few resources or compell them to engage in slave labour. Thus, the Act seeks to punish anyone who unlawfully takes control of land owned by, or allotted to a  Scheduled Caste or a Scheduled Tribe member who gets the land allotted to him transferred. On another level, the Act acknowledges that crimes against Dalit and tribal women are of a specific kind and, as a result, seeks to punish anyone who assaults or uses force on any woman belonging to a Scheduled Tribe or a Scheduled Caste to dishonour her.

Adivasis Demands and the 1989 Act

Adivasis’ demands and the Act of 1989 have been explained in this section of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 8. Another reason the 1989 Act is significant in that it supported Adivasis in defending their right to occupy land that was historically theirs. Adivasis were evicted from their land against their choice and frequently refused to migrate. According to activists’ suggestions, those who have violently encroached onto tribal territory should be held accountable under this legislation. They have also emphasized that this Act affirms what the Constitution already guaranteed to the indigenous people. The land owned by tribals cannot be sold to or purchased by any non-tribal people.

The Constitution ensures that tribal people have the right to reclaim their territory in situations where this has occurred. Tribal members must be paid if they have already been expelled from their lands and are not allowed to return. So, for them to live and work elsewhere, the government must create plans and rules.


NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 8 concludes by saying a policy or law is only created on paper. But for these papers to become a reality, individuals must labour hard. To achieve this, they should continue developing these guiding principles for citizens’ and leaders’ behaviour. All persons, including members of the dominant classes, minorities, and indigenous peoples, must be treated with the same respect and decency.

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 8 Exercise and Solutions

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Key features of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 8

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  • They cover all the chapter-related questions along with their comprehensive answers explained with proper instances and illustrations.
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Q.1 List two Fundamental Rights in the Constitution that Dalits can draw upon to insist that they be treated with dignity and as equals. Re-read the Fundamental Rights listed on page 14 to help you answer this question.

Ans. The two Fundamental Rights that Dalits can draw upon to insist that they be treated with dignity and as equals are:

  • Right to Equality and
  • Right to Freedom

Q.2 Re-read the story on Rathnam as well as the provisions of the 1989 Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act. Now list one reason why you think he used this law to file a complaint.

Ans. Rathnam used the 1989 Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act to file a complaint because it prescribed stringent punishment for those indulging in atrocities on Dalits.

On his refusal to perform a degrading ritual, Rathnam was ostracized from his community, his hut set on fire and he was forced to move out of his village. These were all atrocities committed on a caste bias and humiliation forced down upon the Dalits.

Q.3 Why do Adivasi activists, including C.K. Janu, believe that Adivasis can also use this 1989 Act to fight against dispossession? Is there anything specific in the provisions of the Act that allows her to believe this?

Ans. The Adivasi activists including C.K. Janu believe that Adivasis can also use the 1989 Act to fight against dispossession because this Act guarantees the tribals not to be dispossessed from the land resources forcibly. They pointed specifically that this Act merely confirms what has already been promised to the tribal people in the Constitution – that their land cannot be sold to or bought by non-tribal people. In cases where this has happened, the constitution also guarantees the right of the tribal people to repossess their land.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. Where can we get the perfect solutions to Chapter 8 of Class 8 Civics?

Extramarks is the best platform to gain the best solutions for Chapter 8 of Class 8 Civics. Students can quickly access NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 8. Each subtopic has been well handled. You will thoroughly comprehend all the concepts, ideas, and arguments presented in the chapter by practicing through detailed answers of the chapter-related questions given in these NCERT solutions. Leveraging Extramarks content will help students to improve their overall performance as well as the results that they get.

2. How would you explain the phrase Confronting Marginalisation?

Confronting marginalization means questioning the current marginalization and unfairness against some groups and the efforts made by these groups to improve their life. The marginalized groups have been claiming their right to equal protection under the law under the Fundamental Rights. Several programs, policies, and laws have been created to advance social justice; some of such examples are the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe Act, of 1989, and the reservation policy.

3. What does the Indian Constitution's Article 17 state?

One of the citizens’ fundamental rights is Article 17 of the Indian Constitution. Untouchability is no longer a practice, as stated in Article 17. Untouchability is a crime because of this. No Dalit can be denied entry to a temple or other public site. All Dalits are entitled to employment, education, and other rights. This article has outlawed the prejudice that the Dalits have endured for so long.